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Full text of "Chronicle of the Museum for the Arts of Decoration of the Cooper Union"

"N 






CHRONICLE OF T H E M U S E U M 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 



INDEX 



VOL • I 1935-1943 



Accessories of Furnishing 

Trimmings in the Museum's Collection. Eliz- 
abeth Haynes. 329-343 

Illustrations 
A Pennsylvania-German door towel decorated 

with fringe. [335] 
Eighteenth-century tassels and fringes of silk 
and metal thread from Italy, France and 
Greece. [328] 
Galloon showing the arms of the City of 
Paris and four galloons for ecclesiastical 
use. [338] 
Nineteenth-century trimmings from Europe 

and America. [336] 
One of a set of eleven books showing samples 

of !^. lloups. [341] 
Ornamental trimmings of the 17th century 

from Italy and France. [330] 
Tassels from 18th-century France and 19th- 
century Italy. [338] 
Three Spanish tassels. [341] 
AcKLEY, Edith Flack. 26 
Alderani, Emanuele. 319 

Stage design. Illus. [318] 
Architecture 

Contemporary architecture. 12-13 
Architectural Decoration 

Fragment of stucco carving from the cloister 
of San Fernando, dated between 1230 and 
1260, in the monastery of Las Huelgas. 
Illus. [372] 
Avery, Samuel P. (1822-1904) . 83 

B 

Babel, P. E. (1720P-1765?) . 17 
Baked clay in the service of man. Carl C. 
Dauterman. 173-187. Bibliography. 188- 
189. Lenders to the exhibition. 188 
Baldini, Vincenzo (1809-1881) . 295, n. 16 
Balzac, Edme-Pierre (active in mid-18th cent.). 

18 
Balzac, Jean-Francois (active 1749-1765) . 18 
Basoli, Antonio (1774-1848) . 287, 315 
Berain, Jean I. (1640-171 1) . 291, 293, 297, 299 
Benkard, Mrs. Harry Horton. 411 
Berliner, Rudolf 

The stage designs of the Cooper Union 
Museum. 285-320 
Bibiena, Antoni Galli (1700-1774) . 309 
BiBiENA, Carlo Galli (1728-1788) . 309 
BiBiENA, Giuseppe (1696-1757) . 303 
Bibliography 

Baked clay in the service of man. 188-189 
Buttons. 245-248 
French silversmiths' ^vork. 21-22 
Hispano-Islamic textiles: a bibliography of 
references in the Museum library of the 



Cooper Union. 400-401 

Material relating to the small theatre. 30 

Stage design. 285, n. I 

[Wall-paper]. 156-159 
Biennais, Martin-Guillaume (active 1805-1832) 

Candelabrum. Illus. [20] 
Bliss, Miss Susan Dwight. 85, 171 
Booker, Mrs. Neville J. 411 
Borsato, Giuseppe (1771-1849) . 311 
BoucHOT, Frederic (active 1830) 

La Passementerie. Illus. [325] 
BuFANO, Remo. 25 
BuNiN, Louis. 23, 25 
Burdell, Edwin S. 191 
BuRNAcciNi, Ludovico. 295, n. 14 
Buttons. See Costume Accessories 



Cahieu, Jean-Charles, (active early 19th cent.) 

19. 
Candelabrum. Illus. [20] 
Canna, Pasquale. 311. 

Stage design. Illus. [318] 
Ceramics 

Baked clay in the service of man. Carl C. 

Dauterman. 173-187. Bibliography. 188- 

189. Lenders to the exhibition. 188 
Renaissance and post-renaissance tiles of 

Spain and the Netherlands. Mary A. 

Noon. 37-47 
Renaissance and post-renaissance tiles of 

Spain and the Netherlands. Bibliography. 

47-49 
Tiles in the Museum's collections. 49-51 

Illustrations 
Alkaline glazed ware. [172] 
Contemporary ceramics. [180], [182] 
Four lustre tiles. [38] 
Four polychrome tiles. [46] 
Four tiles forming a motif. [36] 
Four tiles from a series. [42] 
Hispano-Moresque tile. [36] 
Lead glazed pottery. [174] 
Model of a New England pottery of about 

1800. 188 
Overmantel panel: "Eastern Port." [33] 
Peach bloom porcelain vase. [178] 
Portion of a porcelain tea service; Meissen, 

about 1725. [204] 
"Service de I'accouchee." [204] 
Six tiles representing various trades and 

tools. [40] 
Tile panel painted with flowers and birds. 

[48] 
Tile panel with cipher. [50] 
Tiles representing scenes in bull-fighting. 

[44] 
Tin-enamelled pottery. [174] 



Two tiles in tlie chinoiserie style. [40] 

Unglazed pottery. [172] 

Unglazed and glazed stoneware. [178] 
Chanler^ Robert Winthrop. Bequest. 87 
Chase, William Merritt (1843-1917) . 87 
Cmasselat, Charles (1768-1843) . 7, 9 

Cartoon: Jeanne d'Arc. lllus. [10] 
Chiarottini, Francesco. 309 

Stage design. lllus. [308] 
Church, Frederick Edwin (1826-1900) . 87 
Cochin, Charles-Nicolas (1715-1790) . 17 
Comparisons in lace design. Marian Hague. 

413-433 
CoNKLiN, Robert. 23 
Contemporary Architecture. 12-13 
Cooper, George Campbell (1840-1895) . 83 
Cooper, Peter (1791-1883). 77,93 

Monument. lllus. [76] 
Cooper Union. The Foundation Building. 

lllus. [76] 
Cooper Union Museum 

The educational function of a museinn of 
decorative arts. John Dewey. 93-99 

The Museinn since 1919. Mary S. M. Gibson. 
83-89 

Illustrations 

The Encyclopaedic Picture Reference Library. 
[91] 

The Museum's Libraries. [90] 

The Sarah Cooper Hewitt Memorial Library. 

[1] 
Students in the Decloux Room, 1920. [82] 
Cortissoz, Royal. The Hewitt Ladies. 79-81 
Costume - 

Costume design is well docinnented. lllus. 
[92] 
Costume Accessories 

Buttons: A Bibliography. Carl C. Dauterman 

and Harold Lancour. 245-248 
Buttons: Historical notes and bibliography. 
Carl C. Dauterman and Harold Lancour. 
237-248 
Trimmings in the Museum's Collection. Eliz- 
abeth Haynes. 329-343 

Illustralions 
Buttons. [236], [240], [242] 
Costume accessories formerly belonging to 

members of the Hewitt family. [194] 
Nineteenth-century trimmings from Europe 

and America. [336] 
Ornamental trimmings of the 17th century 
from Italy and France. [330] 
CoTELLE, Jean (1607-1676). 17 
Cox, Kenyon (1856-1919). 87 
CoYPEL, Charles Antoine (1694-1752) . 

Portrait of a young woman in a ball gown 
(engraved by L. Surugue) . lllus. [334] 



C. R., goldsmitli. 

Candelabrum. lllus. [20] 

D 

Dauterman, Carl C. Baked clay in the service 

of man. 173-187 
joiut-auihor. Buttons: Historical notes and 

bibliography. 237-248 
Decloux, Leon. 83 
Dewey, John. The educational function of a 

museum of decorative arts. 93-99 
Donelli, Antonio. 303 
Donors of Equipment and Services. 1937, 165; 

1938, 203; 1939, 253; 1940, 276; 1941, 349; 

1943-1945, 436 
Donors to the Library. 1934-1935, 31; 1935, 69; 

1936, 104; 1937, 165; 1938, 203; 1939, 253; 

1940, 275-276; 1941, 349; 1942, 406; 1943 

1945, 436-437 
Donors to the Museum, 1897-1935. 105-110. 
Donors of Works of Art. 1934-1935, 31; 1940, 

274-275; 1943-1945, 434-435 
Draavings by Winslow Homer in the Museum's 

collection. Calvin S. Hathaway. 53-59 
Du Cerceau, Jacques Androuet (1512-1592) . 

Perspective of the Chateau de Verneuil. 

lllus. [86] 
DuFV, Raoul. 9 
DwiGGiNS, William A. 23 
Dyer, Elisha. 171, 411 



Edi'cational function of a museum of decora- 
tive arts. The. John Dewey. 93-99 

EXHMilTIONS 

Baked clay in the service of man. Carl C. 
Dauterman. 173-187. Partial view. lllus. 
[180]. Social importance. lllus. [184] 

Buttons: Historical notes. Carl C. Dauter- 
man. 237-244 

Contemporary Architecture. 12-13 

Exhibition of printed fabrics, with original 
cartoons and designs. Frances Morris. 5-11 

Original designs for French silversmiths" 
^vork, with examples of the craft. Calvin 
S. Hathaway. 15-21 

Paintings by modern masters. 13-14 



Fasano, Michelangelo. 303 

Stage design. lllus. [300] 
Ferrari, L. 319 

Ferri, Domenico (1797-1869) . 319 
Francar, Francois (about 1625-1672) . 293 
Friends of the Museum. The. 1934-1935, 70 
1936, 101; 1937, 166-167; 1938, 205-207 
1939, 254-255; 1940, 277-278; 1941, 350-351 
1942, 406-407; 1943-1945, 438-441 



Galliari, Giovanni Antonio (1718-1783) . 305 
Germain, Pierre (1716-1783). 17-18 
GiANi, Felice (about 1760-1823). 311, 319 

Stage design. Illus. [310] 
Gibson, Mary S. M. 

Material relating to the small theatre. 23-30 
The Museum since 1919. 83-89 
Report of the Curator. 191 
Retirement. 411 
Graphic Arts 

Drawings by Winslow Homer in the Mu- 
seum's collections. Calvin S. Hathaway. 
53-59 
Homer drawings in the Museum's collection 
which are studies for paintings or illustra- 
tions. 59-63 
Original designs for French silversmiths' 
work, with examples of the craft. Calvin 
S. Hathaway. 15-21 
The stage designs of the Cooper Union 
Museum. Rudolf Berliner. 285-320 
Iliustratio7is 
Cartoon for cotton printing: Don Quixote. 

[4] 
Portrait of Charles V. [196] 
. See also: Du Cerceau, Fasano, Giani, Guardi, 

Guys, Homer, Juvarra, Pavia, Stage Design, 

Tiepolo, Toselli, Valadier 
Green, Amy Hewitt (1856-1922) . Portrait. 

Illus. [80] 
Green, Norvin Hewitt. 171, 191 
Gropius, Walter. Design for a school in Hagen, 

Westphalia. Illus. [206] 
GuARDi, Francesco (1712-1793) . Decorative 

drawing. Illus. [198] 
Guys, Constantin (1805-1893) . 
La Presse. Illus. [169] 

H 

Hague, Marian. Comparisons in lace design. 

413-433 
Hare, Mrs. Montgomery. 85, 171 
Hathaway, Calvin S. 

Drawings by Winslow Homer in the Mu- 
seum's collections. 53-59 
Original designs for French silversmiths' 

work, with examples of the craft. 15-21 
Wall-papers in the Museum's collections 
produced before 1900. 117 
Haven, Mrs. J. Woodward. 75, 85 
Haynes, Elizabeth. Laces in the Museum's 
collections. 213-228 
The lace study collection. 229-235 
Trimmings in the Museum's collection. 
329-343 
Hearn, George Arnold (1835-1913) . 83 
Hewitt, Mrs. Abram Stevens (Sarah Amelia 



Cooper Hewitt) (1830-1912). 3, 87. Por- 
trait. Illus. [78] 
Hewitt, Eleanor Gamier (1864-1924). [2], 75, 
77, 79, 83, 85 
Portrait. Illus. [80] 
Memorial Fund. 85 
Hewitt, Erskine (1871-1938) . 87 
Bequest. 171, 191 

Bequest. Illus. [169], [190], [192], [194], 
[196], [198], [200], [202], [204] 
Hewitt, John (1777-1857) 

Mahogany armchair. Illus. [192] 
Hewitt Ladies, The 

Royal Cortissoz. 79-81 
Hewitt, Lucy Work. 75, 85 
Hewitt, the Misses. 27, 191 
Hewitt, Sarah Cooper. [2], 79, 85, 87, [169], 
291, 295 n. 14 
Portrait. Illus. 81 

Memorial Library, 87. Illus. [1], [90] 
Hispano-Islamic textiles in the Cooper Union 
Collection. The 
Dorothy G. Shepherd. 357-396 
Homer, Winslow (1836-1910). 

Drawings by Winslo^v Homer in the Mu- 
seum's Collections. Calvin S. Hathaway. 
53-59 
Homer drawings in the Museum's Collections 
^vhich are studies for paintings or illustra- 
tions. 59-63 

Illustrations 
Canoes on a lake in the Adirondacks. [62] 
Cavalry officer. [52] 

Detail study for The Gulf Stream. [60] 
First sketch for The Life Line. [60] 
Soldier loading a rifle. [54] 
Study for Banks Fishermen, or The Herring 

Net. [58] 
Two young girls. [56] 

Tynemouth fishermen beaching a boat. [58] 
Waverley Oaks. [62] 
HuET, Jean-Baptiste (1745-1811). 8 
HuQuiER, Jacques-Gabriel (1695-1722) . 17 
Engraving after Meissonier. Illus. [16] 

J 

Japanese sword mountings in the bequest of 
George Cameron Stone. Felicia M. Sterling. 
261-273 

Jones, R. 8 

Jones, Robert Edmond. 23 

"juvARRA, Filippo (1678-1736). 297-299, 301, 
305, 309 
Stage design, Illus. [288] 

K 
K.\ne, Mrs. John Innes. 83, 85 
KoEBEL, Karl Joseph (1796-1856). 311 
KuESEL, Matthaeus. 295, n. 14 



Lace 

Comparisons in lace design. Marian Hague. 

413-433 
Lace study collection. The. Elizabeth Haynes. 

229-235 
Laces in the Museum's collections. Elizataeth 

Haynes. 213-228 

Illustrations 
Border of bobbin lace, Brussels, 18th century. 

429 
Border of bobbin lace, Brussels, 18th century. 

431 
Border of bobbin lace, Italy, 16th century. 

416 
Border of bobbin lace, Italy, 17th cent. 416 
Border of bobbin lace, Milan, 17th cent. 420 
Border of bobbin lace, Venice, 17th cent. 423 
Border of needlepoint lace, Burano, 20th 

cent. 431 
Border of needlepoint lace, France, 18th cent. 

222 
Border of needlepoint lace, Italy, I7th cent. 

[214] 
Border of needlepoint lace, Italy, 17th cent. 

417 
Border of needlepoint lace, Italy, 17th cent. 

419 
Border of needlepoint lace, Italy (probably) , 

I7th cent. 419 
Border of needlepoint lace, Venice, 17th 

cent. 420 
Border of needlepoint lace, Venice, late 17th 

cent. [220] 
Border of needlepoint lace, Venice, 18th cent. 

429 
Border of needlepoint lace, Venice, 17th cent. 

423 
Border of reticello, Italy, 16th cent. 416 
Cap crown of bobbin lace, Brussels, I8th 

cent. [409] 
Cuff of bobbin lace, Milan, 17th cent. 421 
Cuff of needlepoint lace, Venice, 17th cent. 

424 
Cushion cover, Italy, 16th cent. [209] 
Deep border of bobbin lace, Milan, early 

18th cent. [222] 
Detail, border of needlepoint lace, France, 

I8th cent. 433 
Detail, flounce of bobbin lace, Brussels, 18th 

cent. 427 
Detail, flounce of bobbin lace, Mechlin, 18th 

cent. 426 
Detail, flounce of needlepoint lace, France, 

18th cent. 425 
Detail of a page from L'hotiesto essempio, 

By Mateo Pagano. 212 
English lace bobbins of the 18th and 19th 



cent. [226] 
Flounce of needlepoint lace, France, 17th 

cent. 422 
Fragment of bobbin lace, Italy, 16th cent. 

418 
Fragment of needlepoint lace, Italy, 16th 

cent. 418 
Fragment of needlepoint lace, Venice, I7th 

cent. 421 
Panel of needlepoint lace, Venice, I6th cent. 

[212] 
Panel of needlepoint lace, Venice, 17th cent. 
" [214] 
Part of a garniture of needlepoint lace, 

Burano, Italy, 1 8th cent. [226] 
Rabat of bobbin lace, Brussels, 18th cent. 

432 
Scarf of needlepoint lace, Point d'Argentan, 

France, 18th cent. [224] 
Strip of insertion of reticello, and border 

of bobbin lace, Italy, 16th cent. 416 
Study cards which analyze the technique of 

lace-making. [234] 
Study Chart No. 1. [230] 
Study Chart. No. 10. [231] 
Study Chart, No. 18. [232] 
Two flounces of needlepoint lace, France, 

early 18th cent. [216] 
Two pieces of seventeenth century lace. 

[218] 
Lancour, [Adlore] Harold, joint author. 

Buttons: a bibliography. 245-248 
La Salle, Philippe de (1723-1805) . Woven 

portrait of Comtesse de Provence. Illus. 

[196] 
L'Egare, Gilles, (about 1610-1685) . 17 
Le Hollandois (active about 1660) . 17 
Le Prince, Jean-Baptiste (1734-1781) . 

Foiu-fold screen. Illus. [200] 
LivERANi, Romolo (about 1809-1872). 313, n. 

41, 315 

M 

M. A. L. [stage designer]. 297, 299 

Mal.\godi, Gaetano. 319 

Manteo, House of. 25 

Marcou, Francois (1595-about 1660). 17 

Material relating to the small theatre. Mary 

S. M. Gibson. 23-30 
McClellan, Mrs. George B. 75, 87 
McKiM, Mead and White, firm. 

Monument to Peter Cooper. Illus. [76] 
McLean, Mrs. Stafford. 171. 

see also Booker, Mrs. Neville J. 
Meissonier, Juste-Aurele (1693-1750) . 17 

Design for sword-hilt. Illus. [16] 
Metal\vork 

French silversmiths' work. Bibliography. 
21-22 



Japanese sword mountings in the bequest 
of George Cameron Stone. Felicia M. 
Sterling. 261-273 
Original desigtrs for French silversmiths' 
work, with examples of the craft. Calvin 
S. Hathaway. 15-21 

Illustrations 
Japanese sword mountings. Illus. [64], [66], 
[257], [259], [260], [262], [264], [266], 
[268], [270], [272] 
Wrought steel music rack. Illus. [194] 
MiEREVELT, Michiel van (1567-1641) . 

Portrait showing laces. 412 
MiLLiKEN, Henry Oothout. 171, 411 
MoRAN, Thomas (1837-1926) . 87 
Morgan, John Pierpont (1837-1913) . 83 
Morgan, Mrs. John Pierpont. 211 
Morris, Frances 

Exhibition of printed fabrics, with original 
cartoons and designs. 5-11 
Museum philosophy. 

The educational function of a museum of 
decorative arts. John Dewey. 93-99 
Museum since 1919, The. Mary S. M. Gibson. 
83-89 

N 
Narducci, Pietro. 319, n. 49 
Needle and Bobbin Club, The. 411 
Needlework and Embroidery 
Illustrations 
Border of cut linen with embroidery in pat- 
tern similar to lace designs, Italy, 17th 
cent. 418 
Border of muslin, embroidered to resemlile 

lace, Holland, 18th cent. 430 
Detail of scarf embroidered in pattern sim- 
ilar to lace designs, Italy, 17th cent. 418 
Fragment of cut linen with embroidery in 
pattern similar to lace designs, Italy, 17th 
cent. 418 
Noon, Mary A. Renaissance and post-renais- 
sance tiles of Spain and the Netherlands. 
37-47 
Noyes, Mrs. Robert B. 171, 355 

O 

Odiot, Jean-Baptiste-Claude (1763-1850) . 19 
Oppenort, Gilles-Marie (1672-1742) . 17 



Painting 

Paintings by modern masters. 13-14 
Panfili, Pio (1723-1812) . 305 
Parigi, Alfonso (died 1656) . 293 
Pavia, Lorenzo (1741-1764). 303. Stage design. 

Illus. [302] 
Perego, Giovanni (1783-1817) . 313 
Piancastelli, Giovanni (1845-1926) . 285 



PiLi.EMENT, Jean (1728-1808). 5 
Puppetry 

Bibliography. 30 

Material relating to the small theatre. Mary 
S. M. Gibson. 23-30 

Illustrations 
Head of a puppet figure of Punchinello. 

Illus. [24] 
Shadow puppets from the Theatre Seraphin. 
[28], [194] 
Purchases 
1940, 275 
1943-1945, 436 
P. A', [stage desigjier]. 301 

R 

Raina, Giuseppe (died 1795) . 309 
Re, Vincenzo (died 1762) . 295, n. 14 
Reeves, Ruth. 9 

Renaissance and post-renaissance tiles of Spain 
and the Netherlands. Mary A. Noon. 37-47 
Report of the Curator. 1939. 191 
Ricci, Luigi (1823-1896) . 319 
RoErriERS, Jacques (1707-1784) . 18 
Rousseau, Jacques. 297. 

Stage design. Illus. [286] 
RucKER, Robert Hamilton. 65, 87 



St. Gaudens, Augustus (1848-1907) . 

Monument to Peter Cooper. Illus. [76] 
Samson, B. (active about 1769) . 19 
Sanquirico, Alessandro (1780-1840). 313,315 
Sarg, Tony. 25 

Sarti, Antonio (1797-1880) . 319 
Saurin, Jean-Baptiste (active 1775) . 19 
ScELZO, Domenico. 303 
Seetiialer family, silversmiths. 19 
Shepherd, Dorothy G. 

The Hispano-Islamic textiles in the Cooper 
Union collection. 357-396 
Silvestre, Israel (1621-1691). 293 
Smith, F. Hopkinson (1838-1915) . 87 
Spada, Valerio (about 1613-1688) . 293 
Stage Design 

Stage Designs of the Cooper Union Museum, 
The. Rudolf Berliner. 285-320 
Illustrations 
An atrium facing a garden. Probably by a 

Bolognese artist, 1725-1750. [296] 
Antique temple. By Francesco Chiarottini; 

Rome, 1780. [308] 
A square. Rome, 1725-1750. [294] 
A square in a village; counter-proof of a 
design by Jacques Rousseau (?) ; France, 
about 1690. [286] 
A street, probably Rome, about 1680. [281] 
Boske/ in a park. By an Italian artist work- 



ing in France, 1725-1750. [298] 
Castle. By Pasquale Canna; late 18th cent. 

[318] 
Celestial palace. Rome, about 1700. [290] 
Chinches and prison hall. By Giuseppe Va 

ladier: 1820-1839. [316] 
Library hall. Italy, 1750-1775. [304] 
Palace court and proscenium with arms of 

the Duchy of Mantua. 1650-1660. [284] 
Peasant's house; a backdrop. Naples, 1750- 

1800. [312] 
Prison. By Michelangelo Fasano; 1750-1775. 

[300] 
Prison. By Felice Giani; about 1800. [310] 
Prison court. By Lorenzo Pavia; about 1760. 

[302] 
Ruins of old structures. By Emanuele Alder- 

ani; about 1830. [318] 
Sepulchral hall. Probably South Italy, about 

1770. [306] 
Sepulchral hall. By Toselli; Bologna, early 

19th cent. [314] 
The Forum in Rome. By Filippo Juvarra; 

about 1700. [288] 
Vestibule of a monastery. Rome, early 18th 

cent. [292] 
Sterling, Felicia M. 

Japanese s'ivord mountings in the bequest 

of George Cameron Stone. 261-273 
Stone, George Cameron. Becjuest. 35, 65, 87, 

259, 261-273 
Sully, Thomas (1783-1872) . 87 
SuRUGUE, Louis (1685-1762) . Portrait of a 

young woman in a ball gown (after Charles 

Coypel) . Illus. [334]^ ' 



Tacca, Ferdinando (1619-1686) . 293 
Textile Arts 

Exhibition of printed fabrics, with original 

cartoons and designs. Frances Morris. 5-11 
Hispano-Islamic textiles in the Cooper Union 

collection. The. Dorothy G. Shepherd. 

357-396 
Hispano-Islamic textiles: a bibliography of 

references in the museum library of the 

Cooper Union. 400-401 
Illustrations 
Another fragment from the mantle of Don 

Felipe. Illus. [375] 
Another fragment from the tomb of Don 

Felipe. Spain, Hispano-Moresque, 13th 

cent. Illus. [380] 
Border of muslin, pierced and painted to 

resemble lace, France (probably) , 18th 

cent. 430 
Silk textile ^vith pattern similar to lace de- 
signs of the period, France, 18th cent. 428 



Cartoon for cotton printing: Don Q^uixole. 
Illus. [4] 

Cartoon for cotton printing: Jeatuie d'Arc. 
Illus. [10] 

Cut and uncut voided velvet; Genoa, 17th 
cent. Illus. [202] 

Detail of a fabric in the Hispanic Society 
of America. [385] 

East Iran weave, from a church in Aragon. 
Illus. [84] 

Fragment from the Lerida vestments. Spain, 
Hispano-Moresque, 13th cent. [378] 

Fragment from the Lerida vestments. Spain, 
Hispano-Moresque, 13th cent. [378] 

Fragment from the mantle of Doira Leonor. 
Spain, Hispano-Moresque, 13th cent. [376] 

Fragment from the mantle of Don Felipe. 
Spain, Hispano-Moresque, 13th cent. [374] 

Painted silk; China, late 18th cent. Illus. [88] 

Plain compound cloth; Lucca, 14th cent. 
Illus. [202] 

Printed cotton: Don Q_uixote. Illus. [4] 

Printed cotton: Jeanne d'Arc. Illus. [10] 

Silk and gold fabric. Spain, Hispano-Mor- 
esque, 14th cent. [384] 

Silk and gold fabric. Spain, Hispano-Mor- 
esque, 14th cent. [388] 

Silk and gold tapestry fragment. Spain, His- 
pano-Moresque, 13th-14th cent. [382] 

Silk curtain. Spain, Hispano-Moresque, about 
1400. [390]. Detail of upper border. [391] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Hispano-Moresque, 15th 
cent. [393] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Hispano-Moresque, 15th 
cent. [394] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Mudejar, 16th cent. [395] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Mudejar, 16th cent. [397] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Mudejar, 16th cent. [398] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Mudejar, 16th cent. [398] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Mudejar, 16th cent. [398] 

Silk fabric. Spain, Mudejar, 16th cent. [399] 

Silk fabric from Spain, possibly woven at 
Granada, Hispano-Moresque, fifteenth cen- 
tury. [353] 

Silk fabric in the Episcopal Museum. Vich, 
Catalonia. [362] 

Silk fabric in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. 
[362] 

Silk fabric. Said to have come from the 
Monastery of Santa Maria de I'Estany, 
Catalonia. Spain (?) . lOth-llth century. 
[356] 

Silk fabric. Said to have come from the tomb 
of St. Bernard Caho, Bishop of Vich, 
Catalonia (1233-1 243). Spain(?), llth-12th 
cent. [360] 

Slashed bro^vn silk \vith brocaded pattern 
similar to lace designs of the period, Spain 



(probably) , 17th cent. 417 
The "Lion-strangler" fabric said to have 
come from the tomb of St. Bernard Calvt), 
Bishop of Vich, Catalonia (1233-1243) . 
Spain, Hispano-Islamic, 12th-13th cent. 
[364] 
The "Sphinx" fabric, said to have come 
from the tomb of St. Bernard Calvo. Spain, 
Hispano-Islamic, 12th-13th cent. [366] 
Three fragments of the so-called Baghdad 
fabric. Spain, Hispano-Islamic, I2th-13th 
cent. [368] 
Woven portrait of Comtesse de Provence. 
Illus. [196] 
Thuraine (active about 1660) . 17 
TiEPOLO, Giovanni Battista (1696-1770). 

Venus and Time. Illus. [198] 
ToRELLi, Giacomo (1604-1678). 291,293 
TORO, Jean-Bernard (1672-1731). 15 

Design for a ewer. Illus. [16] 
TOSELLI. 317 

Stage design. Illus. [314] 
Transportation 

Illustrations 
Project for sedan chairs, drawn in London 

about 1775. Illus. [342] 
Sedan chair with painted panels. Illus. [190] 
Trimmings in the Museum's Collection: 
Fringes, tassels, gimps and galloons. Eliza- 
beth Haynes. 329-343 
TuRCHi, M. 317 



V 

Valadier, Giuseppe (1762-1839). 295,311-313, 

317, 319. 
Stage designs. Illus. [318] 
Valadier, Luigi. 319 
Volunteer Workers. 1936, 104; 1937, 165; 1938, 

'203; 1939, 253; 1940, 276; 1941, 349; 1942, 

406; 1943-1945, 436 

W 

Wall-Paper. Bibliography. 156-159. Catalogue 
[of wall-papers in the Museum's collections 
produced before 1900]. 119-155 

Wall-Papers in the Museum's collections pro- 
duced before 1900. C. S. H.[athaway]. 117 
Illustrations 
Printed papers used in a variety of ways. 

[96] 
Illustrations. [113], [116], [118], [120], [122], 
[123], [124], [126], [128], [130], [131], [132], 
[134], [136], [138], [139], [140], [142], [144], 
[146], [147], [148], [150], [152], [192], [332] 

Wetmore, Miss Edith. 87 

Woodwork. Woodwork and cabinet-making. 
Illus. [94] 

Works of art given to the Museum. 1935, 67- 
68; 1936, 102-103; 1937, 160-164; 1938, 
193-201 

Works of art received by the Museum. 1939, 
249-252; 1940, 320-322; 1941, 344-348; 1942, 
402-405 



Yale Puppeteers, The. 25 



T /r I 



If 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 
FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 




Photograph by Samuel H. GotUcho 



COOPER UNION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Gano Dunn, President 
J. P. Morgan Walter S. Gifford 
Elihu Root, Jr. Barklie Henry 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

DIRECTORS 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare, Chairman 

Miss Edith Wetmore, Secretary 

Miss Susan D. Bliss 

STAFF 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 

Joseph C. Sloane, Jr., Assistant Curator 



THE COVER: 

The room reproduced on the cover is the Library of the 
Museum, installed in 1932 in memory of Sarah Cooper Hewitt, 
CO— founder of the Museum with her sister, Eleanor Gamier 
Hewitt, and its second Director. The design of the room 
is based on one in the Archives du Ministere des Affaires 
Etrangeres in the Bibliotheij.ue de Ville at Versailles, 
and was originally erected in Miss Hewitt's house at g 
Lexington Avenue. It now houses the Leon Decloux Collec- 
tion of books of design by the nattres ornetianistes of 
the 17th and 18th centuries, which was acq^uired by the 
Council for the Museum in 1921, the collections of rare 
books Deq.ueathed to the Museum by Miss Hewitt in 1931, 
and the Eleanor Gamier Hewitt Textile Reference Library. 



Copyright, 193Fi, by Cooper Union Museum, for the Arts of Decoration 
Jew York, K, T., March 18, 1935 



CHRONICLE 
OF THE MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 
OF COOPER UNION 

VOL-I-NO-1- WINTER- 1934-35 



The constantly increasing interest in the Museum and 
its collections, so noticeable in recent years, is evidence 
of the far-sightedness of its Founders,Mrs . Abram S. Hewitt 
and her daughters, who established it in 1896 and for many 
years continued as its wise directors. Fresh and growing 
attention to their enterprise has seemed to the present 
Directors of the Museum to invite and even to require the 
publication, at leaist occasionally, of a leaflet. In this 
bulletin , which it is hoped will appear from time to time, 
the 2u:tivities of the Museum will find comment and record, 
the less well known elements of its collections may be 
published, and the needs and aims of the Museum be given 
public expression. 

It is planned to send the Chronicle to The Friends of 
the Museum who, through their generosity, have enabled 
the Museum to undertake several new projects during the 
past year. One of these new enterprises, the series of 
exhibitions held since April, 1934, in the new exhibition 
rooms of the Museum, is described in the paiges following. 




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EXHIBITION OF PRINTED FABRICS, WITH ORIGINAL 
CARTOONS AND DESIGNS 

A museum that limits its efforts to the presentation 
and display of objects performs but half its function. 
Objects in themselves have interest and value, particu- 
larly to those people whose livelihood is gained from 
copying or adapting the trappings of a past period to 
present day usage. But a study of underlying ideas leads 
to a far better understanding of objects. 

The Museum for the Arts of Decoration has been inter- 
ested, in several of the exhibitions held during the past 
year, in helping the student to make observations and de- 
ductions not only concerning the past but also the present, 
rather than in presenting merely an assortment of objects 
pleasing in themselves. In the exhibition of printed 
fabrics held last April a particularly rich variety of 
material was presented, ranging in date from the seven- 
teenth century to the twentieth, and in source from India 
and China to New York and Philadelphia. Cartoons for toiles 
de Jouy and other printed fabrics were displayed, with more 
than two hundred different examples of printed linen and 
cotton. In addition there were volumes of documents il- 
lustrating the work of various eighteenth century artists 
distinguished in the world of decorative arts; men whose 
genius served as a source of fruitful inspiration to con- 
temporary designers of cotton prints. Many of these were 
from the collection of Leon Decloux, presented to the Museum 
by the Council in 1921, and several of the volumes were 
devoted to the compositions of Jean Pillement (1719-1810), 
whose facile pen so perfectly attuned Chinese models to 
the gayer temperament of the French, 

The series of cartoons and trial proofs for printed 
fabrics included in the exhibition was given to the Museum 
in 1898 by Miss Bridget Mahon. How and where it was pos- 
sible to acguire such material has not been determined; 
for while there may yet be similar drawings buried in 
out-of-the-way places, the only other series generally 
known are those in the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, presented 
by M. Barbet, grandson of the last owner of the Oberkampf 

5 



works, and a few documentary relics in the historical 
collections of the Chateau de Montcel near Jouy. 

The cartoons are especially interesting as representing 
the different types of design used in the various printing 
centres during the last third of the eighteenth gentury and 
the first quarter of the nineteenth, the most important 
years in the history of printed cottons in France. With 
the removal of restrictive royal edicts, the business of 
textile printing began in earnest in France in 1760, when 
Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf, established in the humble 
workshop that marked the beginning of the great Jouy es- 
tablishment, produced his first print . Of thisstagein the 
development there is little available information beyond 
the actual pieces that remain. Several examples included 
in the exhibition show that the wood engraving was crude 
and the color scheme limited, although even in the early days 
the Oberkampf factory was noted for its bon teint, or fast 
dyes. The patterns, block-printed, derived their inspiration 
from Indian models. The same Indian borrowings in early 
American textile printing were demonstrated by two prints, 
produced probably on Long Island before 1750, which face 
a quilt in the Museum's collections, and by a bed-cover 
printed later in Philadelphia by John Hewson, lent for the 
exhibition by the Pennsylvania Museum of Art. 

In the early 1770's Oberkampf added to his staff Mile. 
Jounan, the talented flower painter who proved a designer 
of ability, and to her may be credited the charming flower 
prints, to the enormous sales of wliich the Oberkampf works 
owed so much of its great success. Several pieces lent by 
Miss Elinor Merrell and Miss Frances Morris may well have 
been executed from her designs. 

The first copperplate press was not set up at Jouy until 
1770, although this method of printing had been used in 
Ireland as early as 1752. The great period of copperplate 
prints in France dates from the year 1783, when Jean- 
Baptiste Huet designed his first plate for the Oberkampf 
works; from this date until his death in 1811 cotton print 
designing under the hand of this master attained the dignity 
of a minor art. In the great pieces produced at this time, 
scenes of chateau gardens peopled with figures of court life 



vied in popularity with scenes of country life with its 
picturesque peassints, its cattle and its herds, the faithful 
dog and the well-fed cat, all bespeaking the outdoor freedom 
of country life. Scenes of chivalry, romance and mytholo- 
gical subjects of thelater period all ref le ct the versatility 
of the artist in his abiltiy to keep pace with the swiftly 
changing mode of the day. 

Some of these subjects are represented in the group of 
cartoons and trial proofs in the Mahon gift, aimong which 
are the following: 

1. The Old Ford, about 1770. Trial proof in brown ink, 
on two sheets of paper; 1M080 x 0M9S0, 1M080 x 0M960. 

2. Don Quixote, about 1780. Pen-and-ink drawing on joined 
sheets of paper; 1M082 x 0M945; trial proof in brown 
ink on joined sheets of paper, 1M082 x 0M923. 

3. Le Tomb eau de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, about 1800. Pen- 
and-ink drawing on joined sheets of paper; 1M028 x 0M864; 
trial proof in brown ink on joined sheets of paper, 
1M086 X 0M957. 

4. La Course au sang Her, about 1800. Pen-and-ink drawing 
with washes on ink, on six separate pieces of paper; 
0M913 X 0M830. 

5. Sganarelle, about 1810. Pen-and-ink drawing on brown 
paper; 0M786 x 0M489. 

6. Jeanne d'Arc, Pen-and-ink drawing on paper, signed: 
ChChasselat inv, et del. / parts i8i>;; 0M812 x 0M560; 

7. Les Monuments de Paris, about 1820. Pen-and-ink drawing 
on paper; oM854 x 0M514. 

8. Combat between Europeans and Turks, sibonl 1825. Pen-and 
ink drawing on paper; 0M832 x 0M514. 

9. Roman Scenes, 1820-30. Pen-and-ink drawing on paper; 
0M856 x 0M528. 

10. Scenes from the Life of Philippe de Mornay, 1820-30. 
Pen-and-ink drawing on paper; 0M486 x 0M818. 

11. Subjects from Classical Mythology about 183b. Pen-and 
ink drawing on two large sheets of paper; 1M095 x 0M942; 
1M063 X 0M955. 

The earliest print. The Old Ford, was an English pattern, 
copied extensively in France; the English version in the 



Victoria and Albert Museum is signed and dated: R.I. &Co. 
Old Ford, 1761 and R.Iones 1761. Collins Woolmer designed 
patterns of a similar type, of which the Metropolitan 
Museum has a signed print dated 1765. The Cooper Union 
trial proof shows the two alternating motives of the sub- 
ject, which differ in certain details from the printed 
example lent by the Metropolitan Museum. Both signatures 
are lacking in the proof , the drawing of the animal motives 
varies slightly, and there are fewer architectural frag- 
ments in the foreground. 

The Don Quixote, of which there is not only the original 
drawing but as well the trial proof, though unsigned, is 
of exceptional interest. Henri Clouzot dates this print 
as a 1780 fabric, in the same class as the PSche tnaritime 
and the Chasse aux cerfs; this would place the pattern 
outside of the period of Jean-Baptiste Huet, who was engaged 
as head designer of the Oberkampf works in 1783. In these 
early days little is known as to the personnel of the Jouy 
staff, and there is often a slight discrepancy in dates. 
It is recorded, however, that about 1770 Perrenond and Ober- 
kampf constructed for the Jouy factory the first press for 
printing from copperplates. This design is attributed to the 
Jouy factory in the collection of fabrics preserved in the 
Musee des Arts Decoratifs, but there is no original car- 
toon of this subject in the Barbet Collection. It is thus 
possible that in this drawing the Cooper Union Museum has 
an original Oberkampf document. As to the designer, it 
is doubtless by the same hand that drew the patterns for 
the Piche maritime and the Chasse aux cerfs, for many 
details in these plates are similar. There is a print of 
this subject among the Barbet Collection of Oberkampf 
documents. There is also a print in the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art. The Metropolitan example, in view of the 
somewhat wooden quality of the figures, and the reversal 
of the design, may be one of the contemporary piracies 
which many successful Jouy designs invited. 

The engraving on these early plates lacks the delicacy 
of those produced ten years later; in fact, the overlap- 
ping of certain details of the pattern suggests that the 
pattern may have been made up by grouping a series of 

8 



woodblocks; the rather coarse cross-hatching also resem- 
bling printing from woodblocks rather than copperplate 
work. 

As stated above, the only signed drawing in the collec- 
tion is the Jeanne d'Arc, The printing centre that first 
produced this plate is yet to be determined; it was a po- 
pular subject widely copied. There is a print apparently 
from this plate, in the Metropolitan Museum, which hung 
beside the drawing in the exhibition. Charles Chasselat, 
son of Pierre Chasselat, was born in 1768 and died in 
1843. He was a pupil of Francois-Andre Vincent, who re- 
ceived the Grand Prix in 1768, studied in Rome, returned 
to Paris in 1776 and became a member of the Academy in 
1782 His interest in classical subjects was reflected in 
the work of his pupil. Both of these artists painted the 
Belisarius subject: Chasselat, The Repose of Belisarius; 
Vincent, Belisarius asking Alms, a popular subject in 
printed cotton designs of the early nineteenth century. 

This Jeanne d^ Arc is typical of its period, about 1818, 
when designers had abandoned the classical medallion type 
of pattern, such as Huet had used during the latter years 
of his career, and in their place had introduced land- 
scape motives depicting peasant sports, as in the Monit- 
ments du Midi and the Seines romaines, or hunting scenes 
as in the Route de Jouy by Horace Vernet. Patterns in 
printed fabrics of this period are found repeated in 
English stoneware, where on the borders of plates are 
found similar detached landscape motives set in like back- 
grounds of lozenges, checks, or other small field patterns. 

Cotton printing of the later nineteenth century was 
also represented. Such commemorative prints as the anti- 
Napoleonic Stage of Europe, i8is,f lent by Miss Maude A. K. 
Wetmore, have continued in favor, serving as mementos of 
political campaigns, of expositions, and of achievements 
of popular appeal, such as Lindbergh's transatlantic flight. 
The most recent productions included in the exhibition 
were three prints designed by Raoul Dufy, and four by Ruth 
Reeves, whose work had also been represented in an exhi- 
bition of wall-paper held in the Museum in 1931. 

More than two hundred examples of printed fabrics were 




JEANNE D'AEC 
Orig^inal cartoon for cotton printing 
Signed by Charles Chasselat. Paris, 1817 
Given by Miss Bridget Mahon, 1898 




JEANNE D'AEC 
Cotton, printed in Tiolet 
France, about 1817 
Lent by the Metropolitan Museum of Art 



included in the showing, while related material was avail- 
able in the collection of textiles given to the Museum by 
the late J. Pierpont Morgan in 1902, which contains many 
examples of German and Italian prints of the thirteenth, 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
The Museum is grateful for loans from the following: 

H. A. Elsberff Metropolitan >fa3euai of Art 

Mrs. Susie Fletcher Miss Prances Morris 

Miss Mary S. M. Gibson Pennsylvania Maseua of Art 

Agnes J. Holden Mrs. Harford Powel, Jr. 

Mrs. James F, Horan Miss Edith Wetmore 

Jaaies >fcCutcheon and Co. Miss Maude A. K. Wetmore 
Miss Elinor Merrell 

Prances Morris 



11 



CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE 

Photographs and drawings of contemporary architecture 
were displayed in the Museum, for the benefit of students 
in the night classes in architectural drawing, from the 3rd 
to the 17th of May. Approximately one hundred illustrations 
of present day building practice were on view, representing 
the work of eighteen architects. The firm of Howe and Les- 
caze lent a large group of photographs of their work, the 
most notable of which is the Philadelphia Saving Fund So- 
ciety Building. This was one of the first large office 
buildings of the "international style" to be undertaken 
in this country, and has been called the best designed 
building of its kind in the world. The photographs and 
drawings of various interior and exterior parts of the 
building made a most interesting comparison with the photo- 
graphs of details of Rockefeller Center, where some might 
feel that the demands of space and time prevented a full 
realization of the possibilities of a grandiose scheme. 

Architectural composition on a smaller scale was also 
represented: houses and apartments by Howe and Lescaze and 
Jan Ruhtenberg, offices and shops by Gates and Piatt and 
others, and a bar designed by Milliken and Bevin. The bar, 
designed for the Roosevelt Hotel, vas perhaps the most 
definitely triumphant piece of design represented in the 
exhibition, for it was executed under a restricted allow- 
ance of funds, and its architects had not been given free 
rein in the matter of its style. In spite of its secure 
grounding in familiar forms, the room achieves a fresh- 
ness and fitness that compare favorably, in their modernity, 
with less traditional work. 

The photographs and drawings were labelled with brief 
factual captions, leaving the student to make his own ob- 
servations. The exhibition as awhole, however, was intro- 
duced by a resume kindly written for the Museum by Michael 
Meredith Hare, from which the following paragraphs are 
quoted: 

12 



"In every exhibition of architecture there are 
drawings which demonstrate that, be the architect's 
philosophy good or bad, according to one's own 
opinion, he at least follows it. Philosophy does 
not mean adherence to the externals of a style - 
Gothic, classic, neo-classic or 'modernistic'. If 
buildings are expressive of a civilization they 
form a style. Styles do not make buildings. 

"Therefore it is to be hoped that all those who 
see this exhibition, who have an absorbing interest 
in architectural development or who, in addition 
to this, hope to build buildings, will not pain- 
fully remember this detail or that; but that, scru- 
tinizing the scheme and the form they will read in 
some cases a blank page, in others a possible phi- 
losophy which the building at hand tries to express. 
This judgment will determine for each thinking cri- 
tic the exhibits which he would have eliminated. 
Those remaining can then be judged as answers to the 
question: does this philosophy of architecture seem 
to me to fulfill the requirements of living con- 
ditions today?" 

It is always open to question wnet her an untrained eye 
car learn much about architecture from photographs, which 
can never present a building in its full actuality, and 
which restrict the appreciation of the effect of light on 
architectural forms; but within its limitations, the ex- 
hibition served its purpose. 

Material was lent by Howe and Lescaze, Milliken and Bevin, 
Leon V. Quigley, Rockefeller Center Public Relations De- 
partment and Jan Ruhtenberg. 



PAINTINGS BY MODERN MASTERS 

On other pages of the Chronicle have been described 
some of the activities that have been undertaken during 
the past year for the public. The Museum, however, has 
naturally a strong interest in the art students of the 
Cooper Union, and with their particular requirements in 

13 



mind it has organized several exhibitions. Of these, the 
most elaborate was held at the end of May, and brought to 
Cooper Union pictures by twenty-seven masters of modern 
painting, drawn from the collections of five members of 
the Advisory Council of the Art Schools. 

The basis of selection was one of quality, rather than 
subject-matter; as a result, pictures not ordinarily seen 
in juxtaposition hung side by side on the walls, going 
far to justify the oft-repeated dictum to the effect that 
there are only two kinds of painting - good and bad. The 
Portrait of ¥eda Cooke, for example, by Thomas Eakins, 
was not at all out of place between Renoir's Child Sketch- 
ing a.nd}{illet*s Head of a Young Girl. All three are seri- 
ous, solid paintings, the Eakins and the Millet composed 
in sombre browns with rose and pink the strongest colors. 
The Renoir was flanked on the other side by one of the 
Winslow Homer sketches from the Museum's own collection. 
Sunlight and Shadow, with which it agreed in the use of 
clear color. Another interesting group was composed of 
the Provincial Street in If inter, by Monet, Midi Landscape, 
by Derain, and a landscape by Eilshemius. The Eilshemius 
painting, one of his best organized compositions, is 
rich and varied in color, with a pleasant spring-like 
gradation of soft greens and blues, thoug[h the Derain is 
a much more complete re-working of observed facts. 

Lack cf space prevents a full description of the exhibi- 
tion, which included other masters, living and dead, of 
France and America. Abstract as well as representational 
work was included: Dufy,Braque,Tchelitchew and Leger each 
furnished one example, as well as Degas, Van Gogh, Redon, 
Picasso, Prendergast andDavies. Several of the paintings 
h.eA never before been publicly exhibited in New York, and 
this, coupled with the remarkably high quality of the pic- 
tures, attracted a great deal of interest. 

For students who work all day in the School at Cooper 
Union, a display of this kind is of definite value, fur- 
nishing material for information and observation and bring- 
ing paintings to busy people who have not the time or the 
opportunities for keeping in touch with the galleries in 
other parts of the city. 

14 



ORIGINAL DESIGNS FOR FRENCH SILVERSMITHS' WORK, 
WITH EXAMPLES OF THE CRAFT 

The exhibition of original designs for French silversmiths' 
work, with examples of the craft, held in the Museum from 
the 11th to the 27th of November, gave unexpected evidence 
of the richness of American collections in this class of 
material. The Museum is fortunate in owning a number of 
drawings and many engravings, but the silverware itself is 
scarce and is less often found than English plate of the 
same period. When the exhibition was first projected, 
there was no thought that so many and such good pieces of 
French silver would be available, for in addition to the 
present paucity of silver nade before the Revolution, very 
little has been written on the subject in English, and 
comparatively few people in America have had sufficient 
knowledge or interest to collect Continental Examples. 

The recent exhibition was narrow in scope, covering only 
the span from the reign of Louis XIV to the Restauration. 
In this rather restricted compartment, admittedly of some- 
\*at special interest , a fairly complete presentation was 
possible. The development in taste and the perfecting of 
design, characteristic of the eighteenth century, could be 
closely followed, and suggested a comparison with the 
history of decorative design in our own time. Large and 
small objects of silver and silver-gilt were shown, together 
with examples of pewter of similar designs. 

The seventeenth century style, with its somewhat ungainly 
shapes and its ornament applied, rather than made an in- 
tegral part of the scheme, was exemplified by a pencil 
drawing attributed to Jean-Bernard Toro, a design for a 
ewer. Of helmet shape, the sides are decorated with re- 
pousse figured scenes; the scrolled handle is crowned with 
the figure of a nereid; the base is composed of intertwined 
dolphins and seems disjointed and unrelated to the body 
of the vessel. The same shape is shown in the engraving 
of another of Toro' s designs, here reproduced (p. i6,f ig.i '), 
and was repeated in the exhibition in several pewter ewers 
and jugs which, though later in date, conserve the style 
of the more costly silversmiths' work. 

15 




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The ornament of this period, however, is in itself quite 
fine, well conceived and well executed; the eight early 
pocket sun-dials lent by Mr. and Mrs. Harrold E. Gillingham 
are all beautifully engraved with foliate rinceaux and 
other motives. The Museum owns several books of designs 
similar in character. The earliest contains thirteen en- 
gravings by Jacquinet, after Francois Marcou; dated 1657, 
they present designs suitable for engraving on the orna- 
mental inset plates of harquebuses and other small arms. 
Another set of thirteen engravings, published in 1660 by 
Thuraine and le Hollandois, harquebusiers to the King, 
shows the same use of fine rinceaux, with small animals 
and human figures. Designs for objects of domestic use are 
shown inGilles I'Egare's Livre des ouvrages d'orfevrerie, 
published in Paris in 1 '663 , and J. Cotelle's Nouveau livre 
de chenest, ouvrage dorfevrerie, of about the same time. 

Of the eighteenth century designers, theMuseum. was able 
to give from its ov\ti collections as full a representation 
as could be made from any single collection in America. 
To Juste- Aurele Meissonier, the versatile genius who 
lightened the French style and did more than anyone else 
to develop its rococo manner, are ascribed two designs for 
hilts; both of these display his characteristic use of 
opposing curves, and the strength inherent in asymmetric 
composition. Though much less massive than typical seven- 
teenth century work, these designs if executed would have 
a solidity and a sculptural quality far superior to the 
earlier m)rk. Meissonier and his contemporary, Oppenort, 
both published folios of engraved ornament plates, for 
use by less creative craftsmen, and these published works 
were included in the exhibition. 

Some of Meissonier 's followers in the rococo style, such 
as Babel, Cochin and Huquier, published ornament plates 
of considerable merit, but far better than any of their 
designs for silversmiths* work are the one hundred plates 
in Pierre Germain's Elements d'orfevrerie, published in 
Paris in 1748. The Museum owns what appears to be Germain's 
own copy, with his signature on the title-page, and the 
plates are all in an excellent impression. They illustrate 

17 



various types of ecclesiastical and secular vessels, mostly 
from Germain's designs, though seven are after designs by 
Jacques Roettiers; one of the plates strongly suggests the 
beautiful coffee-pot made by Francois-Thomas Germain for 
the Court of Portugal, which was acquired a year ago by the 
Metropolitan Museum, but was unfortunacely not available 
for display at Cooper Union. In the exhibition, however, 
was a pencil drawing, previously attributed to Roettiers, 
which appears to be one of the alternate designs by Frangois- 
Thomas Germain for the gold candelabra which he executed 
for Louis XV. The candelabra themselves disappeared during 
the Revolution, and the only reminders extant are a few 
sketches, each of a different scheme; as far as the writer 
knows, the one shown at Cooper Union is the only sketch 
in this country. A plate made by Germain for Catherine the 
Great served as an example of his unornamented work; it 
was lent by Baron Maurice Voruz de Vaux. 

Both Jean-Frangois and Fdme'-Pierre Balzac were repre- 
sented. Their earliest pieces were a set of four candelabra, 
made by Edme-Pierre Balzac in 1740-42, lent by Mrs. Fre- 
derick H. Allen; they are perfect embodiments of the 
characteristics of French silver at its best - strong in 
design, rich in ornamentation, and beautiful in their 
harmonious effect. Later examples of Edme-Pierre Balzac's 
work, from 1755-56, were the fork, spoon and pelle a glace 
lent by Mrs. Albert Blum, from a vermeil service presented 
by Louis XV to a foreign minister. 

A group of smaller objects was included. Besides the 
pocket sun-dials already mentioned, and others lent by 
Mr. and Mrs. Harford W. H. Powel, Jr., and Mrs. Miles 
White, Jr., there were snuff boxes, sets of draughting 
instruments in the original etuis, and an ingenious pocket 
inkstand. There were also two hunting swords, with silver 
mounts on hilt and scabbard, lent by Mrs. White; bothwere 
made in Paris, the earlier about i735 and the later about 

1775. 

Among the pieces of the Louis XVI style were several, 
from the Livingston family, that have been in America since 
the eighteenth century. One, a handsome platter with a 
shaped edge decorated with bound laurel, was made in Paris 

18 



in 1770-71 by an unidentified silversmith; another, a 
soupiere, was made by Jean-Baptiste Saurin in 1776-77. 
Two pairs of candlesticks lent by Mrs. White, one from 
Paris and one from Bordeaux, are equally fine, and were 
evidence that the work of provincial silversmiths was not 
necessarily inferior to that of the shops of Paris. Two 
ewers with basins, lent by Mrs. Allen and by the Metro- 
politan Museum, were made within a year of each other by 
Samson in Toulouse, and show a refinement worthy of the 
capital; while an ecuelle with cover and salver, lent by 
Mrs. Walter E. Maynard, bears the marks of an Orleans 
silversmith of 17B3. In its beautiful shape and the sim- 
plicity and restraint of its ornament it is even superior 
to the average Parisian work of the time. 

Examples of post-Revolutionary silversmiths' work are 
not as rare as the earlier pieces, but in general the 
quality of the design is not as high. The Empire pieces 
included in the exhibition were superior to the common 
lot. Odiot, Biennais and Cahier, who executed in turn 
various commissions for Napoleon I, were all represented 
- Odiot by a vermeil soupiere supported by three figures, 
lent by French & Company, Inc.; Biennais and Cahier by. 
pieces from a service commissioned by Napoleon, the pro- 
perty of Cartier, Inc. (p. 20, fig. 2), and Cahier by a 
tureen of the greatest purity of form and subtlety of out- 
line, lent by Mrs. Francis McNeil Bacon. 

Interesting comparison with the Empire section of the 
exhibition was afforded by a series of some seventy draw- 
ings which originated in Augsburg, in the shop of the 
Seethaler family. Father, sons and grandsons, the See- 
thalers were celebrated in their own day, and their work 
is now found in German public collections. Yet in looking 
at their designs, one is less pleased with their adherence 
to the French taste of the Empire than amused with their 
faithfulness to Augsburg traditions. The use of the human 
figure in their decoradive schemes is accomplished with 
difficulty, and the introduction of animal forms brings 
back all the grotesque quality of the German Renaissance, 
when Augsburg silversmiths were so renowned in Europe. 

The marks on French silver, which followed a definite 

19 



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,!i|i». 






m 



Vi 

4) • 

0) aJMM 

t:^ !tf oj o Vi 

P4r-( q) V 0) 
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M fl (# Oit, 

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< -^ rt t, >> 

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and carefully administered scheme, are in themselves in- 
teresting. In the exhibition, the marks on each piece v^ere 
reproduced at a larger scale on the labels; this added 
to their usefulness to the student and the collector. Over 
one hundred pieces of silver were included in the showing, 
and the Museum can do no more than record the names of 
the collectors whose kindness in lending their examples 
and their heirlooms contributed to the success of the 
exhibition. In addition to several anonymous lenders, the 
Museum is grateful to the follov;ing: 



Mrs. Frederick H. Allen 

Mrs. Frame is McNeil Bacon 

Mrs. Albert Blum 

Cartier. Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lewis B, Cuyler 

Baron Maurice Voruz de Vaox 

Mrs. Henry B. duPont 

French tc Company, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Harrold E. Gillingham 

Richard P. Gipson 

Mrs. Honer Eaton Keyes 



Mr. and Mrs. Frederick R. King 

Miss Alida Livingston 

Mrs. Walter E. Maynard 

Metropolitan Museun of Art 

Miss Marie J. Oothout 

Mrs. John E. Parsons 

Mr. and Mrs. Harford Powel, Jr, 

Miss Mary Parsons 

Mrs. Miles Vhite, Jr. 

Mrs. Giles Whiting 



The original drawings and engravings that were shown in 
November, being part of the Museum's permanent collections, 
are available to those who may have missed the exhibition. 
For convenience, a selected bibliography of useful books 
is appended. 

Calvin S. [Iathaway 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

London. Department of Science and Art of the Oonmlttee of ODuncll on Edu- 
cation, A list Of books and pamphlets In the National Art Library, 
3auth Kensington Museum, illustrating gold and silversmiths' work, and 
jewellery. Pad, ed.; London, Eyre and 3>ottlsv«ode, 1887 

P. L. Jacob, Curlosltes de I'hlstolre des arts; parls, 1858, Adolphe Dela- 
hays: Bibliography, p. 371 

Hairy navard, Dlctlonnalre de I'araeublement et de la decoration depuls le 
Xllle slecle Jusqu'a nos Jours; Paris, n.d. , Ouantln: articles on 

Argenterle, v. i, col. 134-146; on orfevre, v. vi, col. 1078-1130; and 
on Orfevrerle, v. vi, col. ll?0-il79 

B Alfred Jones, old silver of aarope aid America; Philadelphia, 1928; *^^ 
Llpplncott 

Paul Mantz, Recherch( 



les sur I'hlstolre de 1 'orfevrerle francalse, in Xv^o .' 

21 



■•-H, 



Gazette des Beaux- Arts, T, X, p. 129 ff., T. XI, P. 119 ff., 150 ff^ 
349 ff., T. nV, p. 176 ff., 2m ff. 

Henry Havard, Hlstolre de I'orfevrerie francalse; Paris, 1896, Llbralrle 
iroprlmerie Reunles, v. 2 

Henri Boullhet, L'orfevrerie francals au XVille et XIXe slecles; Paris, 

1908, H. Laurens ' 

Oermaln Bt^st, L'orfevrerie frangalse a la cour de Portugal au XVIlle '^'h-^ 

slfecle, Paris, 1892, aoclete d« encouragement pour la propagation 'M*u__^^ 

des llvres d'art 

LOUis Reau, L'argenterle francalse du XVliie sl^cle au musee de Llstonne , 
In Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 19J?7, p. 17-36 

Jacques RoMquet, L'art et le gout sous la Restauration, 1814 a 1830; 
Paris, 1928, payot 

Anton Werner, Augsburger noldschmiede; verzelchnls der Augsburger Gold- A*^l^ 
scluQlede, Sllberarbelter, ...1346-1803; Augsburg, 1913, J. A. Schlos- /i,^^,, 
ser'sche Buchhandlung 

paul von Stettai, Kunst-Gewerba- und Handwerksgeschlchte der Relchsstadt Aj^ 

Augsburgs; Augstwrg, 1779-1788 ^jj^*-.^^ 

Germain Bapst, Etudes sur l'orfevrerie franpalse au XVlIle si eel e: Les 
Germain, orfevres- sculp teurs du Roy; Paris, 1887, Llbralrle de l'art 

Haary Nocq, P. Alfassa and j. Gue'rln, orfevrerle civile frangalse du XVie 
slScle au debut du XIXe sifecle; Paris, 19?6, Albert Levy, 2 v. 



Musee des Arts Decoratlfs, Paris, catalogue. Exhibition d'orfevrerle civile ,=yl^«. / 
francalse, de la Revolution a nos Jours, 6 Juln - 7 Juillet, 1929 ^^ ^< 

7 



Jacques Helft, Catalogue, Exhibition of old French gold and silver plate 
(XVI to XVIII century), New York City, December 1933 



"^^ 

"^-^W. 



Max Frankenburger, Die SllbertLammer der Munchener Resldenz; Munich, 1923, 
Georg Miiller 

Nocq and Dreyfous, Tabatleres, boltes et etuis: orfevreries de Paris 
XVliie sifecle et debut du XIXe, des collections du Musee du Louvre; 
Paris, 19?0, van Oest 

paris, ^Galerie Georges Petit. Catalogue des objets d'art canposant la 
precieuse et Important collection de M. L. de m...; Paris, 1891 

D. 67-71 

. Hotel Drouot, Catalogue de I'argenterie anclenne appartenant aM. 

le Baron j.P<ldion3.. . 12. ..et 13 Juln 1878; parls, 1878, Mannheim 

Paul Elidel, 60 planches d '^orfevrerle de la collection de Paul EUdel,pour 
faire suite aux Elanents d'Orfevrerie composes par Pierre Germain, 
Paris, 1884, Oiuantin 

Armand Guerlnet, publisher,^ Recuell de ^desslns d'orfevrerle du premier 
Empire par Blennals orfevre de Napoleon ler et de la Oouronne; parls, 
n.d. , Blbllotheque de 1 'union Centrale des Arts De'coratifs . 

jean Bolvin, Les anciens orfevres francals et leurs po In cons; parls, "'^^^^ 
1925, Bolvin " " // 

Louis Carre, a guide to old French plate; New Yoilc, 1931, Scrlbner 

ElBile Beuque and M. Frapsaice, Dlctionnaire des poincons de maltres- 
orfevres frangais du XlVe siecle a 1838; Paris, 1929 - , v, i - . 

Elnlle Beuque, platlne, or et argent; Paris, 1925-1930, 2 v. _ a1T^'^~^ 

Armand Guerlnet, publisher, Cahiers d'orfevrerle, Epoques Louls XIV,Louis ^fj .^^.^ 
XV, Louis XVI et premier Empire; Paris, n.d. 

Henri Bouchot, ed. , Cent roodeles Inedlts de l'orfevrerie franjaise des ^ 

XVI le et XVllie slecles; Paris, Blbllotheque Natlonale, 1889 '[r-^t^ 

22 



MATERIAL RELATING TO THE SMALL THEATRE 

From February 4th to February 28th, 1935, the Museum held 
a small exhibition of two phases of theatrical art. First, 
a series of raree-shows, miniature theatres of the concer- 
tina type, panoramas, panoptigues and shadow figures of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, all precursors of our 
present motion pictures. No effort was made to exhibit any 
twentieth century development which would have been far 
beyond our limited resources of space. 

In the other phase, however, that of the marionette 
theatre, the contemporary note was given by several exhibits; 
perhaps most strikingly by two puppets of Louis Bunin and 
William A. Dwiggins respectively - one, aconception of the 
masses, robots, mechanized individuals who walk the city 
streets, without individuality,mere abstractions; the other, 
a head made up of metal bands strangely lighted, described 
by its designer, Mr. Dwiggins, as an "experimental puppet, 
'Point Three Three Repetitive,* one of the persons in a 
melodrama in preparation portraying the revolt of mankind 
at some future time, against the evoluted machines that 
have assumed control. .55-^ is a member of the Board of 
Control." 

Among other puppets made in the twentieth century, as 
individual in their way as the mechanical overlord of 
Mr. Dwiggins, but constructed with more traditional materials 
and depending for their significance rather on the original 
use of that material, was the superb Jocasta^ over eight 
feet high, designed by Robert Edmond Jones for a performance 
of Oedipus Rex, given under the auspices of the League of 
Composers with accompaniment by the Philadelphia Orchestra. 
This was lent by Remo Bufano. 

The carved wooden figures of Africans, made by the late 
Robert Conklin earlier in this century, and lent by Mrs. 
Conklin, were significant not only for the beauty of the 
carving and the dramatic postural effects which could be 
obtained because of their beautiful articulation, but be- 
cause Mr. Conklin had intended to use them in amotion pic- 
ture, having them photographed in successive poses, giving 
the effect of a ritual dance. This is a serious and beautiful 

23 




HEAD OF A PUPPET FIGURE OF PUNCHINELLO 

Italj, XVIII century 

Given by Mrs, Chadbourne, 1920 



form of the widely used animated cartoon, and has been em- 
ployed with telling results. 

It was interesting to note that two large puppets had 
figured in a Broadway success, Eva Le Gallienne's production 
of Alice in Wonderland, No one forgets the lines of The 
¥alrus and The Cari>enter; and seeing them come to life it 
is equally hard to forget the strange resemblance of Mr. 
Bufano's ffalrus to a certain type of vacuous Anglo-Saxon. 
Somewhat smaller in stature, but of an extremely formidable 
appearance were two fine Sicilian marionettes in full armor 
lent by the House of Manteo. 

Unfortunately it was impossible in an exhibition of this 
kind to show the narionettes in action, and the true effec- 
tiveness of a marionette lies in the sur-realty imparted 
by a good puppeteer to his puppet. Thus we remember the 
action of Podrecca's Pianist rather than the pianist himself. 
One can imagine Mr. Bun in' s 5a.nfeer smoking a fat and expen- 
sive Havana in the days before 1929 although the little 
figure now hangs motionless from the wires. 

Several eighteenth century Venetian puppets from the 
Museum's own collections were especially interesting because 
we know that some of the masks of the coirmedia dell' arte 
became the leading characters of the marionette theatre. 
Some of these figures, like the one in the accompanying 
photograph, show the mask ending above the mouth and between 
the cheek and the ear. 

Tony Sarg lent a Punchinello with a huge nose, probably 
dating before Polichinelle acquired his Gascon character- 
istics, the huge paunch and silhouette of the cuirasse of 
the Guards of Henri IV. 

Dr. Davenport West 's lean of an immobile figure of a jes- 
ter in a red suit and cap and bells, and his wonderful col- 
lection of baubles roused great enthusiasm. Belonging to 
this same period was the proscenium arch of an Italian 
marionette theatre given to the Museum in 1921 and shown 
with the lovely ballerina lent by Donald Oenslager. 

The Yale Puppeteers lent one of their own musicians, and 
from Hollywood they sent a huge blue wooden travelling 
valise with ten exquisite eighteenth century puppets, each 
standing upright in its own cellophane show case. Another 

25 



little puppet, John the Baker, was starting on his travels 
thrcugh Mexico when Dr. Elsie Clews Parsons saw him packed 
on the back of a burro and bought him from the puppeteer 
and shipped him to the Museum's exhibition. 

Then there were the beautiful figures by Edith Flack 
Ackley, and the Chinese and Javanese shadows lent by The 
Red Gate Shadow Players and by Miss Frances Morris. In ad- 
dition to the shadow figures, the Far East was represented 
by unusual puppets in the round, lent by the American Museum 
of Natural History and Mr. and Mrs. Spencer Bickerton. 
The shadow pictures seemed to bridge the distance between 
the true marionette and the cardboard figures of the Two- 
penny Colored Theatres; and to form a link with the beau- 
tiful early miniature theatres of the concertina type. 

Coinciding with these seventeenth and eighteenth century 
puppet shows and shadow figures were the early magic lantern 
slides, made of cardboard, cut out and backed by colored 
isinglass, to be shown with a lighted candle behind - the 
whole to be set in a box with a hole in front through which 
the observer peeped. The origin of the peep-shows was 
probably the aftermath of a series of pictures done by Ger- 
man engravers at Augsburg towards the close of the eigh- 
teenth century. They were for cutting-out purposes. Still 
earlier were the Italian seventeenth century sheets (in 
sets of six) that were cut out and set up so as to form a 
perspective. Seventy-two of these prints, vues optiques, 
were shown in cases. Also were several cases of books and 
documents, measured drawings illustrating the making of 
puppets, portrait engravings of early patrons of the marion- 
ettes, such as Charles II and Lady Castlemaine, Dr. Johnson 
and Cyrano de Bergerac - too long a list to mention here; 
a copy of Pepys's diary, a first edition with references 
to a show of puppets at Covent Garden; Ben Jonson's play 
Cynthia's Revels, in which Cynthia speaks of the "motions- 
men." Furthermore, there were copies of the plays given at 
George Sand's Theatre de Nohant, and many plays and photo- 
graphs of French and Venetian puppets. A photograph of a 
Beauvais tapestry, for example, shows a large peep-show 
cabinet asacentral feature in an Italian village festi- 
val; and a book, published in 1785, illustrates a show- 

26 



man with his cabinet, and his audience of children, with 
the following verse: 

This box doth pleasant sights inclose, 
And landscape and perspective shows 

of every varied sort; 
A penny is the price I ask 
For th 'execution of my task. 
And get a penny for't. 

A French polyrama panoptigue, dated i 840, was lent by 
Mr. Wilbur M. Stone. The very name evokes a vision of some 
sentimental Victoria in a drawing room still filled with 
good Regency furniture, gazing at this latest importation 
from France. The earliest of the perspective theatres was 
an Italian one lent by Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen, 
an exquisite vision of the Garden of Paradise, filled with 
tiny cardboard figures. Also from this collection came a 
scene of Moscow in 1812, and several other theatres; one 
lovely one in its decorated box with an accompanying lorgnon, 
the better to see its beauties. Mr. and Mrs. Cohen also 
lent many magic lantern slides, roller-type panoramas, tiny 
theatres folding into solander cases, which in their un- 
usual quality and charm aroused general enthusiasm. Mr.Stone 
lent one of the Thames Tunnel - was this a prospectus of 
1850? 

Cne could turn countless pages of old copies of the Il- 
lustrated London News , read long descriptions by the par- 
ticipants and yet miss the vivid impression gained from 
Mr. Stone *s Ceremony of Conferring the Order of the Garter. 

Of unusual interest to Cooper Union was a concertina type 
peep-show lent by Mrs. James W. Thorne of Chicago, T/ie 
Oi>ening of The Crystal Palace by The Prince Consort. This 
World's Fair was for the purpose of reviving trade in England, 
and it \as perhaps the success of Prince Albert 's idea which 
inspired the merchants of Paris to open the Mus^e des Arts 
Decoratifs in 1863 and led in turn, in 1896, to the coura- 
geous effort of the Misses Hewitt to establish in Cooper 
Union the first Museum of Decorative Arts in this country. 

It is not possible to describe all the exhibits, but we 
wish to express our appreciation to all who so generously 
assisted us. Mention should be made of the pictures and of 

27 




SHADOW PUPPETS FROM THE THEATRE SERAPH IN 

Paris, about 1800 

Lent by Erskine Hewitt 



early and rare editions of books mentioning motion-men, 
marionettes and raree-shows. Among these lenders were 
Dr. A. S. W. Rosenbach, The Grolier Club, Mr. A. M. Sloog, 
Mr. Spencer VanB. Nicoll and the Metropolitan Museum. 

Special mention should be made of several sets of card- 
board figures of the The&tre Seraphin from the Palais Royal 
with the original scores for the accompanying music, lent 
by Mr. Erskine Hewitt. 

The twenty-five original drawings by Cruikshank for Punch 
and Judy were lent by Princeton University. Miss AngnaEnters 
lent her water color sketches of the famous marionette 
theatre in Athens, Miss Lotta Van Buren collected music 
.nrritten especially for marionettes and arranged such in- 
struments as the cittern, chittarone and mandola, which 
might have accompanied the famous productions by Prince 
Esterhazy for Marie Therese for which Haydn composed his 
toy symphonies. 

Material was lent by the following: 



Edith Flack Ackley 
The American Museum of 

Natural History 
Anonymous 

Alice Baldwin Beer 
Mr. and Mrs, Spencer Bickerton 
Bonaventure, Inc. 
Remo Buf ano 
Louis Bunin 

Mr.and Mrs.De Witt ClintonCohen 
Mrs. Bella Conklin 
William A, Dwiggins 
Ehrich— Newhouse Galleries 
French & Company, Inc. 
Robert Fridenbere 
Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 
The Grolier Club 
Erskine Hewitt 
Otto Kunse 
Miss Irene Lewisohn 
Harry Lev ins on 
Robert E. Locher 
Mrs. Luke Vincent Lockwood 
The Manteo Family 
Paul McPharlin 
Miss Mabel C. Mead 



Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Miss Prances Morris 

New York City, Civil Works 
Administration Project, 
Marionette Division 

New York Public Library 

Spencer Van B. Nichols 

Donald Oenslager 

The Old Print Shop 

Dr. Elsie Clews Parsons 

Princeton University Library 

The Red Gate Shadow Players 

Mrs. K. N. Rosen 

Dr. A. S, W. Rosenbach 

Tony Sarg 

M. Sloog 

Wilbur M. Stone 

Raf Szalatnay 

Mrs. James W, Thorne 

Miss Lotta Van Buren 

Dr. Davenport West 

E. Weyhe, Inc. 

Adolph G. Woltman 

Ruby Ross Wood 

The Yale Puppeteers 



29 



YVtA, 



An interesting commentary on the status of puppetry in 
the popular estimation is the fact that out of more than 
three thousand visitors, nearly nine-tenths were adults. 

Mary S. M. Gibson 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Puppets and Shadows, by Grace Greenleaf Ransome, is a 
valuable source of information, and refers with critical 
notes to all the important authorities. The other items 
of the following list relating to material in the Museum's 
exhibition, either are not included in Puppets and Shadows 
or have been published since i93i» 

puppets and Shadows, A Bibliography, compiled by Grace Greenleaf Ransome; 

Boston, 1931, F. W. Faxon Company 
Henry Ren^ d'Allanagne, Histolre des jouets; Paris ,1902 , Hachette 
Martha Hunger and Annie Lee Elder, The Book of Puppets; Boston, 1934, 

Lothrop, Lee and 3iepard Company 
A.^1, Max von Boehn, Dolls and Puppets (Josephine Nlcoll, transl. ); London, 

Harrap 
Ambrose Lansing, The Excavations at Llsht, In the Bulletin of the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, v. XXIX, no. 11 (Nov. 1934), Sec. 2 
^VM. Richard Tesdiner, Richard Teschner's Flguren- Theater, In The London 

Studio, V. IX, no. 46 (Jan. 193R), p. 51-35 
Loutkarslta Rocenka (The caoaret of the Wooden Actors); Prague, 193R, 

E. F. Mlsek, ed, and publ. 
Karl Ehgel, Das Volksciiausjplel von Doktor Johann Faust; Oldaiburg and 

Leipzig, 190fi 
W. L. Lawrence, Marionette Operas;ln Musical Quarterly, v. x, no. 2, (April, 

1924), p. 236-243 

Catherine illyne. The Athens Theatre-of-aiadows, In The London Studio, 
V. IX, no. 47 (Feb. 1935), p. 79-83 

P-\-, Lemercler de Neuvllle, Les Pupazzl no Irs; Paris, n.d. , Charles Mendel 

Robert Louis Stevenson, a penny plain and Twopence Colored; In The Maga- 
zine of Art, V. VII, 1884, p. ??7-232 

F.W.cdtenkampfj, peep-Show Prints; In "me aalletln of the New York publl c 
Library, v. XXV, no. 6 (June, 1921), p. 350-366 

F.W.telteracarapf], The peep- Show Again; In Tie Bulletin of the New York 
Public Library, v. XXVIII, no. 1 (Jan. 1924), p. 6 

30 



DONORS OF OBJECTS OF ART 
January i, 193^ — March 1, 1935 



Au Panier Fleuri Fund 
Isabella Barclay, Inc. 
Spencer Bickerton 
Mrs, Frederick Dielman 
Mrs. Susie Fletcher 
Mrs. George B. McClellan 
>fcMillen. Inc. 
Henry Oothout Millike n 
Morton Sundour Coapany 



Mrs. Laurent Oppenheis 
Dr. Elsie Clews Parsons 
Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 
Mrs. Harford Powel, Jr. 
The Roriner— Brooks Studios 
Mrs. E. E. Sperry 
Peter Teigen 
Mrs. Hooker Wakefield 
Miss Edith l^^etmore 



DONORS TO THE LIBRARY 
January 1, 1934 — jMarch 1, 1935 



Albright Art Gallery 
American Type Founders Sales 

Corporation 
Frank Bender 
Miss Susan D. Bliss 
George Eluaenthal 
Archxbald Manning Brown 
Coaaittee of the Burlington 

Pine Arts Club 
Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Dielnan 
Elisha Dyer 
Stephen Ensko 
The Friends of the Museum 
Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 
Miss Marion Hague 
Mrs. Montgoaery Hare 
Calvin S. Hathaway 



Miss Ethel L. Haven 

Mrs. J. Voodward Haven 

Erskine Hewitt 

John Jacob Hoff 

Mae. Whitney Hoff 

E. W. Howell Company 

Mrs, Bayard James 

Williaa E. Lescaze 

Mrs. George B, McClellan 

Trustees of the Metropolitan 

Museua of Art 
Elbert Newton 
Roger Hale Newton 
H. F. W. Save 
>fa,ry Stuart Book Fund 
Harry Wearne, Inc. 
Miss Edith Wetaore 
Laura and Morrison van R. 

Weyant 



31 



U ' 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 



VOL • I • NO • 2 



APRIL • 1936 




//^c^6 'H^- 



OVERMANTEL PANEL: "EASTERN PORT" 
Design by Johannes Lingelbach, 1625-1687 

DELFT, THE NETHERLANDS 

From the Joel Koopman Collection 
Given by WUl'iam Randolph Hearst 



fi-^ fvj .5 .-i T.r. -\ro~ 



COOPER UNION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE AND ART 

Trustees 

Gano Dunn, Pres/dent 
J. P. Morgan Walter S. Gifford 

Elihu Root, Jr. Barklie Henry 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

Directors 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare, Chairman 

Miss Edith Wetmore, Secretary 

Miss Susan D. Bliss 

Miss Marian Hague 

Staff 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 
Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 



Copyrigtji. 1936. by Cooper Union Museum jar tl?e Arts of Decoration 
New Yorik. N. Y.. April 14. 1936 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 2 APRIL • 1936 



The Directors of the Museum have been so encouraged by the success of the 
first issue of the Chronicle, pubhshed a year ago, that they feel justified in pre- 
senting this year an enlarged and, they trust, even more interesting bulletin. The 
first number of the Chronicle was devoted to the series of exhibitions that had been 
held during the preceding year — exhibitions arranged from the Museum's collec- 
tions, with generous supplementary loans from many sources. Such special activities 
have been held in abeyance during the past year, while the Museum continues its 
task of investigating and cataloguing its rich collections. 

In publishing articles on the possessions of the Museum there is a tremendous 
range from which to choose. Three collections are described in this number of the 
Chronicle. The tile collection is large and varied ; the article which describes the 
schools of tile-making represented in the Museum calls attention to gaps which 
have not yet been filled. It is pleasant to hope that someone, in reading this article, 
may be moved to help complete the series. The second article has been devoted 
to describing the Museum's singularly rich collection of the work of Winslow 
Homer — drawings to which fresh interest is added in this year of Homer's cen- 
tennial, when several loan exhibitions of his work are being held. 

It is with something more than gratification that the Directors have received, on 
behalf of the Museum, the magnificent bequest of the late George Cameron Stone's 
collection of Japanese sword mountings, of which a brief account is given in the 
third article. 

Finally, the Directors wish to express their appreciation of the kindness of the 
Museum's subscribing Friends, whose names are set down in these pages. Their 
interest, and their help in financing certain activities of the Museum, continue to be 
most heartening. 

35 






36^'/^-^ 




fiuMOH\^^is>''''' 



1. a. FOUR TILES FORMING A MOTIF 

ANDALUSIA, END OF THE 16tH CENTIIRV 

Given by A. Algara R. de Terreios 
HISPANO-MORESQUE TILE; ANDALUSIA, ^th CENTURY 
Lcueiia design, cuerda seca technique 
Given by A. Algara R. de Teireros 



RENAISSANCE AND POST-RENAISSANCE TILES OF SPAIN 
AND THE NETHERLANDS 

Every country has deposits of clay, and the fashioning of clay into tiles has become 
universal. Nothing made by human hands has kept its body and color as well as fired 
clay tiles; those excavated from Babylon and Nineveh, which once adorned the 
edifices of those long buried cities, present today as perfect a glaze and as bright a 
coloring as when they were burnt from the clay of the Tigris and the Euphrates. The 
Children of Israel were told to make bricks without straw; they, too, joined the ranks 
of the tile-makers. 

It was natural that tiles should be used in warm countries. In Persia and Arabia, 
then in Italy and Spain, tiles were used for flooring and for wall decoration; and 
courtyards where they were used were found cool upon the warmest days. In the 
colder North, tiles were no less useful. They served a decorative purpose and afforded 
pro;:ection against water and dampness. 

Early in the sixteenth century an Italian majolica painter, Guido di Savino, from 
Castel Durante, settled in Antwerp and there set up a pottery. In the latter part of the 
century a Dutch artist, Hendrik Cornelissen Vroom, is known to have gone to Seville 
to study majolica-painting with an Italian potter who was practicing there. Tile 
pictures had been introduced into Spain and Portugal by an Italian artist, Niculoso 
Francesco, from Pisa. So it is to Spain and to Italy that the famous tile makers of 
Holland were chiefly and most directly indebted. Tiles in red earthenware with 
decoration inlaid in white clay under a yellow glaze had been used, however, during 
the Middle Ages in Holland as well as in England and in France. In Holland their 
use as floor covering continued into the sixteenth century, when late Gothic inlaid 
floor tiles provided the motifs for some of the earliest Dutch majolica tiles. The 
later use of painted tiles was restricted to walls ; for this purpose nothing could be 
so well suited. A well-cemented wall of tiles gave protection from dampness to the 
basement or foundation, and credit should be given to this humble handiwork for the 
preservation of the beautiful houses built along the canals by the merchant princes 
and stored with the treasures brought back to them from all parts of the world — ■ 
treasures which themselves were not without influence, for Chinese porcelains were 
a most fruitful inspiration to the Dutch potter. 

In the early Dutch paintings we find numerous examples of interiors which show 
the various uses of tiles. We see this particularly in the treatment of the open fire- 
place or schouw, in such a painting as that by Peter de Hoogh, Interior shoiving a 
Woman peeling Apples, in the Wallace Collection (No. 23), in London. The 
painter lived in Delft most of his life, and his pictures generally show women in 
the routine of their daily work ; he seemed fond of giving glimpses of interiors filled 
with sunshine and bright with gaily colored tiles. 

Climatic conditions encouraged the use of tiles, but sometimes the weather proved 

37 




FIG. 2. FOUR LUSTRE TILES FORMING TWO MEDALLIONS 

HISPANO-MORESQUE, 17TH CENTURY 

From the Madrazo Collection I r rs^, 'X 'a / 

H , Given by Mhs Sarah Cooper Hewitt / ^ i, ~ ^ i 



too rigorous for such use. Louis XIV tried to introduce the art into France, and 
estabhshed factories at Rouen and elsewhere with the avowed purpose of making 
tiles for facing his summer house, the lovely Trianon de Porcelaine — that short-lived 
building erected to provide a Western equivalent to the marvelous tower of Nan- 
king, described in the stories of seventeenth-century adventurers.^ Even Louis le 
Grand rebelled, however, at the cost of maintaining a tile exterior in a climate as 
changeable as that of France, and after seventeen years ordered the building de- 
stroyed. Discouraged by the unsuitability of soft clay tiles for exterior use, the man- 
ufacturers of France made no effort, for some time afterwards, to make tiles for wall 
covering of any kind, and used the clays for other purposes. - 

The earliest tiles in Spain and in Europe were of Moorish origin, geometric in 
design, following the Mohammedan prohibition against representation. The oldest 
surviving are those of Seville and Cordova; the best known examples are those of the 
Alhambra, dating from the beginning of the fourteenth century: These azidejos, as 
they are called, form geometric patterns composed of small pieces let into the walls 
in a manner resembling the mosaic technique of the Near East and Persia.^ Moorish 
lustred ware of this period was covered with a glaze in which tin formed an im- 
portant part ; the enamel was hard, opaque, and of a creamy or white tint, so thick 
and dense as to increase noticeably the weight of the tiles. Moorish ceramic wares 
were in demand abroad as well as in Spain; Italy, for example, secured her share 
through the traders of the island of Majorca, for which the Italians of Dante's day 
had the alternative name "Majolica" — a word which has long since ceased to signify 
exclusively pottery treated with a lustre glaze. 

After the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, Spanish potters abandoned the use 
of tin glazes in favor of a method which produced tiles of similar appearance^ ,btit of 
much less weight. In this new method, tiles were covered with a slip— a thin wash 
of pipe clay — before being covered with a glaze of which lead was the principal 
ingredient (fig. 2). 

Another new procedure, that of cuerda seca (dry cord), had been introduced in 
the fifteenth century. Following this method, a wooden or metal mould was pressed 
into the unbaked tile, throwing the edges of the pattern into relief. Colors were 
poured into the depressions after the surface had first been treated with a mixture 
of grease and manganese, which turned black when baked ; the mixture prevented 
the colors from running and blending. Some of the finest tiles to be found in Spain 
were produced by this technique (fig. l,b) \ those in the patio of the Casa de Pilatos, 
belonging to the Duke of Medinaceli, in Seville,* and in Las "Duefias," the house 
of the Duke of Alva,^ being especially admirable. When these were made, Moorish 

^Robert Danis, La premiere ma'ison royale de Trianon, 1670-1687 ; Paris, n. d., Albert Morance. 

-Only in later times has the hard-fired clay which modern manufacturers call faience been developed to, 
resist the stresses produced by climatic changes. 

^Tiles of the Alhambra are illustrated in A. F. Calvert, Moorish Remains in Spain, v. 2, The Alhambra. 

■•111., Armard Guerinet, pub.. I'Espagne monumentale: Architecture and Sculpture. Ensembles and Details; 
Paris, n.d., pi. 120. 

^111., Arte y Decoracion en Espaiia. v. Ill, 1919, pi- 65. 

59 




FIG. 3. SIX TILES REPRESENTING VARIOUS TRADES AND TOOLS 

ALCORA, SPAIN, 18TH CENTURY 

/r( IVf £) /\l 'T — 1> "S J^ Given by the Misses Heu'/tt 




A 



lhoh T'r, 33 



FIG. 4. TWO TILES IN THE CHINOISERIE STYLE 

ALCORA, SPAIN, 18TH CENTURY 

Given by the Misses Heivitt 



traditions of design were still in force ; at a somewhat later date, tiles were decorated 
with interlaces and strapwork so arranged as to leave a clear field in the centre, in 
which would be placed an animal of Gothic inspiration. 

With a Spanish Borgia on the Papal Throne, Italian ideas were not slow in filter- 
ing back to Spain. The first Italian ceramist schooled in the new ideas of the Renais- 
sance to work in Spain was Niculoso Francesco, who sometimes signed himself 
"Italiano" and at other times "Pisano." He executed his tiles at Triana by a process, 
still in use, to which he gave his name, painting his designs on the flat surface of the 
tile enameled with that honey-colored medium which is so typical of Spanish tiling. 
Designs of human figures, animals, plants, flowers and conventional motifs ; green, 
blue, black and all shades of yellow appear in the design, outlined in purple or blue.^ 
On white enamel the colors used in the design are usually different shades of blue 
in chiaroscuro. A fine specimen of his work is the reredos representing the Visitation, 
over the Altar of the Catholic Sovereigns in the Alcazar of Seville ;- he also did the 
doorway of the Church of Santa Paula in the same city.^ 

Another type made its appearance early in the sixteenth century — the incised tile, 
called cuenca, which was stamped with a metal plate so that the pattern was hol- 
lowed out, the color being poured into the slight depression thus formed (fig. 1,^). 
A variety of designs were used in the decoration of these tiles: interlaces, tracery, 
knots, bunches of grapes, heraldic emblems and fantastic animals.^ 

* The history of Spanish tile work is remarkable not only in the variety of tech- 
niques developed, but also in the number of schools of ceramic manufacture. Flour- 
ishing in different parts of the country, in the sixteenth century, were the producers 
of Talavera and of Triana, while in the eighteenth century the factory of Alcora 
arose, which developed its own variation on Spanish ideas. Triana has already been 
mentioned ; of Talavera, much information is to be gained from various records of 
earlier centuries, as gathered together by Juan F. Riano, who says :^ 

"In a report drawn up by the order of Philip II in 1576, it is stated that 
Talavera 'produced fine white glazed earthenware tiles, and other pottery, 
which supplied the country, part of Portugal, and India.' Father Ramon de la 
Higuera, in his Repuhlicas del Mundo, 1595, mentions the ware of Talavera in 
terms of highest praise. In a manuscript history of Talavera, written in 1651 
(Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, G. 112), the author Father Alfonso de Ajofrin, 
says that 'the pottery is as good as that of Pisa, a large number of aziile'jos are 
also made to adorn the front of altars, churches, gardens, alcoves, saloons, and 
bowers, and large and small specimens of every kind. Two hundred workmen 

^Triana tiles of this period are illustrated. Collections dii Mtisee des^ Arts Decorat'ifs ; Ceramiqiie ; Fans, 
Calavas, p. 165, 221. 

-HI. Arte y Decoracion en Espana, v. Ill, 1919, pi- 64. 

^111., Arte y Decoracion en Espana v. Ill, 1919, pi. 63. 

*Cuenca tiles are illustrated, Jose Gestoso y Perez, Historia de los Barros Vidriados Seiillanos desde sus 
Origenes hasta Nuestros Dias, Seville, 1903, fac. p. 190. 

^Juan F. Riano, The Industrial Arts in Spain (Series of Art Handbooks published for the Committee of 
Council on Education), London, Chapman and Hall, 1890, p. 170-171. 

41 




FIG. 5. FOUR TILES FROM A SERIES REPRESENTING MARKETING, KITCHEN UTENSILS, 
AND THE PREPARATION OF FOOD 

ALCORA, SPAIN, 18TH CENTURY 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 



work at eight different kilns. Four other kilns are kept to make common earth- 
enware. Red porous clay vases and drinking cups are baked in two other kilns, in 
a thousand different shapes in imitation of birds and other animals, also brin- 
quinos for the use of the ladies, so deliciously flavored that after drinking the 
water they contained, they eat the cup in which it was brought to them.' In 
another manuscript history of Talavera (Bib. Nac. G. 187) we find mention 
of 'perfect imitations of oriental china,' and that pottery made there "was used 
all over Spain, and sent to India, France, Flanders, Italy and other countries, 
and was esteemed everywhere for the perfection of the coloring and the bril- 
liancy of the glaze.' " ^ 

The best days of the pottery at Alcora did not occur until the eighteenth century. 
Riano tells- that "Don Buenaventura Pedro de Alcantara inherited in 1725 the estates 
belonging to the title of Aranda in the province of Valencia. Count Aranda found 
that the inhabitants of the village of Alcora made coarse earthenware of every de- 
scription, and . . . determined, therefore, upon establishing a manufacture of pottery 
there, in which fine wares might be made in imitation of those imported from Italy, 
Germany, France and England." In May, 1727, the first specimens appeared, and 
by the following year the factory had already established itself securely at home, and 
had begun to export its wares, which were the equal of the best made in Spain. The 
Alcora tiles in the Museum (fig. 3, 4, 5) show the characteristic use of scenes from 
everyday life, always popular in Spain as in The Netherlands. Certain of the Alcora 
tiles (fig. 4) show the inspiration of Pillement, whose Chinoiserie designs enjoyed 
wide circulation far beyond the borders of France. The tiles of The Netherlands of 
this period were also of influence upon Spanish ceramists. 

The procedure of tile-making in The Netherlands, as described by Bernard Rack- 
ham,'' differed somewhat from that of Spain: 

"Tiles were shaped by pressing the soft clay into square moulds of uniform 
size, then trimmed on a square board the size of a tile, being held in position 
by four nails, one at each corner, sticking out of the board ; the points of the 
nails left small holes on the surface of the tile, as a rule not entirely obliterated 
by the subsequent enameling. The tiles were then fired for the first time, and 
afterwards coated with a layer of white tin enamel and set out on boards to dry. 
When the enamel was dry the tile was ready for painting. The pattern was 
generally pounced, or laid onto the tile beforehand by means of powdered char- 
coal rubbed through pinholes pricked along the lines of the design of a paper 
stencil. Only in exceptional cases are the patterns painted freehand ; at the same 
time the painter exercised great latitude in working over the charcoal lines and 
in his choice and combination of pigments, which accounts for the absence of 
tediousness in the repetition ,of stock patterns. In picture-panels, or at least in 

^Tiles from Talavera were used as far away as Mexico, where they were of influence in forming the 
Mexican types that long survived the parent style in Spain. 

-Riafio, op. cit., p. 179. 

'Bernard Rackham, Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Ceramics: Dutch Tiles; The Van den 
Bergh Gift, London, Published under the Authority of the Board of Education, 2nd. ed., 1931, p. 19-21. 

43 




CO &3 



0-1 D 

2 & 



Z U3 



u 



Z z ^ 






r 
o 

J 



the best of them, the several tiles were laid together for painting and the painter 
continued the strokes of his brush without a break across the edges of the tiles." 
Or,, if the picture was too large to be treated as a single unit, it was painted in 
sections. Rackham continues: 

"When the tiles had been painted they were again fired, the dry enamel be- 
coming fused into a smooth layer in which the pigments were fixed. On nearly 
all Dutch tiles the colors were fired at the same time with the enamel ; excep- 
tions are certain rare tiles made at Delft toward the middle of the eighteenth 
century and painted with enamel colors, which were fixed at a third firing in 
a muffle kiln." 

Little is definitely known as to the places in which particular tiles were made. 
A large proportion must certainly have come from the numerous tile factories of 
Rotterdam and the neighboring port of Delftshaven. Others were made in the pot- 
teries of Delft. There were also factories at Harlingen, Makkum and Bolsward in 
Friesland, and at several other places, among them probably Haarlem, Utrecht and 
Gouda. To distinguish the productions of the various towns is only possible where, 
as in the case of the work of Boumeester and the Aalmis family of Rotterdam, the 
tiles are signed, or where the coloring closely resembles that of certain classes of 
Delft ware. 

The earliest Dutch majolica tiles may be attributed to the second half of the six- 
teenth century; they show geometrical and arabesque motifs in the style of the 
middle Renaissance, reserved in white on a ground colored in blue, orange, and 
yellow, four tiles joining together to form a single pattern. These designs were pro- 
duced into the seventeenth century, as was another type of even earlier origin, in 
which a light pattern was used on a dark ground ; this type descended from the late 
mediaeval tiles in which designs were inlaid in white on a dark red clay. 

In the seventeenth century the designs became more naturalistic. Pomegranates, 
grapes and oranges played a leading part (1934-5-6; fig. 7), while the favorite tulip 
appeared frequently (1934-5-7). Green and manganese purple were added to the 
blue, yellow and orange of the earlier times, and all the colors became stronger in 
tone, with great effect against the white enamel which by this period had lost the 
greyish tone of the earliest type. A new development took place when a unit of design 
came to be confined within the limits of a single tile. With this change, formal motifs 
gave way to floral designs, animals, birds, flowers and human figures. The work of 
the Spanish potters, who followed the armies and the governors to the Low Coun- 
tries, is marked by the large number of tiles decorated with figures of soldiers. The 
single motifs were at first enclosed in a panel — circular, quatrefoil, lozenge-shaped 
or with a wavy outline — while the corners of the tile would be filled with arabesque 
or leaf motifs in reserve on a blue ground, giving the effect of a strong background 
for the motifs in the panels when many tiles were set together. The insistence on 
pattern became lessened as time went on, but was never lost from sight until the 
eighteenth century, when tiles were painted as units with no regard for their effect 
when assembled. 

45 




J. J # •-. 

FIG. 7. FOUR POLYCHROME TILES 

DELFT, THE NETHERLANDS, 17TH CENTURY 



jduMONT'^^ ^3*^ 



Given by Airs. Laurent Oppenheim 



^f3^-^--^ 



By this time the ambitious use of tiles for large effects, pictorial or otherwise, 
had more or less fallen into disuse. The splendid groups in the Museum, however, 
are an excellent demonstration of this type of work at its best (illustrations on 
cover, fig. 8, fig. 9). The tiles which compose these wall-facings were made in the 
method followed at Delft ; after the first glazing and the painting, the final glazing 
was applied only to the decorated side. 

The- complete range of subjects chosen for tile decoration is not yet available in 
the Museum's collection, but Biblical, cavalier, and ship tiles are well represented 
in the series of water-color facsimiles of tiles formerly in the great collection of 
Eelco M. Vis which, upon its dispersal ten years ago, passed into the possession of 
various museums and private collectors in this country and abroad. 

Space has not permitted the description of all the tiles on display in the Museum. 
Although omitted from the present article, the English, Italian and oriental tiles 
are no less interesting. A detailed list of the Spanish and Dutch tiles in the Museum 
is given in the following pages, together with a bibliography of useful literature 
relating to the work of the two countries. 

Mary A. Noon 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

W. J. Furnival, headless Decorative Tiles; Stowe, England, 1904, p. 106-113. 
August L. Mayer, Alt-Spanien; Munich, 1921, Delphin-Verlag. Bibliography, p. XX. 
Osthaus. Spanische Fliesenkeramik ; in Orientalisches Archiv,: Jahrg. 1, Heft 2, 

Leipzig, 1911, p. 74-79- 
Samuel Howe, Persian and Spanish Tiles, in House Beautiful, v. XXXIII, no. 1, 

Dec, 1912, p. 21-23. 
Leonard Williams, The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain; London, Foulis, 1907, v. 2. 
A. van de Put, Hispano-Moresque Pottery ; in Burlington Magazine Monograph, v. 

2, Spanish Art, London, 1927. 
Anonymous, La Azulejeria como Elemento Decorative de la Arquitectura; in Arte 

Espafjol, Aiio 12, Tom. 6, 1923, p. 263-278. 
Luis Perez Bueno, Una obra sobre la ceraniica de Alcora; in Arte Espanol, Aiio 

VIII, Tom. IV, no. 7, 1919, p. 341-352. 
Francesc Santacana Romeu, Cat alec Illustrat del Museu Santacana de Mar tor ell; 

Barcelona, Viuda D. Casanovas, 1909. 
Jose Gestoso y Perez, Historia de las Barros Vidriados Sevillanos desde sus Origenes 

hasta Nuestros Dias; Seville, La Andalucia Moderna, 1903. 
Albert F. Calvert, Moorish Remains in Spain; London, John Lane, 2nd ed., 

1907; 2 V. 
Bernard Rackham, Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Ceramics; Dutch 

Tiles: The Van den Bergh Gift; London, 1931, Bibhography, p. 5-8. 
Elizabeth Neurdenburg and Bernard Rackham, Old Dutch Pottery and Tiles; 

London, Benn, 1923; Bibliography, p. 147-148. 
Edwin Atlee Barber, Tin Enameled Pottery, Majolica, Delft and Other Stanni- 
ferous Faience; New York, Doubleday, Page, 1907. 

47 



vaumy: 





FIG. 8. TILE PANEL PAINTED WITH FLOWERS AND BIRDS 
Design by Johannes Lingelbach, 1625-1687 

DELFT, THE NETHERLANDS 

From the Joel Koopman Collection /i . t 

^QJL'^ ~^3 — ^ ^'^'^" ^y William Randolph Hearst // L ^ rS T'-£ ^^ 



Charles O. Cornelius, A Group of Dutch Tiles ; in Bulletin of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, v. 20, no. 4, April 1925, p. 102-104. 

Frieda van Emden, Dutch Tiles; in The Art World, v. 2, 1917, p. 555-558. 

Charles G. Harper, Dutch Tiles, Their History and Present Appreciation; in Archi- 
tect, London, v. 108, 1922, p. 240-241. 

S. R. Jones^ Vieilles maisons hollandaises ; Paris, "Studio," 1913. 

H. Jongsma, Kasteelen, Buitenplaatsen, Tuinen en Parken van Nederland ; Amster- 
dam, Scheltema and Holkema, n.d., v. 2. 

Eelco M. Vis, Dutch Tiles of the XV -XV III Century; Collection of Eelco Ai. Vis, 
Afnsterdafn, Holland ; New York, American Art Association, 1927. 



TILES IN THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS 

SPAIN 

1935-16-4. One tile, Hispano-Moresque, Andalusia, end of 15th century. Laceria 
(lace-work) design executed in cuerda seca (dry cord) technique. Given by A. 
Algara R. deTerreros. Illustrated, fig. 1, b. 

1935-16-3. One tile, Hispano-Moresque, end of 15th century. Given by A. Algara 
R. de Terreros. 

1935-16-1, -2, -5, -6, -7. Nine tiles, of which two are single and the remainder 
form two motifs; Andalusia, end of l6th century. Given by A. Algara R. de 
Terreros. Illustrated, fig. I, a. 

1907-33-1 to -4. Four lustre tiles, forming two complete motifs; seventeenth cen- 
tury. From the collection of Raimundo de Madrazo. Given by Miss Sarah Cooper 
Hewitt. Illustrated, fig. 2. 

Two tiles forming a geometric design; seventeenth century. Given by the Misses 
Hewitt. 

1920-15-5 to -398. Three hundred ninety-four tiles, Alcora, eighteenth century; deco- 
rated with kitchen utensils (fig. 5), Chinoiseries in the style of Pillement (fig. 4), 
and figures engaged in various occupations (fig. 3). From the Pares Collection. 
Given by the Misses Hewitt. 

1935-27-1 to -8. Sixteen tiles decorated with figures, some of which are represented 
in bullfighting; early nineteenth century. Purchased, Mary Hearn Greims Fund. 
Illustrated, fig. 6. 

THE NETHERLANDS 

1934-5-2. One tile decorated with polychrome strapwork. Reproduced in Vis and 
DeGeus, Althollandische Fliesen, v. I, pi. 5. 

49 




FIG. 9. TILE PANEL WITH CIPHER OF PAINTER (?) "J L" 
Design by Johannes Lingelbach, 1625-1687 

DELFT, THE NETHERLANDS 

* Q /^ C '' T v3 "^From the Joel Koopman Collection 
/ Given by William Randolph HeitrsI 



1934-5-3. One tile, decorated with polychrome strapwork and foliage. Reproduced 
in Vis and De Geus, op. at., pi. 5. 

.1934-5-4. One tile decorated with geometrical shapes enclosing conventionalized 
foliage. Reproduced in Vis and De Geus, op. cit., pi. 5. 

1934-5-5. One tile decorated with geometrical shapes enclosing conventionalized 
flowers and foliage. Reproduced in Vis and De Geus, op. cit., pi. 10. 

The above four of the late sixteenth century ; from the collection of Eelco M. Vis. 
Given by Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim. 

1934-5-6. Four tiles decorated with polychrome fruits, two each of two designs. 
Illustrated, fig. 7. 

1934-5-7. Four tiles decorated with polychrome fruits and tulips. Illustrated, fig. 7. 

The above eight of the seventeenth century ; from the collection of Eelco M. Vis. 
Given by Mrs. Laurent Oppenhejfto. 

Portions of a tile room from Delft, The Netherlands,, composed of two thousand 
three hundred seventy-four tiles disposed in friezes of two designs, five wall panels 
and two pictorial panels, executed from designs of Johannes Lingelbach, 1625- 
1687. From the Joel Koopman collection. Given by William Randolph Hearst. One 
wall panel, with cipher of Lingelbach ( ?), and two pictorial panels, illustrated on 
cover, and in fig. 8, 9. 

1925-1. Three tiles with landscape in blue. Delft, eighteenth century. Given by 
the Council of the Museum. 

1936-8-1, -2. Two tiles in blue, one with a dog and one with a single human figure. 
Delft, eighteenth century. Purchased, Peter Cooper Hewitt Estate Fund. 

Panel composed of thirty tiles, representing a vase of flowers ; painted in manganese 
violet. Delft, eighteenth century. Given by The Misses Hewitt. 

In addition to the tiles there are, in the Museum's collections, ten plaster casts of 
fifteenth century tiles in the Alhambra. There is also a group of nearly three hun- 
dred water-color facsimiles of the tiles that composed the collection of Eelco M. Vis. 



51 




•r^ 






'%.... 



A 



^ FIG. 1. CAVALRY OFFICER 
C /11 N T t, '7 '^ By WiNSLOW Homer, 1863 

Give?] by Charles Saiage Homer 



/f/JL - r;2.-/o^ 



DRAWINGS BY WINSLOW HOMER IN THE 
MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS 

Of all the American painters whose work is represented in the Museum, none 
ranks so high in contemporary esteem, and only one is represented as completely, as 
Winslow Homer. Fortunate in the ownership of nearly three hundred drawings, 
as well as twenty-two oils, the Museum has been since 1912 the chief source of 
information regarding the making of this man's masterpieces. ^ While excellent de- 
scriptive material is available in various publications, ^ the important testimony, that of 
Homer himself, is to be found here in unrivalled mass. 

Practically every phase of the artist's development is shown in the drawings, which 
range in date from approximately 1858 to 1904, almost at the end of his long ac- 
tivity. His increasing knowledge of the various media is followed, through the first 
tinting with water-color of substantial line drawings, on to the unhesitating strength 
of his later water-colorings, in which the expressive brush seems almost to have been 
guided by a Chinese calligrapher. He must have spent all his time in drawing ; if 
endless work could be thought to lead to mastery, his triumph would be explained 
by the mere number of these sheets. 

A sketch of anatomical proportions (drawing with Museum accession number, 
1912-12-225), dating probably from his work in the National Academy of Design 
just before the outbreak of the Civil War, shows an early struggle with one of 
Homer's major problems, the drawing of the human figure, which occasionally 
bothered him even in the days of his maturity. Sketches made at the outset of his 
career as artist-correspondent for Harper's Weekly, during the Civil War, bear writ- 
ten color notations which illuminate his earlier attempts in oil (1912-12-102, -202). 
These first manifestations of an interest in color are singularly limited, referring 
only to colors, with no regard to their values ; though it should be recognized that 
to a young artist with clear visual memory the word "green" might recall the par- 
ticular hue observed in a clump of trees; and the word "blue" might suffice to 
indicate the unmodified color of a soldier's uniform cap. Before the War had ended, 
however. Homer's interests had widened to include the effect on color of variations 
in light — an interest which culminated so unimpressionistically in such paintings as 
Mooniight — W^ood Island Light,, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Winslow Homer's sketches, however, have many of the superficially charming 
attributes of the French Impressionists' paintings. The romantic attraction of the 
mid-nineteenth century, in so far as it may appear romantic to the present day, is 
just as strongly present in these early jottings of Homer's as it is in a Sisley boating 

^The paintings by Homer in the Museum's collections were included in a list of all the known oils, 
compiled by Theodore Bolton and contained in his article. The Art of Winslow Homer: An Estimate in 
1932, published in The Fine Arts, v. 18, Feb. 1932, p. 23 et seq. An unsigned article on the Museum's draw- 
ings was published in some editions of The Sun, New York, June 12, 1934. 

^For a bibliography of books and magazine articles dealing with Winslow Homer and his work, see The 
Index of Tuentieth Century Artists, v. I, no. 2, Nov. 1933, published by The Research Institute of the 
College Art Association of America: New York; p. 2-7j For reproductions of the paintings by Homer 
mentioned in this article, see List of Reproductions in The Index, p. 7-14. 

53 




FIG. 2. SOLDIER LOADING A RIFLE 

By WiNSLOw Homer 

Given by Charles Savage Homer 



/Ilmcnti^ oi^ 



/QU~-i:i ' 9^ 






party or a Renoir cafe. The gaiety of army life at the outset of the Peninsular Cam- 
paign (1912-12-137), the unruffled good cheer of the "contraband" darky camp 
followers (1912-12-119, -201) and, after the War, the genteel hardihood of the 
sensibly dressed lady who has ridden side-saddle up Mt. Washington (1912-12- 
221), or the meditative group of four who have been miraculously translated from 
an urban sitting-room to a grassy bank by the Sawkill River (1912-12-265) — such 
was the stuff that magazine illustration was based on in the 'sixties and 'seventies, 
as, indeed, much of it is still. But all the while, during the War (fig. 1, fig. 2) and 
afterwards, the pencil was growing more certain of itself, the use of color more 
knowing. To the honest transcription of observed fact is added, in the middle of the 
'seventies, a sudden burst of almost affectionate understanding, which deepens, in 
the figure pieces of later work, into an abstraction of essentially human character- 
istics. Winslow Homer was indeed fortunate to live in a period in which such sub- 
jects were of general interest, and when it was not too late to express them in an 
art form. With the intervening development that marks off his day from the present, 
those simple individualists — whom one might almost call "elementalists" — whose 
qualities he isolated and so directly and sympathetically set down, have lost some- 
thing of their power to inspire the citified beholder. 

This sequence appears in the Museum's sketches, starting with the children drawn 
during the 'seventies: water-colors of boys drifting about Gloucester Harbor in 
dories (1912-12-222, -223, -249) ; drawings of girls in swings in the country, prob- 
ably at Belmont, in Massachusetts (1912-12-60 to -68) ; and older girls, standing 
pensive in knee-high grass, looking dreamily beyond the horizon of their approach- 
ing womanhood (fig. 3). Then comes a large group of drawings, sixty-four in all 
(one of which is illustrated in fig. 4), made in England at Tynemouth, in 1881 and 
1882, followed by preparatory studies for many of Homer's best-known paintings 
of the sea. 

The earliest of these, which Homer has inscribed "First Sketch" (1912-12-34; 
fig. 7 ) , is a study for The Life Line, the painting in the George W. Elkins Collection, 
now in the Pennsylvania Museum of Art in Philadelphia. Drawn between 1882 and 
1884, it differs in an important detail from the final version, in that the face of the 
coast-guardsman has not yet been hidden behind the fluttering shawl of the rescued 
woman. The next sketch, in point of time, is a finished study for the Banks Fisher- 
men; also called The Herring Net, the painting formerly in the collection of Charles 
W. Gould and now in that of Martin A. Ryerson. Our sketch (1916-15-2; fig. 5) 
shows quite clearly Homer's method of work, characteristic throughout the whole 
range of his drawings, in which the high lights are picked out separately. Here the 
effect is accomplished by means of white crayon and Chinese white ; the drawing is 
on grey-green paper. Elsewhere the same result is arrived at by erasing through the 
charcoal or crayon back to the white of the paper or, in the case of water-colors, by 
shamelessly scraping off unwanted pigment. 

Then follows a sketch (1912-12-36; fig. 6) for The Gulf Stream in the Metro- 

55 





'M 



h. 





FIG. 3. TWO YOUNG GIRLS 
By WiNSLOW Homer 
iQ' / pt, »• / be ^ ^ / Given by Charles Savage Homer 



Auf^c^X^l J^.^ 



politan Museum of Art. This should probably be dated about 1886, although the 
painting itself was a long time in the making, not being finished until 1899. Our 
sketch, in water-color, shows only a portion of the derelict boat ; it has intensely dark 
blue brush strokes in the places where sharks are found in the Metropolitan Museum 
picture, and in the water-color studies in the Brooklyn Museum and in a private 
collection. Possibly on the same trip to Cuba and the Bahamas, Homer made a 
small pencil drawing (1912-12-250) , of two negroes in a dory, which he inscribed 
Conch Divers — a strange caption, in view of the large shark shown across the stern 
of the boat, which one would think would preclude diving. The Museum owns a 
photograph of a water-color of the subject, named Shark Fishers ; the present loca- 
tion of the painting cannot be determined. 

There are in the collection two drawings (1912-12-1, -86) of the composition 
used for the painting Searchlight, Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba, in the Metro- 
politan Museum. It has been said^ that Homer made sketches afterwards used for 
this painting when he was in Cuba in 1886, and one of our drawings must date 
from then. The other drawing was probably made in immediate preparation for the 
painting, since it shows on the parapet the bright spot of light, cast by a search- 
light, which is so important an element in the finished work ; although it differs in 
showing no second cannon to the right. 

It is rather surprising, after the rich and fluent water-colors of the middle 'eighties, 
to return to the tinted-drawing style of Homer's earlier work. One cannot see what 
purpose was served, in the study (1912-12-43) for The Signal of Distress, by the 
pallid wash added to a competent piece of drawing; it would seem that the cus- 
tomary charcoal or pencil sketch would have been better suited. Certainly, the eff^ect 
of a smudged study (1912-12-33) of the figure of the seaman of The Lookout- 
All's Well is much closer to that of the painting. 

Homer's frequent trips to the Adirondacks and Canada also have their represen- 
tation in the Museum's drawings. A number of sketches of the Northern woods 
and waters are here; one of which (1912-12-234; fig. 9) shows the remarkable 
power the artist had of making water look wet, even in a simple pencil sketch. 
And trees, of which there are many studies, were always rendered with equal un- 
derstanding; witness the Waverley Oaks (1912-12-87; fig. 8) of the earlier 
'seventies. 

The visitor to the Museum will see for himself, in these sketches, far more of 
Homer's genius than can be conveyed in a brief article. Now, one hundred years 
after Homer's birth, the drawings are being correlated with other groups of his well- 
known work, and their chronology established as exactly as possible.- A list of 
drawings in Cooper Union which were the basis of other known works has been 
compiled, and is here appended. 

^W. H. Downes, The Life and Wortis of W'mslow Homer ; Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 
1911, p. 32. 

-Of the greatest assistance, in this study, has been the almost complete collection of woodcut illustrations 
executed from Homer's drawings, and published in Harper's Weekly and elsewhere, in the Print Room of 
the New York Public Library. The Print Room of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and that museum's 
current exhibition of Homer's illustrations, have also been of help. 

57 




H, ^^^ ^.-^ - FJG. 4. TYNEMOUTH FISHERMEN BEACHING A BOAT / C// <? ~~ / j^ ^iL ( 
/1>U^«C ^^^^ t- _9 -7 D B> WiNSLOW Homer, 1881-1882 / ^ ''^ ^ ' 

"<- r^ ^_D Given by Charles Savage Homer 




/? 



FIG. 



5. STUDY FOR BANKS FISHERMEN. OR THE HERRING NET i^^ 
By WiNSLOw Homer, about 1885 /' 

l_ jf^/f ^ I, "T/- /) Given by Charles W . Gould 



^i<i% 



These drawings were given to the Museum by Mrs. Charles Savage Homer ,and 
the late Mr. Homer, and by the late Charles W. tjould, a member of the former 
Council of the Museum and a Trustee of Cooper Union. It is a source of great 
pride to the Musuem to be able, through their generosity, to participate in the 
observance of Winslow Homer's centennial. 

C. S. H. 

HOMER DRAWINGS IN THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTION WHICH 
ARE STUDIES FOR PAINTINGS OR ILLUSTRATIONS 

1. 1912-12-120. Pencil on paper, with washes of water-color. Figure of a negro 
seated on a barrel ; inscribed DIXIE. One of the vignettes used in the illustration, 
Songs of the War, published in Harper's Weekly, November 23, 1861, p. 744-745. 
Width — 178 mm.; Height — 253 mm. 

2. 1912-12-111. Pencil on paper with washes of water-color. Two soldiers, one 
with right arm in a sling, the other on crutches with right leg amputated above 
knee. Inscribed From Richmond, signed lower 1. corner, W . H. One of the vignettes 
used in the illustration. News from the War, published in Harpe/s Weekly, June 
14th 1862, p. 376-377. W— 125; H — 157. Compare with following. 

3. 1912-12-117. Pencil on paper. Two sketches of bugler on horseback, inscribed. 
Sounding the Charge, and 4th Penn. One sketch used in the illustration, Netvs from 
the War, published in Harper's Weekly, June 14th, 1862, p. 376-377. W— 177; 
H— 253. 

4. 1912-12-122. Pencil on paper, with washes of water-color. Drawing of an army 
encampment, with horses tethered in background. Used in painting, A Rainy Day in 
Camp, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art; also in illustration. Thanksgiving in 
Camp, published in Harper's Weekly, November 29th, 1862 p. 764. W — 764; 
H— 110. _ 

5. 1912-12-202. Pencil on paper, with slight touches of water-color. Drummers 
resting in camp. Used, in reverse direction, in illustration, Thanksgiving Day in the 
Army, After Dinner: The Wish-Bone, published in Harper's Weekly, December 
3rd, 1864, p. 780. W— 248; H— 173. 

6. 1912-12-257. Pencil on paper, with touches of Chinese white. Young man with 
pitchfork. Study, about 1864, for painting. Haymaking. W — 173; H — 106. 

7. 1912-12-263. Pencil on paper. Hillside with two men painting. Used in illus- 
tration. The Artist in the Country, published in Appleton's Journal, June 19th, 1869, 
p. 353. W— 353; H— 147. 

8. 1912-12-127. Pencil on paper. Four saddled horses on rocky terrain. Inscribed 
lower r. corner, Mt. Washington /Homer 1869. Study for painting of same subject, 
1870. One group of horses used also for illustration, Mt. Washington, published in 
Harper's Weekly, July 10th, 1869, p. 441. W— 248; H— 131. Compare with 
following. 

59 




-*•;>' 





^"jsi^^i- 







cq 
ft. 

hj 00 



H 00 II, 



/ 



£5 - 







9. 1912-12-221. Pencil on paper. Woman on horse. Inscribed, lower r. corner, 
Mt. Washij2gton/Aug. 24, 1868. Used in painting and illustration with 1912-12-127. 
W— 243; H— 171. 

10. 1912-12-265. Pencil on paper. Three men and one woman lying on ground be- 
fore a background of trees. Used in illustration, The Fishing Party, published in 
Appleton's Journal, October 2nd, 1869, p. 93. W— 220; H— 153. 

11. 1912-12-258. Pencil on paper, with touches of Chinese white. Field with three 
men, of whom one is swinging a scythe. Used for illustration. Making Hay, pub- 
lished in Harper's Weekly, July 6th, 1872, p. 529. W— 357; H— 142. 

12. 1912-12-82. Black and white crayon on green paper. Line of small boys; study 
for painting. Snap the Whip. On reverse, sketch of young girl in sun-bonnet, car- 
rying a pail. W — 420; H— 235. 

13. 1912-12-49. Pencil on paper. Two Chinamen seated at table, playing a game, 
while a third watches. One of the vignettes used in the illustration. The Chinese in 
New York — Scene in a Baxter Street Club-House,, published in Harper's Weekly, 
March 7th, 1874, p. 212. W— 170; H— 099. Compare with following. 

14. 1912-12-50. Pencil on paper. Chinaman lying on a trestle table, smoking an 
opium pipe. One of the vignettes used in the illustration, The Chinese in New York 
— Scene in a Baxter Street Club-House, published in Harper's Weekly, March 7th, 
1874, p. 212. W — 165 ; H — 120. 

15. 1912-12-34. Charcoal on paper. Coast-guardsman and woman in bos'n's chair. 
Inscribed, lower 1. corner. The Life Line /First Sketch. About 1882-1884; study for 
painting of same name in the George W. Elkins Collection, Pennsylvania Museum 
of Art, Philadelphia. W— 380 ; H— 445. 

16. 1916-15-2. Black and white crayon and Chinese white on grey-green paper. 
Two fishermen in a dory, drawing in a net. About 1885 ; study for painting. Banks 
Fishertnen, or Herring Net, formerly in the collection of Charles W. Gould, now 
in that of Martin A. Ryerson. W — 523 ; H — 422. 

17. 1912-12-250. Pencil on paper. Stern view of dory containing two negroes; 
shark across stern. Inscribed, Conch Divers. Study for water-color. Shark Fishers. 
W— 110; H— 164. 

18. 1912-12-36. Water-color on paper. Drifting derelict. Probably about 1886; 
detail study for painting. The Gulf Stream, in the Metropolitan Museum. W — 256; 
H— 368. 

19. 1912-12-1. Pencil and white crayon on grey paper. Ramparts of Morro Castle. 
Probably about 1898; study for painting. Searchlight, Harbor Entrance, Santiago de 
Cuba, in the Metropolitan Museum. W — 473 ; H — 279. Compare with following. 

20. 1912-12-86. Pencil on paper. Ramparts of Morro Castle. Probably 1886; sketch 
used for painting. Searchlight, Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba. W — 200; 
H— 124. 

21. 1912-12-43. Pencil on paper, with washes of water-color. Sailor preparing a 

61 





-y-0^-; 



■/' 




/^ t^ -tZ-^n FIG. 8. WAVERLEY OAKS /^ C fM ?- kI "Tr ^ ^ 

^ ' BjyWiNSLOW Homer, about 1875 '*^^\'<-'^) V fe_ t^tJ*-' 



Given by Charles Savage Homer 




FIG. 9. CANOES ON A LAKE IN THE ADIRONDACKS 
ir ^ ^ Bv WiNSLOw Homer, 1897 A ^ /> / ^ ^i _^.- i{ fi 

i^(;i -/^^ ^J ^ Chen by Charles Sava.e Homer /< ^ ^^O KTI^ x/ ' -J^ 



life boat for launching. About 1890; study for painting, The Signal of Distress, in 
the collection of Ralph Cudney. W — 295 ; H — 353. 

22. 1912-12-246. Charcoal on paper. Man on deck of ship, with bell before him. 
Dated, Fehruary 3th, 1895 ; probably an early sketch for The Lookout — All's Well, 
in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, representing a composition afterwards dis- 
carded. W — 225; H — 140. Compare with following. 

23. 1913-12-247. Charcoal on paper. Man on deck of ship, striking a bell. 1895; 
probably an early sketch for The Lookout — All's Well, representing a composition 
afterwards discarded. Similar to 1912-12-246. W — 257; H — 207. Compare with 
preceding and following. 

24. 1912-12-32. Crayon on cardboard, with heightening and correction in Chinese 
white. Sailor in sou'wester at top of a companionway, with right arm upraised and 
mouth opened in a shout; sailing vessel in distance. Inscribed on reverse: Taking a 
bath/tvill open up as soon /as possible /U H /Sunday. Probably 1895-1896; an early 
sketch for The Lookout — All's Well. W — 351; H — 316. Compare with preceding 
and following. 

25. 1912-12-33. Charcoal on paper. Two sketches of sailor in sou'wester: a/ nearly 
full length figure, lacking feet, of sailor with left arm upraised ; b/ head and shoul- 
ders, with right arm upraised, behind figure a rectangle enclosing view of shore-line 
with breakers (possibly a view from Homer's studio at Prout's Neck). 1895-1896; 
studies for The Lookout — All's Well. W — 262 ; H — 348. Compare with preceding. 

26. 1912-12-211. Pencil on paper. Life-boat on carriage, being drawn and pushed 
by coast-guardsmen. Study for The Wreck, 1896. W — 144; H — 174. Compare with 
following. 

27. 1912-12-252. Pencil on cardboard. Dunes near the ocean; in background, sail- 
ing vessel flying inverted flag of United States; in foreground, MS. notations: Many 
experiments; that this was so; as I remember it; Oct. 17, '97 ; before scraping. 
Possibly a memory sketch of the wreck at Atlantic City, New Jersey, on which Homer 
based his painting, The Wreck, bought in 1896 by the Carnegie Institute in Pitts- 
burgh. Drawn on the back of a guest card of the Pittsburgh Club, made out to 
Winslow Homer, dated October 12, 1897. W — 126; H — 089. 

28. 1912-12-196. Pencil on paper. Cape Trinity, Saguenay River. About 1904; 
squared for copying. Study for painting of same name, at present in the stock of a 
New York dealer. W — 124; H — 183. 



63 




GUARD FOR A TACHl, OR LONG SWORD, J _ /; ^ 

formerly carried by a servant. Z' v^ l*j (!i ^ ~\ '^, fi. \ 

Edge of blade down. 

Ashikaga period (1338-1573). 

No inscription. 

design: Ochi tsubaki (fallen camellia). 

"A camellia flower has dropped dnivn 

And spilt the rain of yesterday." — buson. 



THE GEORGE CAMERON STONE BEQUEST 

The Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration has recently been enriched 
by the bequest of the late George Cameron Stone of his collection of Japanese sword 
guards and sword furniture. This collection is outstanding in its extent and in the 
intrinsic value of its units. 

Mr. Stone, a noted engineer and metallurgist, evidenced in collecting Oriental 
arms and armor all the engineer's passion for order, perfection and thoroughness, 
and the metallurgist's knowledge of metals and alloys. He had imagination, subtle 
appreciation and perseverance, and devoted the same scholarly discrimination in 
assembling his treasures that he applied to his literary work. 

He was the author of the monumental Glossary of the Construction, Decoration 
and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times and was, in 1935, 
the recipient of the James Douglas Gold Medal from the American Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers. 

For many years Mr. Stone was a neighbor and a staunch supporter of the Museum 
and its policies. Both by example and precept he encouraged the study of design, 
and his last generous act, the donation of this collection and books on Japanese art, 
will further enable the Museum to increase its usefulness and influence. 

The twelve hundred pieces acquired under the bequest may be said to cover a 
period of five hundred years and include, among other rarities, many examples of 
the work of the great Got5 family which for sixteen generations carried on the 
splendid traditions of design and craftsmanship that have made Japanese sword 
mounts a source of inspiration and delight to students, amateurs, professional 
designers, and connoisseurs. 

The collection has been made available for immediate study, and will continue 
on exhibition during the cataloguing, a task of some significance, which is to be 
conducted by Robert Hamilton Rucker, a distinguished authority in this field of 
Japanese art. Mr. Rucker was an intimate friend of Mr. Stone and through their 
long association gained a comprehensive knowledge of the collection. Mr. Rucker 
will advise as to the arrangement of the exhibits and the organization of research 
made necessary by this acquisition. 

Mary S. M. Gibson 

65 




/lCiv/\fi NTe 



GUARD FOR A KATANA. OR SHORT SWORD, 
^ formerly worn in the belt. / _^ 

*^ "i" Edge of blade up. 

Tokugawa (1603-1868) — Meiji (I868-I911) periods. 

Inscription: Natsuo. 

(Kano Natsuo (1828-1898) ; last of the 

artists of classical sword-fittings. 
design: Mizu ni ko'i (water and carp). 

''The carp having leapt up, 

The duckweed blossoms have gone." — tsune-jo. 



n 



Bb- 4 



WORKS OF ART GIVEN TO THE MUSEUM 

January 1st -December 31st, 1935 



ARCHITECTURE 

Fragment of painted wall decoration, from 
the Chateau of Versailles; France, seven- 
teenth century. 

Fragment of plaster modillion, from the 
Grand Trianon at Versailles; France, seven- 
teenth century. - 
Given by the French Government, through 
Welles Bostvorth and the French Institute in 
the United States. 
CERAMICS 

Eleven tiles ; Spain, fifteenth, sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. 
Given by A. Algara R. de Terreros. 

Five fragments of glazed pottery with blue 

decoration, from the Trianon de Porce- 

laine at Versailles ; France, seventeenth 

century. 

Given by the French Government, through 

Welles Bosivorth and the French Institute in 

the United States. 

Fragment of tile; The Netherlands, about 
1700. Four tiles; United States, about 1930. 
Given by Mrs. Alicia Hogan. 

Four bisque figurines ; Germany and 
France, late eighteenth century. 
Bequest of Mrs. Henry E. Hoivland. 

Porcelain cache-pot ; France, eighteenth cen- 
tury. 
Given by Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Sixteen tiles ; Spain, nineteeth century. 
Purchased, Mary Hearn Greims Fund. 

Tile made by Sadler and Green; Liverpool, 
England, about 1760. 
Purchased, Peter Cooper Hewitt Estate Fund. 
COSTUMES AND 
COSTUME ACCESSORIES 

Five men's coats ; two men's waistcoats : 
United States, second half of nineteenth 
century. 
Given by Erskine Hewitt. 

Eleven fans; France, England and China, 
first half of nineteenth century. 
Given by Mrs. George B. McClellan. 

Fifty-two porcelain buttons ; England, 
about 1870. 
Given by Miss Serbella Moores. 
DRAWINGS 

Nine drawings, by Robert Barrett Brown- 
ing, Edward Francis Burney, Elliott Dain- 
gerfield, Jacob de Heusch, Edward Wind- 
sor Kemble, John Williams Wright, Jean- 
Baptiste Van Loo and others. 
Given by Spencer Bickerton. 

Thirty reproductions of drawings submitted 



in the General Electric Home Electric Com- 
petition, 1935. 

Given by the General Electric Company. 

One hundred sixty-five designs for linen 
cut-work, copied from designs in various 
museums by Margaret Taylor Johnstone; 
early twentieth century. 

Given by Miss Agnes Franklin Keyes. 

ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 

Four reproductions, by the Calcographie 
du Louvre, of seventeenth century archi- 
tectural decoration in the Chateau of Ver- 
sailles and the Palazzo Sechetti in Rome. 
Thirty-seven engravings and mezzotints of 
drawings by Annibale Carracci, Jean-Bap- 
tiste Huet, Jean-Frangois Boucher and 
others. 

Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss. 

Forty-six India paper proofs of engravings 
by the American Bank Note Company and 
others; United States, about I860. 

Given by Miss Serbella Moores. 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

Figure of an angel, from a creche group ; 
Germany, nineteenth century. 

Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss. 

GOLD AND SILVERSMITHS' WORK 
Small silver filigree crown; Germany, nine- 
teenth century. 

Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss. 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

Thirty-six playing cards, bearing characters 
and scenes from Dickens's novels; United 
States, about 1855. 

Given by Miss Jean MacKinnon Holt 

LACE 

Flounce, Point de France ; border. Point de 
France; beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. 

Given by Miss Edith Wettnore. 

LEATHERWORK 

Four wajang figures ; Java, nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. 

Given by Mrs. Henry J. Post. 

METALWORK 

Four fragments of wrought-iron acanthus 
decoration, from a balcony of the Chateau 
at Versailles ; and fragment from a balcony 
of the Grand Trianon; France, probably 
eighteenth century. 

Given by the French Government, through 

Welles Bosivorth and the French Institute in 

the United States. 

MODELS 

Model of a library, designed and executed 



67 



by McMillen, Inc., with painting by Van 

Day Truex; United States, 1932. 
Given by McMillen, Inc. 
NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY 

Tray cover; Normandy, France, nineteenth 

century. 
Given by Mrs. Edward C. Post. 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

Signed photograph of self-portrait of Rai- 

mundo de Madrazo. 
Given by Mrs. Edward C. Post. 
TEXTILES 

Fragment of printed cotton, commemorating 

flight of Charles A. Lindbergh; United 

States, 1928. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss. 

Thirteen pieces of printed cotton designed 

by William Morris, printed from original 

blocks by Morris and Company; England, 

contemporary. 
Given by Cowtan and Tout, Inc. 

Five pieces of printed cotton; France. 

1770-1825. 
Purchased, The Misses Heivitt Fund.. 

Two repeats of printed cotton designed by 



William Morris: The Strawberry Thief; 

England, late nineteenth century. 
Given by Mrs. E. P. Morgan. 

Fragment of printed cotton, with maker's 

name printed on selvage; Italy, 1825-1850. 
Given by Mrs. Harford W. Hare Powel, Jr. 

Fragment of printed cotton ; England, about 

1870. 
Given by Miss Elizabeth H. Schoonover. 

Two pieces of silk printed after designs 

by Tony Sarg; United States, 1935. 
Given by Mrs. Hooper Wakefield. 
WALL-PAPER 

Roll of paper printed with a design in the 

style of Pillement; England, about li835. 
Given by Mrs. Luke Vincent Locktvood. 

Eighteen pieces of wall-paper designed by 

William Morris ; printed from original 

blocks by Morris and Company; England, 

contemporary. 
Given by Cowtan and Tout, Inc. 
W^OODWORK 

Bed composed of oak linen-fold panelling; 

Northern France, about 1450. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss. 



68 



DONORS TO THE LIBRARY 

January 1st -December 31st, 1935 



American Art Association Anderson Galleries 
American Association of Museums 
American Institute of Persian Art and 

Archaeology 
Frank Bender 
Miss Ruth Benedict 
Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Archibald Manning Brown 
Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 

Albright Art Gallery 
Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 
The Committee of the Burlington 

Fine Arts Club 
Cooper Union Day Art School 
Cooper Union Library 
A. Algara R. de Terreros 
Eugene E. Dressner 
Elisha Dyer 
Miss Ida Fangel 
Ernst Fischer 
Albert Eugene Gallatin 
General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen 
Philip L. Goodwin 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Calvin S. Hathaway 
J. Woodward Haven 
William Helburn, Inc. 



Erskine Hewitt 

Holabird and Root 

Miss Jean MacKinnon Holt 

James B. Howlett 

Mme. Charles Huard 

Mrs. Ridgely Hunt 

Louisiana State Museum 

Mrs. George B. McClellan 

Miss Isabel W. McNeely 

Mary Stuart Book Fund 

Miss Mabel C. Mead 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Miss Serbella Moores 

Miss Frances Morris 

Gustaf L. Munthe 

Museum of the City of New York 

Elbert Newton 

Roger Hale Newton 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Miss Harriet Rogers 

Mrs. Angiolina Scheuermann 

Charles Messer Stow 

Miss Vivi Sylwan 

Miss Edith Wetmore 

Mr. and Mrs. Morrison Van R. Weyant 

Whitney Museum of American Art 

Mrs. Elinor Young 



69 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

Organized March, 1934 

Members from whom susbscriptions and contributions have been received 

March, 1934- December 31st, 1935 



Miss Harriet Abbe 

Miss Ainey Aldrich 

Chester Aldrich 

Mrs. Winthrop Ames 

Anonymous (2) 

Mrs. Henry Clinton Bachus 

Mrs. Francis McN. Bacon 

Mrs. Robert Bacon 

Bailer Brothers 

Miss Isabel Ballantine 

Mrs. Donn Barber 

Isabella Barclay, Inc. 

Mrs. Alfred H. Barr, Jr. 

Miss Augusta Bartholomew 

Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 

Mrs. Lewis S. Bigelow 

Mrs. Linzee Blagden 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Adolphe Borie* 

Mrs. Adolphe Borie 

Mrs. C. B. Borland 

Mrs. J. Nelson Borland 

Mrs. William H. Bristow 

Mrs. Archibald Manning Brown 

Miss Martha A. Burke 

Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler 

Francis Henry Balfour Byrne 

Miss Agnes Miles Carpenter 

Mrs. Albert Hayden Chatfield 

Miss Emily Chauncey 

Stephen C. Clark 

Henry Clifford 

De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Miss Florence Cole 

Miss Izabel Coles 

Mrs. Charles W. Cooper 

Miss Fanny M. Cottenet 

Miss Rachel Crothers 

Mrs. Ira Davenport 

Mrs. Carl A. deGersdorff 

Mrs. William A. Delano 

Mrs. H. Casimir de Rh.jm 

Baron Voruz de Vaux 

J. Coleman Drayton* 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Gano Dunn 

Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 

Henry F. du Pont 

Henry Dwight 

Elisha Dyer 

H. A. Elsberg 

L. J. Farey 

Mrs. E. S. Fechimer 

Mrs. Mansfield Ferry 

Mrs. Harrv Harkness Flagler 

Robert T. Francis 

Childs Frick 

Mrs. Childs Frick 

Miss Louisa Frith 

Miss Mary Gibson 

William E. Glyn 

Philip L. Goodwin 

Roger Granger 

Mrs. William Greenough 

Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 

Mrs. Morgan Hamilton 



Mrs. Edward S. Harkness 

G. L. Harney 

Mrs. J. Amory Haskell 

Mrs. J. Woodward Haven* 

William W. Heer 

Miss Annie M. Hegeman 

Morris Helburn 

George S. Hellman 

Mrs. E. C. Henderson 

Barklie Henry 

Mrs. Barklie Henry 

Mrs. Bayard Henry 

Miss Mary G. Henry 

Erskine Hewitt 

Philip Hofer 

Mrs. Philip Hofer 

Mrs. Alicia Hogan 

Miss Euphemia Holden 

Mrs. Beekman Hoppin 

Mrs. James F. Horan 

Mrs. Thomas H. Howard 

Charles Ikle 

Miss Louise M. Iselin 

Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Miss Anna A. Jackson 

Mrs. Walter B. James 

Mrs. Cadwalader Jones* 

Mrs. Otto H. Kahn 

Mrs. Mortimer H. Kassell 

Fiske Kimball 

Frederic R. King 

Mrs. Warren Kinney 

Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel 

Mrs. Adolf Ladenburg 

V. Lagano 

O. F. Langmann 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

William C. Lawson 

Thomas D. Leonard 

Mrs. Thomas D. Leonard 

Miss Florence N. Levy 

Mrs. Frederic W. Lincoln 

Mrs. James W. Markoe 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Mrs. Mildred H. Martin 

Mayorkas Brothers 

Mrs. George B. McClellan 

Mrs. Stafford McLean 

Miss Elinor Merrell 

Edward A. Miller 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Jacques A. Mitchell 

Mrs. William H. Moore 

Mrs. Charles Moran 

Victor Morawetz 

loseph Moreng 

Miss Anne Morgan 

Mrs. Edith P. Morgan 

Mrs. Robert Webb Morgan 

Miss Frances Morris 

Mrs. Edward A. Morrison 

Mrs. Harry Turner Newcomb 

Harry Shaw Newman 

Stephen L. Newman 

Mrs. Roger Hale Newton 



Mrs. George Nichols 

Mrs. Charles D. Norton 

Ex Norton 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

William M. Odom 

Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim 

Mrs. William Church Osborne 

Diodata D. O'Toole 

Miss Mary Parsons 

M. A. Partens 

Mrs. Francis K. Pendleton 

Miss Meta A. Peper 

Michael I. Pupin* 

Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 

Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Mrs. Johnston L. Redmond 

Mrs. John Wallace Riddle 

Mrs. Edward Robinson 

Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

Mrs. Elihu Root, Jr. 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell, Jr. 

Miss Marie Russell 

Charles E. Sampson 

Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee 

Mrs. W. H. Sawyer 

Mrs. Schuyler Schieffelin 

Mrs. William Jay Schieffelin, Jr. 

Hardinge SchoUe 

Miss Louise B. Scott 

Arnold Seligmann, Rey and 

Company 
lacques Seligmann and Company 
Mrs. H. W. Sibley 
Mrs. Benson B. Sloan 
Mrs. Samuel Sloan 
Mrs. James Russell Soley 
Dr. Otto Steinbrocker 
Mrs. M. M. Sternberger 
George Cameron Stone* 
Calvin Tompkins, Jr. 
Ruth Robinson Treganza 
Mrs. John B. Trevor 
Miss Helen L. Tucker 
Paul Tuckerman 
Walter M. Walters 
Mrs. George H. Warren, Jr. 
Frederic Delano Weekes 
Dr. Davenport West 
B. Westerman and Company 
Miss Edith Wetmore 
Miss Maude A. K. Wetmore 
E. Weyhe 

Mrs. Stanford White 
Dr. and Mrs. George Shattuck 

Whiteside 
Miss Gertrude Whiting 
Mrs. Payne Whitney 
Mrs. Charles P. Williams 
Mrs. Harrison Williams 
Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding, Jr. 
Mrs. Orme Wilson 
Miss Mary Wilson 
Mrs. Francis de R. Wissman 
Mrs. A. Murray Young 

* Deceased 



70 



IfT 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 3 APRIL • 1937 



I897-I937 



COOPER UNION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE AND ART 

Trustees . 

Gang Dunn, President 
J. P. Morgan Walter S. Gifford 

Elihu Root, Jr. Barklie Henry 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

Directors 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare, Chairman 

Miss Edith Wetmore, Secretary 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Miss Marian Hague 

Staff 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 
Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 



Copyright, igjj, by Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 
New York, N. Y., April 19, 1937 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO . 3 APRIL • 1937 

THE completion of four decades in the Museum's life appeals to its Directors 
as a source of pride and an occasion for both reminiscence and prophecy. 
The inspiration of the Founders, and their remarkable success, have been 
constantly before the eyes of their successors. Yet in the present instance the 
retelling of the earlier chapters of the Museum's story seems superfluous, even 
in the face of an anniversary celebration; Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt's 
account, composed eighteen years ago, is a first-hand history which needs no 
amplification and cannot be improved upon. The later career of the Museum, 
however, has never been recorded as a whole, and this record is now presented. 

At this time, also, the Directors are gratified to put forward the contribu- 
tions of two writers whose words, given in the pages following, bring such full 
testimony to the worth of the Founders' ideals and to the Museum's ideas for 
the twofold education of the designer: education in the essence of design 
and in the elements of advancing technical practices. To these two most 
recent contributors, and to all those whose generosity to the Museum since its 
inception is here recorded, are due the fullest thanks. 

Finally, the devoted service and generosity of three Directors — Mrs. J. 
Woodward Haven and Mrs. Lucy Work Hewitt, who died in 1934, and Mrs. 
George B. McClellan, who resigned in 1932, are gratefully acknowledged. 



75 




COOPER UNION: THE FOUNDATION BUILDING, SEVENTH STREET FRONT 

Monument to Peter Cooper, by Augustus St. Gaudens (Class of 1863) 
and McKim, Mead and White 



"In order most effectually to aid and encourage the efforts of youth to 
obtain useful knowledge, I have provided the main floor of the large hall on 
the third story for a reading-room, literary exchange and scientific collections — 
the walls around that floor to be arranged for the reception of books, maps, 
paintings and other objects of interest. And when a sufficient collection of the 
works of art, science and nature can be obtained, I propose that glass cases 
shall be arranged around the walls of the gallery of the said room, forming 
alcoves around the entire floor for the preservation of the same. In the window 
spaces I propose to arrange such cosmoramic and other views as will exhibit in 
the clearest and most forcible light the true philosophy of life." 

Letter of Peter Cooper, accompanying the Deed of Trust 



"The assembling of the necessary objects for this Museum was delayed, as 
the funds were insufficient, and all the pecuniary resources he had were soon 
swallowed up by the crying demands for scientific and artistic education, so 
the reservation even of a small space for the Museum became impossible of 
attainment. Necessarily the project was laid aside, but never definitely 
abandoned . . . 

"Quite ignorant of the immensity of the task they so calmly undertook, 
the girls, whose pigtails by that time were coiled around their heads, asked 
for room in which to install a Museum for the Arts of Decoration similar to the 
one in Paris, for the use of the Cooper Union Art Classes in connection with the 
courses of instruction. The Trustees, recalling the fact that Peter Cooper had 
designed one floor in his original plan for a Museum, assented. Delightfully, 
if pathetically innocent and supremely hopeful, it seemed so easy of accom- 
plishment, when willingness, the power of work and of spending their own 
pocket money, appeared to be all that was required . . ." 

Eleanor G. Hewitt, The Making of a Modern Museum; 1919 



". . . in this exhibition we desire to familiarize our visitors with his [Winslow 
Homer's] drawings as well. Since the Cooper Union Museum possesses the 
finest collection of his work in this medium we naturally turn to you for 
assistance." 

The Director of a Mid-Western museum; April 22, 1936 

". . . Knowing that the proper exhibition of Byzantine art in the United 
States cannot take place without including some of your incomparable textiles, 
I am taking the very great liberty of asking you to let us have the following 
items from your collections ..." 

The Director of a New England museum; December 8, 1936 

77 




SARAH AMELIA COOPER HEWITT 



<2oVili7(-^^"f ^:iO - (3 



1(^3?-^^ '3^ ( 



THE HEWITT LADIES 

Somewhere in the writings of John Ruskin there is a beautiful passage 
relating to the destiny of the ideal woman. It is not, he says, to find roses in 
her path but to leave them there behind her. I think of this passage when I 
think of Eleanor and Sarah Hewitt and of all that they did in the Museum for 
the Arts of Decoration. They labored mightily in its behalf, smoothing a 
pathway for innumerable American artists and artisans. Miss Eleanor Hewitt 
told the story in 1919, when she wrote The Making of a Modern Museum for 
the Wednesday Afternoon Club, and from this one can catch glimpses of the 
activity which she and her sister dedicated to their beloved project. But both 
these wonderful ladies were too modest ever to reveal the full extent of their 
devotion, the endless watchfulness, the illimitable generosity, the hard work, 
and, perhaps above all, the high artistic standards by which they were governed. 

It is upon the fruitfulness of their work that I would lay stress. At the 
very beginning, in the nineties, the Hewitt ladies seized upon a crucial truth, 
that the artistic integrity of a people does not thrive upon pictures and sculp- 
tures alone. They were hospitable to the pictorial idea. One of the most 
fascinating things I know in the Museum is the group of drawings by Winslow 
Homer. But they realized the importance of the background, the investiture of 
a room, the character of furniture and textiles, of all those categories which 
are assembled under the one category of "the decorative arts," and they drove 
steadily, with ever increasing success, at the rehabilitation of those arts. 
Partly their sense of what was needed in this direction was developed through 
what they saw going on about them. Partly it was instinctive. One of the 
most significant sayings in The Making of a Modern Museum is the following: 
"Love of beautiful and exquisite workmanship was an inheritance from two 
practical and artistic grandfathers who were master workmen and master 
mechanics and craftsmen." A passion for the crafts was in their blood. The 
Museum, as they envisaged it, was nothing if not a practical aid to the de- 
signer of usable things. Hence the rich accumulation in it of "the best that 
has been thought and said in the world" in terms of ornament, of decoration, of 
beautified utility, set forth in objects so multifarious that I do not pretend to 
enumerate even a fraction of them. The Hewitt ladies, in short, were great 
conservers of tradition and for that alone, I think, we remain heavily in their 
debt. 

Nothing is more foolish, as I have been repeating, in season and out of 
season, for many years, than to think of tradition as an academic formula. It is 
simply the tribute which the genuine artist pays to the wisdom of the finer 
spirits in the art of all ages, a striving toward perfection that filters down from 
generation to generation. It germinates creative ideas. Also it subtly inculcates 
a feeling for restraint and measure. It discloses ideals of sound proportion. It 
stabilizes judgment and purifies taste. It is of these things that the collections 

79 




ISi^ 




\ 



ELEANOR GARNIER HEWITT 



^3S^ 6^7- 1^1 




AMY HEWITT GREEN 



at the Museum speak, and, through them, the spirit of the Hewitt ladies, 
constructively helpful. What they built up has been reacting beneficently 
upon the individual designer and upon the general drift of American taste. 
And their noble work lives after them, to clarify many an artistic problem and 
to ease the course of countless workers. The inherited "love of beautiful and 
exquisite workmanship" which animated them, they bequeathed, with hearts 
full of good will, to those coming after them. On this fortieth anniversary of 
the public opening of the Museum there must be, necessarily, official notice 
taken of the event. It is accompanied, amongst thousands, by an emotion 
more intimate, by one of affectionate gratitude. 

Royal Cortissoz 




SARAH COOPER HEWITT 



81 



THE MUSEUM SINCE 1919 

Most of those who know the Museum know also the history of its earlier 
years, told so fully and with such charm by Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt in 
1919. Miss Hewitt then recounted the beginnings of the Museum and de- 
scribed the means by which so many of its most prized possessions were ac- 
quired: the remarkably fine and extensive collections of engravings and 
etchings given by George Campbell Cooper, Samuel P. Avery and George A. 
Hearn; the late J. Pierpont Morgan's gift of the Vives, the Miguel y Badia and 
the Stanislas Baron collections, famous in Europe for years, comprising one 
thousand textiles; the Piancastelli and Decloux collections of nearly five 
thousand drawings, for the purchase of which funds were subscribed; and 
other large groups of objects which have made the Museum pre-eminent in 
certain fields. It is not the present intention to recast in another version her 
history of the earlier years. Of the eighteen years that have since elapsed, 
however, there are episodes that should be recorded, now that the fourth 
decade is complete. Various branches of the collections have been rounded 
out, new classes of objects have been added, and new kinds of service under- 
taken which previously had been desired but deferred. 

Our most enjoyable duty is the expression of appreciation of the gifts 
which have been made to the Museum during these years. To those constant 
friends who from time to time remember the Museum, to those who have 
given of their time and thought to provide for some particular need, and to 
those who have given for the first time, grateful acknowledgments must be 
recorded. 

The limits of space forbid a detailed listing of objects received since 1919, 
but there are certain of the larger collections that may be mentioned. It was in 
1920 that the first of the more spectacular additions was made. In that year 
the Council for the Museum was able to acquire the one remaining part of the 
collection of Leon Decloux. M. Decloux, a French architect of immense 
erudition and a lifelong frequenter of the Paris auction rooms, had assembled 
in addition to the original drawings, the woodwork and the gilt-bronze objects 
acquired for the Museum between 1908 and 1911, a library of bound volumes 
and engraved plates covering French architecture and ornament of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. Upon his death in 1919 this portion of his 
library became available, and was promptly purchased by the Council. It 
brought to Cooper Square a body of original material that was at the time 
unique in the United States, and remains to this day unsurpassed: Le Notre, 
Blondel, Mansart, Oppenort and Cuvillies are among the architects whose 
designs are represented, and Toro, Delafosse, Lalonde, Ranson and Pillement 
among the ornemanistes. In the same year the gift by Mrs. John Innes Kane 
from the estate of her sister, Mrs. Samuel W. Bridgham, of American furniture 
and furnishings from the Schermerhorn family, bestowed upon the Museum 

83 




/fuM 



EAST IRAN WEAVE, FROM A CHURCH IN ARAGON 

Figured silk and linen twill; eighth to eleventh century 

From the Miguel y Badia Collection 

Given by J. Pierpont Morgan, ic)02 

The Museum's collection of textiles ranges in date from 1500 B.C. to 1937 



some of its most admired masterpieces of New York workmanship of the early- 
nineteenth century. 

The next large influx of material occurred in 1924, and again it sprang 
from the generosity of the Council, reinforced by the devotion of the Misses 
Hewitt. Foreign purchases that year strengthened the collection of original 
drawings and added a well-balanced assortment of the odd and unusual objects 
for which the Museum is so well known. 

In November, 1924, the Museum suffered a severe shock when Miss 
Eleanor Hewitt suddenly died. The verses written by one who had known 
her, which are inscribed now above the entrance to the Museum, are the best 
expression of the loss: 

To tell the noble thoughts, the lovely ways, 

The good deeds of this lady, dead too soon, 

Were but to praise what is beyond all praise, 

And break the quiet of that afternoon 

When she, who never rested, lies at rest. 

Her works and not our words shall praise her best. 

The Chairman of the Council for the Museum appointed a Special Joint 
Committee from the Council and the Women's Advisory Council to gather 
a Memorial Fund which should be used to provide additional space for the 
needs of the Museum. In this they met with such generous response that 
the Council was able to present to the Trustees of Cooper Union, for the 
Institute's endowment fund, more than three times the cost of the construc- 
tion. Into this fine new gallery, and the space that it had liberated, was 
promptly put the Bequest of Mrs. John Innes Kane, received in 1926. The 
bequest included English furniture, Chinese porcelains, lacquer and ivories, 
Renaissance tapestries and stained glass, and other classes of objects in which 
the collections had been weak. 

The following year, 1927, marked another break with the past, with the 
disbanding of the Council. In this same year the collection of wall-paper was 
augmented by several hundred documents, largely French, which Miss Sarah 
Cooper Hewitt presented, together with embroideries, painted silks and the 
larger part of the Museum's Collection of Spanish and Dutch tiles, described 
in the preceding issue of the Chronicle. 

When the newly-acquired wall-papers and painted silks had been mounted 
and framed, they were used as the basis for an exhibition of wall coverings 
that was held in 1930. The display attracted general attention and played its 
part in the revived interest in wall decoration that has of late been so noticeable. 

The death of Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt in October, 1930, removed from 
the Museum the last of its Founders, and presented a great responsibility to 
the succeeding Directors. The Trustees of Cooper Union, in 1931, invited Miss 
Susan Dwight Bliss, Mrs. Montgomery Hare, Mrs. J. Woodward Haven, and 
Mrs. Lucy Work Hewitt, friends of Miss Hewitt and her associates in the 

85 



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work of Cooper Union, to form a Board of Directors, later in the year adding 
to the Board Mrs. George B. McClellan and Miss Edith Wetmore. Handi- 
capped by shortage of funds and too small a staff, the Directors have made 
splendid progress in absorbing the further enrichment of the Museum's collec- 
tions brought by bequest of Miss Hewitt: the textile collection of Mrs. Abram 
S. Hewitt, the jewellery, miniatures, books and other objects which the 
bequest contained. To shelve the books, Erskine Hewitt generously gave the 
room in which they had originally been kept during Miss Hewitt's lifetime, and 
this Memorial Library was dedicated in 1932. In addition to the Hewitt 
books, the Decloux library is appropriately kept here apart from works of 
general reference, and here also are found some of the more remarkable vol- 
umes in the field of the decorative arts received in 1933 in the Bequest of 
Robert Winthrop Chanler. 

The final large collection of the list is the Bequest of George Cameron 
Stone, of Japanese sword fittings, mentioned in last year's Chronicle. The 
cataloguing of these objects is continuing, with the invaluable supervision of 
Robert Hamilton Rucker and two associates whose volunteer service is most 
gratefully acknowledged. 

With all the additions that have been made to the Museum's collections, its 
customary service to classes from schools of New York and elsewhere has 
continued, and architects, artists, decorators, writers, manufacturers and de- 
signers have constantly availed themselves of the Museum, encouraged by the 
quality of its material and its availability for research, and its unusually 
generous allowance of working hours. The usefulness of the collections, more- 
over, has been extended to students elsewhere through loans made to other 
institutions; during the past two years twenty-two museums and libraries have 
borrowed material for special display. Three of these loans have been of the 
work of Winslow Homer, one of the many Americans represented in the collec- 
tion, along with William Merritt Chase, Frederick Edwin Church, Kenyon 
Cox, Thomas Moran, F. Hopkinson Smith, Thomas Sully and others. 

There have been, as well, temporary displays in Cooper Union Museum of 
special classes of objects — the exhibition of wall coverings mentioned above, 
and the five exhibitions described in previous issues of the Chronicle. During 
the present season another exhibition, of toys, games, books and other material 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, generously lent by Mr. and Mrs. 
De Witt Clinton Cohen, has been as successful as any of the preceding displays 
in attracting interest and acquainting people with the Museum and its re- 
sources. The publishing of the Chronicle, inaugurated two years ago, represents 
a further advance in opening the Museum's collections to a wider circle. While 
the magazine still appears but once a year, it has already presented a variety of 
hitherto unpublished material, and will continue to do so. 

As the second chapter of the Museum's story is brought down to the 
present, it may be well to give some indication of the things that remain to be 

87 




/lutA^^ATt- L^ 



PAINTED SILK 

China, late eighteenth century 



accomplished during the next decade. The vertical and horizontal filing units, 
illustrated on page 100, are but one visible evidence of our hope for the 
Museum. Details of installation and arrangement must be perfected, and the 
catalogue must be advanced to the point at which all the varied resources of 
the Museum will be interrelated and available to the casual consultant. The 
classes of objects for which the Museum is particularly noted, the textiles and 
the drawings, should receive the attention of trained scholars and be made 
available in published catalogues. And the gaps that still exist in the collec- 
tions should be filled with objects of the first quality. 

In these ways can be realized to the full the flexibility of a relatively small 
organism, and through an intimate relationship between visitor and collections 
achieve an immediacy and an efficiency impossible in a large metropolitan 
museum. Such a program, in view of the supply of funds necessary for its 
attainment, may seem overambitious, but we know the need that exists, and 
we are confident that we can follow with success the example set for us by the 
Founders of the Museum. 

Mary S. M. Gibson 



89 



THE EDUCATIONAL FUNCTION OF A MUSEUM 
OF DECORATIVE ARTS 

Every commemoration of an anniversary looks forward and backward; to 
the past and the future. Associations from the past with the celebration of the 
Fortieth Anniversary of the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 
are extraordinarily varied and rich. They are personal. Peter Cooper was a 
great citizen of the City of New York. His personality and activities gave new 
significance to a form of citizenship that is a precious memory and an enduring 
inspiration. The artistic interest, taste and generosity of many members of 
the Hewitt family are built into the Museum. Their travels and contacts in 
Europe are represented in the Museum by unique collections of decorative 
casts of the great masters of French ornament; by exhibits of textiles and 
ceramics; by the Badia Collection from Spain; the unique collection of French 
architectural drawings; the Piancastelli of Italian sketches, and so on. There 
are also the memories that spring from the great contributions the Museum 
and the Schools of Cooper Union have made to the development of the 
industrial arts not only in New York City but throughout the country. At a 
time when the traditions of colonial craftsmen were disappearing and when 
money had accumulated in this country more rapidly than knowledge and 
taste, the Museum and Schools were a centre which served the art of the 
country by serving industry. The City of New York owes more to the Museum 
than most of its residents are aware. 

An anniversary like the present is also an occasion for examining the 
present in the light of the future. One of the most striking features of recent 
American culture has been the rapid growth of museums in all lines, artistic, 
commercial and industrial; of natural history, anthropology and antiquities. 
It has become generally recognized that they occupy as necessary a place in 
popular education as do public libraries. Vision of their educational function 
has kept pace with their material expansion. A museum that is directed 
toward educational ends has to meet problems that are very different from 
those which existed when they were for the most part but collections of curious, 
interesting and possibly beautiful objects, or were collections of historical 
mementos. 

The Cooper Union Museum has always been an educational agency. But 
changed conditions of social life, including changed methods and aims in the 
industrial arts, give rise to new educational problems. Even collections as rich 
and extensive as those found in the Museum of Cooper Union come with 
passage of time to be of chief interest to the antiquarian and historian unless 
they are organized to be adapted to service under new conditions. Many of 
the issues involved are so technical that they can be handled only by those 
who are experts in museum management because of special training. This 
Museum is fortunate in having not only a trained staff but one which is aware 

93 




J 



of contemporary conditions and the relation of the work of the Museum to 
these conditions. 

There are certain phases of the general problem upon which a layman may 
perhaps express himself without undue presumption. One that is perhaps of 
chief importance is the happily changing attitude of our public to art. Art is 
ceasing to be connected as exclusively as it was once with collections of pictures 
in galleries or with paintings on the walls of the well-to-do. To my mind one of 
the most significant phenomena of the present is recognition that art reaches 
into the lives of people at every point; that material wealth and comfort are in 
the end a form of poverty save as they are animated by what art and art alone 
can provide. A necessary part of this changed attitude is the breaking down of 
the walls that so long divided what were called the fine arts from applied and 
industrial arts. It is impossible that art should become a living force in the 
lives of individuals or of a nation as long as it is confined in theory or in practice 
to what are conventionally called the fine arts. It can reach into the lives of 
the masses of the people only as it enters into the building of their homes; their 
furnishings and utensils; their walls, hangings, floor coverings, tables and 
chairs; the dishes from which they eat and those with which they cook. Every 
article of daily use has form and color and wherever form and color exist there 
is the opportunity for art. There is not only an opportunity, but in the interest 
of a rich life and a worthy enjoyment of the objects which surround us there is 
demand for art. 

We are now acutely aware that people that are economically backward, 
that are even primitive, make the utensils and appliances which they use so 
that they are satisfying to the eye, whether they are weapons, baskets, rugs or 
dishes. When imported from foreign peoples they find a welcome home even in 
museums of the fine arts. The scholar of the history of art knows also that 
the periods in which the arts we call fine have flourished were the times when 
the "minor" arts, those of craftsman and artisan, have prospered. The latter 
provide the soil out of which the former grow; they educate the popular taste 
so that paintings, architecture and sculpture can be discriminatingly enjoyed. 
One of the strongest impressions I carried away from a visit to the Cooper 
Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration was that of the unity of the arts. I 
•seemed to feel that an adequate history of even painting in the centuries since, 
say, the Renaissance, could not be written by one who isolated that art from 
the textiles, ceramics, metal and woodwork of the periods in which the paint- 
ings were produced. 

The great change that has taken place in the social conditions under which 
objects of daily use are produced is, of course, the development of machine 
production, especially mass production. The objects of primitive peoples 
which command our admiration were produced by hand. The first effect of 
machine production among both oriental and the simpler peoples of the west 
was artistic deterioration and lowering of popular taste. There was a time 

95 



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when we suffered from a veritable flood of ugly objects made in the interest of 
providing cheap objects of ordinary use. The worst of it was that we were not 
aware we were suffering during this time when our eyes and hands were getting 
used to acceptance of these articles, and we were having our standards formed 
by their unconscious educational influence. It is not necessary to say that a 
great change is going on. Manufacturers are learning that good business and 
creation of satisfactory designs in color and form can go together. More 
artistic products have also their educational influence, and the feeling and 
judgment of the public in course of time are gradually modified. 

It is this situation which sets for the museums that are concerned with what 
are called the applied arts the new problems with which they have to deal. The 
time has gone by when one of their chief functions is to provide objects in the 
various arts as models to be copied with a view to mechanical reproduction. 
It is more and more recognized that instead of providing designs to which the 
operation of the machine must accommodate itself, the problem for the de- 
signer is now to provide designs that are constructed with reference to the 
capacities and limitations of the machine, and also that this construction does 
not necessarily mean sacrifice of artistic qualities. The situation has almost 
revolutionary possibilities for the production of artistic products which bear 
an organic relation to the conditions of actual social life. But it also involves an 
almost revolutionary change in the educational use of the art products that 
are found in museums. 

No greater mistake could be made, however, than to suppose that these 
historic products have lost their usefulness and are to be relegated to the state 
of being merely historic memorials. Breach of continuity with tradition 
always entails loss in the arts. One of the evils of early machine production of 
the articles, appliances, and utensils of daily use was that it marked a breach. 
Its bad effects were increased rather than mitigated by the fact that copies of 
old decorations were mechanically superimposed upon machine products, so 
that the public taste lost for a time almost all sense of the very meaning of 
decoration and ornament because that which was provided for them was 
external excrescences. 

On the other hand, continuity of tradition does not signify repetition of the 
past. I do not know of any way to state in words what it does signify. For it is 
a matter of the education and experience of those who carry the tradition 
forward. A large part of the problem of an artist and designer in any line and 
any field consists in uniting saturation in the traditions of the past with 
capacity for individual original modification of its special contents. The way 
to accomplish this end cannot be put in words because it is the work of the 
artist-designer himself and no one can tell him just how to do it. If they could 
tell him, his work would be mechanical, not creative and original. Never- 
theless, one of the great functions of museums and the schools connected with 
them is to aid artist-designers in accomplishing the task of maintaining some 

97 



great tradition in process of growth and development. They give this aid 
partly by enabling him to become saturated in the objective materials of the 
tradition and in part by making him aware of contemporary needs and 
opportunities. 

Being soaked in the materials of a tradition is not the product of merely 
looking at things that have been produced or of merely copying them. What 
makes objects artistic in nature is not the particular idiom in which they are 
expressed, nor the particular forms and motifs of decoration that are employed. 
Many of the latter are products of historic movements that are now exhausted. 
They are not adapted to mass production by machines and they do not have 
any vital connection with present life. Nevertheless, with respect to the stu- 
dent who learns to see and for the Museum that assists him to see, these 
considerations are of little importance. Just as a painting is made to be a 
pictorial work of art by the plastic design that controls all its parts and their 
relations, so with a brocade, a tile or a chair. Design is the important thing, 
and design is a matter of composition, of the integrated relation of all con- 
stituent parts in forming a whole. To learn to see for artistic purposes is to 
learn to detect organizing design, whether the object seen be a statue, a 
picture, a tapestry, a pitcher or a roll of wall-paper. 

One matter that seemed to me to be of special importance in the organiza- 
tion of the wealth of materials in the Cooper Union Museum is that different 
objects are being arranged on the basis of community of design rather than by 
historic periods. For purely historic and antiquarian purposes, arrangement of 
materials on the basis of time and place of production is valuable. But for the 
purpose of learning to see the design in virtue of which an object has esthetic 
form, grouping together a chair, a rug, a ceramic object and a piece of iron 
work may be much more effective. Often the very difference in time and place 
of origin throws common design into more striking relief. The greatest service 
a museum can render those who are intending to become designers is to enable 
them to know what design really is; not in the abstract or by rules that can be 
laid down in books but in its concrete embodiment in different objects in spite 
of difference of materials and local treatment. In this respect, a collection of 
the great products of the 'minor' arts in the past is an invaluable adjunct to 
the work that a practicing school carries on. 

The accomplishment of the task of reorganization which is demanded by 
present conditions of production, and consequently is demanded for those who 
are educating themselves to engage in designing, is not a simple or easy one. It 
requires for example inventorying, cataloguing and labelling objects so that 
readjustments of materials can be readily effected without producing confusion 
or loss. Materials must be capable of flexible regrouping to meet special 
problems as they arise. Some museums can put their objects in definite places 
and keep them there. An educational museum must be able to have them 
where they are wanted at a given time in relation to other objects in order to 

98 



meet an educational need when it arises. The richer in materials a museum is, 
the more difficult is the performance of its educational function. The particular 
point just mentioned is, moreover, but one of the many problems of organiza- 
tion and reorganization the Museum for the Arts of Decoration of Cooper 
Union has to meet. Hence I should not wish to close my slight contribution to 
the anniversary of the completion of four decades of devoted and self-sacrific- 
ing work on the part of the Trustees, staff and circle of friends who have 
maintained the Museum during these years without expressing a hope that 
enlarged means will enable it to continue to meet present and future needs. 
The assistance it receives will bear fruit far beyond anything tangible and 
visible. The Museum will be even a larger force in the future than it has been 
in the past, in carrying forward the potential artistic enrichment of the lives of 
countless individuals, including many who perhaps will never be aware of even 
the existence of the Museum. 

John Dewey 



99 




THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS A tAQJ^'jC'U^^ 

are conveniently displayed in files / \^\ > / 



itly displayed 
directly available to the investigating worker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1936 



Miss Harriet C. Abbe 

Mrs. Henry Clinton Bachus 

Mrs. Robert Bacon 

Bailer Brothers 

Miss Isabel Ballantine 

Miss Augusta K. Bartholomew 

Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Mrs. Adolphe Bone 

Mrs. C. B. Borland 

Mrs. J. Nelson Borland 

Mrs. William B. Bristow 

Mrs. Reuben H. Broaddus 

Mrs. Archibald Manning Brown 

Rowland Burdon-Muller 

Miss Martha A. Burke 

Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler 

Mr. and Mrs. George Chapman 

Mrs. Albert Hayden Chatfield* 

Miss Emily Chauncey 

Stephen C. Clark 

Henry Clifford 

Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Mrs. Edward B. Cole 

Miss Florence Cole 

Miss Izabel M. Coles 

Chandler Cudlipp 

George H. Danforth, 3rd 

Mrs. Ira Davenport 

Mrs. Carl A. de GersdorfF 

Baron Voruz de Vaux 

Mrs. Francis Donaldson 

Miss Katherine S. Dreier 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Gano Dunn 

Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 

Henry F. du Pont 

Elisha Dyer 

Mrs. Elisha Dyer 

Harry A. Elsberg 

L. J. Farey 

Mrs. E. S. Fechimer 

Mrs. Mansfield Ferry 

Mrs. Harry Harkness Flagler 

Mrs. Walter L. Fleisher 

Robert T. Francis 

Mrs. Mortimer P. Giffin 

Walter S. Gifford 

William E. Glyn 

Roger Dean Granger 

Mrs. William Greenough 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 



Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Mrs. Edward S. Harkness 
Miss Ethel L. Haven 
William W. Heer 
Morris I^eon Helburn 
Mrs. E. C. Henderson 
Barklie Henry 
Mrs. Barklie Henry 
Mrs. Bayard Henry 
Erskine Hewitt 
Mrs. James F. Horan 
Charles Bain Hoyt 
Miss Louise M. Iselin 
Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 
Miss Frances H. Ives 
Mrs. Herbert Ten Broeck Jacquelin 
Mrs. Walter B. James 
Morgan W. Jopling 
Mrs. Otto H. Kahn 
Mrs. Mortimer M. Kassel! 
Mrs. C. Hallam Keep 
Carl O. von Kienbusch 
Mrs. Warren Kinney 
Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel 
Mrs. Thorn Kissel 
Mrs. Agnes Kremer 
Miss Ellen B. Laight 
Mrs. Mervin L. Lane 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Miss Florence N. Levy 
Mrs. Frederic W. Lincoln 
Luke Vincent Lockwood 
Robert W. Macbeth 
Manhattan Storage and 
Warehouse Company 
Howard Mansfield 
Mrs. James W. Markoe 
Miss Harriet Marple 
Mrs. Henry Tobin Maury 
Mrs. Walter H. May 
Mayorkas Brothers 
Robert T. McKee 
Mrs. Robert T. McKee 
Mrs. Stafford McLean 
Miss Elinor Merrell 
Edward A. Miller 
Henry Oothout MiUiken 
Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 
Miss Emma Montanari 
Mrs. William H. Moore 
Miss Anne Morgan 
'Mrs. D. Percy Morgan 
Mrs. Edith P. Morgan 



J. Pierpont Morgan 

Miss Frances Morris 

George L. K. Morris 

Mrs. George Nichols 

Ex Norton 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

William M. Odom 

Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 

Mrs. James St. L. O'Toole 

Miss Katherinede Berkeley Parsons 

Miss Mary Parsons 

Mrs. Robert H. Patterson 

Miss Meta A. Peper 

Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 

Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Mrs. Johnston L. Redmond 

Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

Talbot M. Rogers 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell, Jr. 

Miss Marie Russell 

William J. Ryan 

Charles E. Sampson 

Mrs. W. H. Sawyer 

Hardinge Scholle 

Miss Rosanna Schonberger 

Miss Louise B. Scott 

Jacques Seligmann and Company 

Miss Dorothv Shepard 

Mrs. H W. Sibley 

Maurice Sloog 

Mrs. Herman F. Stone 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

Mrs. William Reed Thompson 

Mrs. James Ward Thorne 

Calvin Tomkins, Jr. 

Mrs. R. E. TomUnson 

Mrs. John B. Trevor 

Walter M. Walters 

Thomas J. Watson 

Frederic Delano Weekes* 

Miss Edith Wetmore 

Miss Maude K. Wetmore 

Miss Gertrude Whiting 

Mrs. Joseph E. Willard 

Mrs. M. Orme Wilson 

Mrs. Egerton Winthrop 

Mrs. Francis de R. Wissman 

Mrs. Chalmers Wood 

Mrs. A. Murray Young 

* Deceased 



101 



WORKS OF ART GIVEN TO THE MUSEUM 

January 1st — December 31st, 1936 



CERAMICS 

Tile panel composed of twelve tiles with 
overglaze polychrome decoration; Desvres, 
France, late eighteenth century. Lead-glazed 
tile with polychrome overglaze decoration; 
Rouen (?), about 1600. Tin-enamelled tile 
with underglaze polychrome decoration; 
Rorstrand, Sweden, about 1770. 

Given by Mrs. Montgomery Hare. 

Pottery and porcelain table accessories, 
European and Chinese, eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries: three coffee pots, four tea 
pots, one sauce boat, five jugs, two sugar 
bowls, four plates, twenty cups and twenty- 
one saucers, seven custard cups, one mug. 

Given by Mr. and Mrs. George B. McClellan. 
Two blue and white tin-enamelled pottery 
tiles; The Netherlands, eighteenth century. 

Purchased, Peter Cooper Hewitt Estate Fund. 
Eight tiles for stoves and wall-decoration, from 
Billwarder and Kirchwarder, Vierlanden ; Ger- 
many, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

Given by Henry Frederick William Rave. 

Four tin-enamelled pottery tiles, from the 
"House of Peter the Great," Narwa, Esthonia ; 
The Netherlands, probably Friesland, eight- 
eenth century. 

Given by Charles H. Vanderlaan. 

Two tiles with overglaze decoration; France 
or Spain, eighteenth century. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

Glazed pottery plate by Theodore Deck, 
painted by Albert Anker: La venitienne; 
Paris, about 1885. 

Given by Miss Edith fVetmore and 

Miss Maude K. Wetmore. 

Two glazed pottery tiles with polychrome 
overglaze decoration; Milan, eighteenth 
century. 

Given by Miss Maude K. Wetmore. 

Glazed pottery tile decorated with figure of 
a rooster, one of a series representing various 
nations made at the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of the accession of Queen Wilhelmina; Delft, 
Holland, 1915. 

Given by Miss Gertrude Whiting. 

COSTUMES AND COSTUME 
ACCESSORIES 

Two chemises, two pairs of drawers and one 

petticoat; United States, 1866. 
Given by Mrs. Elizabeth Horton Ells. 

Man's silk brocade dressing gown; Spain, 

mid-eighteenth century. Fifty-one buttons; 

France, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 
Given by Miss Frances L. Livingston. 



Peasant kerchief; buttons; Iran, early twen- 
tieth century. 
Given by Mrs. Walter H. May. 

Doll's cotton pinafore; United States; about 

1860. 
Given by Miss V. Isabel Miller. 

Three pieces of costume, buttons, beads; 

United States and France, mid-nineteenth 

century. 
Given by Miss Serbella Moores. 

Cotton net cap; Nantes, France, 1918. 
Given by Miss Elizabeth Hirst Schoonover. 

Ten pieces of costume accessories; France, 

Belgium and Ireland, nineteenth century. 
Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

Embroidered cotton cap; United States, 

about 1840. 
Given by Miss Frances P. White. 

White cotton handkerchief embroidered with 

white cotton and cream silk; India, vicinity 

of Calcutta, about 1915. 
Given by Miss Carolyn Wicker. 

DRAWINGS 

Six drawings for illustrations; Mexico, 1925- 
1927. 

Given by A. Algara R. de Terreros. 

Sixteen drawings, designs for architecture 
and furniture; France and Italy, eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries. Perspective draw- 
ing of the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 
New York, during erection; 1903. 

Given by Spencer Bickerton. 
One hundred four drawings on tracing cloth 
for the Lady Chapel of St. Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, New York, by Charles Thompson 
Mathews (1863-1934); 1904. 

Given by Miss Florence Mathews, through Miss 

Juliana Cutting. 

GOLD AND SILVERSMITHS' WORK 

Silver-gilt ewer by Joseph Angell; London, 
1854-1855. 
Given by Miss Louise B. Scott. 

ILLUMINATION 

Twenty-three manuscript leaves bound to- 
gether in a book; Italy and Germany, four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 
Given by Mrs. Edward Robinson. 

JEWELLERY 

Gold stud for chemise; France, about 1850. 
Given by Miss Serbella Moores. 



102 



LACE 

One repeat of cotton machine-made lace 
commemorating the Jubilee of George V; 
England, 1935. 
Given by Miss Mary S. M. Gibson. 

NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY 

Table-cloth embroidered in polychrome silk 

and chenille; United States, about 1840. 
Given by Mrs. Ridgely Hunt. 

Four bands of embroidery for peasant blouses; 

Czecho-Slovakia, 1918. 
Given by Miss Elizabeth Hirst Schoonover. 

PAPER 

Shadow puppets from the Theatre Seraphin, 
and original musical score for accompaniment 
of their performance; Paris, early nineteenth 
century. 

Given by Erskine Hewitt. 

Peep-show representing the Crystal Palace, 
London; Germany, 1853. 

Given by Mrs. James Ward Thome. 

PRINTS 

Forty-three engravings and etchings; Eu- 
ropean, seventeenth, eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries. Fourteen lithographs; 
Mexico, nineteenth century. 

Given by A. Algara R. de Terreros in memory 

of Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt. 

Four tinted engravings of carriages, pub- 
lished in R. Ackermann s Repository of Arts 
&c.; London, 1819-1820. 

Given by Thomas Gibson. 

Eight wood engravings after drawings by 
Winslow Homer, published in Harper's 
Weekly and Appletons Journal; United 
States, 1863-1873. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

TEXTILES 

Six fragments of resist-dyed cotton; United 
States, about 1750. 

Given by Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard. 

Silk square printed in imitation of batik; 
India, nineteenth century. Panel of printed 
cotton showing twenty-five episodes from 
Uncle Tom's Cabin; United States, about 
1870. 

Given by Spencer Bickerton. 

Fragment of printed cotton; England, about 
1825. Four textile samples designed by 
Alexander Morton; England, about 1926. 

Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss. 

Portion of cut and uncut red velvet; China, 
eighteenth century. Three books of samples 
of ribbons; United States and France, 1899- 
1901. Two books of samples of silk colors; 
France, 1927. 

Given by Harry A. Elsberg. 



Two pieces of Coptic tapestry, one piece of 
Egypto-Arabic embroidery, two pieces of 
Egypto-Arabic tapestry; Egypt, fifth to 
eleventh centuries. 

Given by Mrs. E. S. Fechimer. 

Book of textile samples; paper of textile 
samples; twenty-seven manufacturer's sam- 
ples of velvets; France, eighteenth and nine- 
teenth centuries. Sample table-cloth, linen 
and silk damask; France, eighteenth cen- 
tury. Textile fragment, Denmark, 1936. 

Given by Mrs. Montgomery Hare. 

Two pieces of printed cotton designed by 
William Morris and printed by Morris and 
Company; England, about 1890. 

Given by Miss Annie May Hegeman. 

Reproduction of toile de Jouy: Les travaux 
de la manufacture, and of English printed 
cotton : The Old Ford. 

Given by Johnson and Faulkner. 

Three painted window shades; United States, 
about 1880. 

Given by Mrs. George Cabot Lodge. 

Twenty-six fragments of linen fabrics; Egypt, 
about 1500 B. C. 

Given by Miss Mary Martin. 

Two textile fragments, velvet embroidered 
with gold metal thread; Iran, early twen- 
tieth century. 

Given by Mrs. Walter H. May. 

Textile fragment, resist-dyed cotton; Japan, 
early twentieth century. 

Given by Robert Hamilton Rucker. 

Two painted textile panels, silk velvet with 
cotton back; Japan, nineteenth century. 

Given by Miss Annette Tilden. 

Book of textile samples bound in leather. 

Given by Mrs. Samuel S. Walker. 
Two fragments of printed cotton; France, 
nineteenth century. Printed silk handker- 
chief commemorating the Tercentenary of 
Newport, Rhode Island; United States, 1936. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

TOYS AND GAMES 

Punch and Judy theatre; France, nineteenth 
century. Four hand puppets. United States, 
nineteenth century. 

Given by Mrs. James Ward Thome. 

WALL-PAPER 

Roll of paper designed by William Morris, 
printed by Morris and Company; England, 
about 1880; roll of paper published by F. 
Arthur; London, about 1890. 

Given by Miss Annie May Hegeman. 

Eight panels of paper from series, Vues 
d'ltalie, printed by Joseph Dufour; Paris, 
about 1820. 

Given by Erskine Hewitt. 



103 



DONORS TO THE LIBRARY 

January 1st — December 31st, 1936 



A. Algara R. de Terreros 

American Art Association Anderson Galleries 

American Council of Learned Societies 

American Federation of Arts 

American Institute for Persian Art and 

Archaeology 
Au Panier Fleuri Fund 
Miss Augusta K. Bartholomew 
George F. Bateman 
Spencer Bickerton 
F. Gilbert Blakeslee 
Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Brooklyn Museum 
Archibald Manning Brown 
Cooper Union Day Art School 
Cooper Union Library 
Mortimer H. Davenport 
John Baillie Bishop Douglas 
Elisha Dyer 
Harry A. Elsberg 
Henry G. Fairfield 
Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 
Trustees of the Gothenburg Museum of 

Applied Art 
Mrs. Edwin Gould 
Stephen V. Grancsay 
Gutekunst and Klipstein 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Calvin S. Hathaway 
Miss Ethel L. Haven 
V. A. Heck 
Erskine Hewitt 
Frederick A. King 
Simon Lissim 



Mrs. Luke Vincent Lockwood 

Lyman Allen Museum 

Miss Marjorie A. McPherson 

Mrs. Walter Scott McPherson 

Miss Ruth Merington 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Miss Serbella Moores 

Moravian Pottery and Tile Works 

Mrs. Harriet K. Morse 

Dr. Albert B. Newman 

Leo S. Olschki 

Miss Alice Lee Parker 

Pennsylvania Museum of Art 

Charles H. Piatt 

Miss Anita Rinehardt 

Mrs. Edward Robinson 

Robert Hamilton Rucker 

Mrs. Henry de B. Schenck 

F. Schumacher and Company 

Slater Memorial Museum 

Bequest of George Cameron Stone 

Millicent D. Stow 

Mary Stuart Book Fund 

United States Playing Card Company 

Misses Ruth M. and Eleanor B. Wallace 

Trustees of the Walters Art Gallery 

H. Newell Wardle 

Miss Edith Wetmore 

Erik Wettergren 

Mr. and Mrs. Morrison Van Rensselaer 

Weyant 
Mrs. A. Murray Young 
Mrs. Elinor Young 



Randolph Bullock 
Mrs. Manierre Delafield 
Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. Labibie Haddad 
Miss Peggy Kipp 



VOLUNTEER WORKERS 

1936 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Miss Marjorie A. McPherson 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Mrs. Harriet K. Morse 
Jose B. Rios 
Robert Hamilton Rucker 



104 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM— 1 897-1935 

Four decades have passed since the opening of the Museum for the Arts of 
Decoration at Cooper Union. At the beginning of another decade the Directors 
wish to incorporate in the pages of the Chronicle the names of all those who 
in former years gave so generously of their time, their money and their 
beautiful objects. Many of these contributions were made through the Council 
for the Museum, founded in 1907 and disbanded in 1927 after the death of Miss 
Eleanor Garnier Hewitt. Many were made before the Council was formed. 
Many have been made since its disbandment. The names of all donors, 
whether of great or less great sums of money, whether of time or cherished 
possessions, whether of beautiful and rare objects, the Museum, through its 
present Directors, desires to record here with grateful appreciation. 



Arthur M. Acton 

George B. Agnew 

Albright Art Gallery 

Charles B. Alexander 

Mrs. Charles B. Alexander 

Mrs. H. A. Alexander 

Mrs. James W. Alexander 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Alexander 

Mrs. John E. Alexandre 

Miss Laura Allien 

American Architect and Building 

News 
American Art Association 

Anderson Galleries 
American Council of Learned 

Societies 
American Federation of Arts 
American Type Founders Sales 

Corporation 
William King Amsden 
Miss Caroline F. Anderson 
H. C. Anderson 
John Anderson, Jr. 
Anonymous (lo) 
Mrs. Antrobus 

Architectural League of New York 
Miss Charlotte Arnold 
Arts in Trades Club 
Associated Tile Manufacturers 
Nels Astner 
Georges Aubry 
Miss Julia E. Auchincloss 
Mrs. Samuel Auerbach 
Au Panier Fleuri Fund 
Samuel P. Avery 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery 

L. V. B. 

Mrs. Francis McNeil Bacon 
Mrs. Robert Bacon 
William J. Baer 



A. M. Bagby 
Miss Anna Bahlmann 
Frederick H. Bahrenburg 
Frederick Baldwin 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Peter Townsend Barlow 
Mrs. Peter Townsend Barlow 
Miss Charlotte Barnes 
Mrs. Janet L. Barney 
Dino Barozzi 
Miss Mary L. Barringer 
George F. Bateman 
William Baumgarten and 

Company 
Edmund L. Baylies 
H. F. Beck 
J. Carroll Beckwith 
Miss Elizabeth Beckwith 
Christopher H. Bedford 
Charles K. Beekman 
Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 
Hamilton Bell 
Louis J. Bell 
Frank Bender 
Miss Ruth Benedict 
Vitall Benguiat 
Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 
Georges Berger 
Miss Ella H. Bernhardt 
Mrs. Bernheimer 
Miss Bernheimer 
Otto Bernet 
Mrs. F. H. Betts 
Spencer Bickerton 
Francis H. Bigelow 
Miss Grace Bigelow 
E. Dimon Bird 
Mrs. E. Dimon Bird 
Courtlandt Field Bishop 
Miss Mattie W. Bishop 
Black, Starr and Frost 



Valentine Blacque 

C. Ledyard Blair 
Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
T. J. Blakeslee 

Mrs. Edwin H. Blashfield 
Charles Bleuler 
Mrs. Charles Bleuler 
Miss Alice Blight 
George T. Bliss 
Mrs. George T. Bliss 
Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Mrs. William H. Bhss 
Miss Eleanor Blodgett 
George Blumenthal 
Mrs. George Blumenthal 
A. Boinet 
Mrs. Francke Huntingdon 

Bosworth 
M. Boudin 
Stephan Bourgeois 
George S. Bowdoin 
Abraham Bredius 
Miss Charlotte S. Breitung 
Mrs. Edward N. Breitung 
George T. Brewster 
Samuel W. Bridgham 
Mrs. Samuel W. Bridgham 
Carl C. Brigham 
Hans V. Briesen 
Charles S. Brown 
Mrs. John Crosby Brown 
Mrs. P. Browning 
Arnold W. Brunner 
Mrs. Arnold W. Brunner 
Charles Brunner 
Miss Virginia Brush 
Mrs. Lloyd S. Bryce 
Peter Cooper Bryce 
Burlington Fine Arts Club 

D. M. Burns 
G. W. Burgess 



105 



Mrs. Frederick T. Busk 

Mrs. E. E. Butler 

Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler 

John L. Cadwalader 
Edward F. Caldwell 
Madame Emma Calve 
Miss Maria Cannon 
Mrs. James Carey 
Mrs. Jessie B. Carner 
Miss Agnes Miles Carpenter 
Mrs. Caroline G. Carpenter 
FitzRoy Carrington 

B. Harvey Carroll 
Guy Fairfax Cary 

T. A. Cawthra and Company 
Mrs. Thomas Chadbourne 
Paul Chalfin 
Alfred de Champeaux 
Champion Lumber Company 
Mrs. J. Wells Champney 
Robert Winthrop Chanler 
Mrs. Clarence C. Chapman 

C. J. Charles 

Mrs. William Merritt Chase 

Chase National Bank 

M. Chatel 

Cheney Brothers 

Louis P. Church 

H. B. Claflin and Company 

John Claflin 

Eliot Clark 

William Clausen 

Cleveland Museum of Art 

Henry Clews 

Clifford and Lawton 

Eugene Clute 

Ogden Codman 

William Sloane Coffin 

Ernest Cognaco 

Mrs. De Witt Clmton Cohen 

Colorado Springs Chamber of 

Commerce 
Miss Connihan 
E. and T. Cook 
Mrs. Charles W. Cooper 
Edward Cooper 
George C. Cooper 
Miss Margaret Adelie Cooper 
Cooper Union Alumni Association 
Cooper Union Day Art School 
Cooper Union Library and 

Reading Room 
Estate of Peter Cooper 
Miss Louise Corell 
Royal Cortissoz 
Countess Costantini 
Mrs. Charles H. Coster 
Council for the Museum 
Mrs. John E. Cowdin 



Cowtan and Sons 

A. Barnard Cowtan 

Cowtan and Tout, Inc. 

Mrs. Kenyon Cox 

Miss Ethel Cram 

The Misses Cram 

Dr. George Lydston Crimp 

Seymour L. Cromwell 

Mrs. Seymour L. Cromwell 

William Nelson Cromwell 

Miss Julia E. Crug 

Sebastian Cruset 

Mrs. Wetmore Cryder 

Dr. John G. Curtis 

Howard G. Cushing 

R. Bayard Cutting 

Robert Fulton Cutting 

Mrs. William Bayard Cutting 

Mrs. Cornelius C. Cuyler 

Paul Dana 

Mrs. Paul Dana 

Count G. D'Arschot 

Dean Hicks Company 

Leon Decloux 

Mrs. George B. de Forest 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Weekes 

de Forest 
Miss Louise Emilie de Gaugue 
John Deion 

Mrs. Reginald de Koven 
Mrs. M. A. Delaney 
Mrs. C. A. Delapierre 
MoVse della Torre 
Mrs. Frederick S. Dellenbaugh 
Miss Diana del Monte 
Mrs. H. Casimir de Rham 
Sir William and Lady des Voeux 
A. Algara R. de Terreros 
Frederick Dielman 
Mrs. Frederick Dielman 
Cleveland H. Dodge 
Miss Virginia Dodge 
William H. Donelly 
Miss Alice Donlevy 
Mrs. W. P. Douglas 
Alexander W. Drake 
Mrs. Alexander W. Drake 
J. Coleman Drayton 
W. Drayton 
Eugene E. Dressner 
L. Dreyfous du Moulin 
Miss Alice Duer 
Miss Caroline King Duer 
Mrs. J. G. K. Duer 
Miss Norma Dunkle 
Mrs. Gano Dunn 
J. L. Duplan 
Duplan Corporation 
Mrs. W. G. Durant 



Henry Duveen 
Lord Duveen 
Charles Duvent 
Edward F. Dyer 
Elisha Dyer 

R. Ederheimer 

Edward Gallery 

Ehrich Brothers 

Louis R. Ehrich 

Ehrich Galleries 

David L. Einstein 

Mrs. David L. Einstein 

Louis Einstein 

John Eisele 

Elkington and Company 

William L. Elkins 

Harry A. Elsberg 

Mrs. G. Page Ely 

Herman Le Roy Emmet 

Henry C. Enders 

Mr. and Mrs. William C. Endicott 

Mrs. Henry Lane Eno 

Robert Ensko 

Stephen Ensko 

Essex Institute 

William T. Evans 

Mrs. Frederick Exton 

Mrs. Edith Shepard Fabbri 

Mrs. Charles S. Fairchild 

Miss Ida Fangel 

Louis Fanoir 

F. V. Farenbach 

William H. Faulhaber 

James Fay 

Mrs. E. S. Fechimer 

Mrs. Paul Masters Filmer 

Fine Art Society 

Ernst Fischer 

Mrs. Nicholas Fish 

Mrs. Stuyvesant Fish 

Clyde Fitch 

Mrs. William G. Fitch 

Frederick Fletcher 

Mrs. Susie Fletcher 

Mrs. Charles Flint 

James B. Ford 

Mariano Fortuny 

B. D. Foster 
Founder Art School 
M. Fournier 

C. T. D. Fox 

Mrs. William H. Fox 

Madame Franck 

Frankl Galleries 

Mrs. Elizabeth Blee Frasch 

Mrs. Herman Frasch 

Durr Friedley 

Daniel Chester French 



106 



p. W. French and Company 

French Educational Mission 

The French Government 

Karl J. Freund 

Miss Helen Clay Frick 

Mrs. William D. Frishmuth 

Froment-Meurice 

Miss Loie Fuller 

Miss Clementina Furness 

Albert Eugene Gallatin 
Mrs. R. Horace Gallatin 
J. Gatti 
Walter Gay 
Mrs. Walter Gay 
General Education Board 
General Electric Company 
General Society of Mechanics 

and Tradesmen 
Miss K. R. Gerry 
Miss Mabel Gerry 
The Misses Gerson 
Miss Virginia Gerson 
Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 
Miss Jane Gilder 
Rene Gimpel 
Gimpel and Wildenstein 
Eugene Glaenzer 
Georges A. Glaenzer 
Mrs. William E. Glyn 
Mrs. J. Warren Goddard 
Mrs. E. L. Godkin 
Mrs. J. G. Goin 
Henry A. Goldsmith 
John Goodell 
Philip L. Goodwin 
William B. Goodwin 
Eduardo Gordigiani 
Dr. William Gordon 
Gorham Company ^ 

Charles W. Gould 
Mrs. Clara Hinton Gould 
Mrs. Frederick Gould 
George H. Gould 
Miss Margaret Gould 
Roger Dean Granger 
Madison Grant 
Mrs. Peter Geddes Grant 
Signora La Grassa 
Walter Gray 
Jacques Greber 
Annie H. Green 
Mrs. James O. Green 
Norvin Hewitt Green 
Richard C. Greenleaf 
Mrs. William Greenough 
Mrs. Herbert S. Greims 
Miss Catharine Griffith 
Miss Ada Grille 
Charles Grimmer and Son 



Mrs. Frank Gray Griswold 
Miss Rosa Grosvenor 
Miss Belle Gurnee 
Mrs. W. B. Gurnee 
Mrs. Walter S. Gurnee 
William D. Guthrie 

Miss E. J. Haas 

Bequest of Marie Torrance 

Hadden 
W. B. Hadley 
Miss Marian Hague 
J. S. Hall 

Mrs. Henrietta Haller 
Miss E. S. Hamilton 
Mrs. Morgan Hamilton 
William Hanley 
Miss Elizabeth Gordon Hanna 
Learned Hand 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Robert L. Hargous 
Edward S. Harkness 
Mrs. E. H. Harriman 
Leverton Harris 
William Laurel Harris 
Thomas Hastings 
Calvin S. Hathaway 
Hans Haug 
Henry O. Havemeyer 
J. Woodward Haven 
Mrs. J. Woodward Haven 
McDougall Hawkes 
Mrs. Morris Hawkes 
George Arnold Hearn 
Miss Annie May Hegeman 
Raoul Heilbronner 
Mrs. Charles Hendricks 
Mrs. Bernard Henry 
Mrs. Hermandy 
Bruno Hessling 
Abram S. Hewitt 
Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt 
Charles B. Hewitt 
Edward R. Hewitt 
Mrs. Edward R. Hewitt 
Miss Eleanor Gamier Hewitt 
Erskine Hewitt 
Mrs. Lucy Work Hewitt 
Peter Cooper Hewitt 
Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt 
Mrs. Charles B. Hillhouse 
William Hindley 
Clarence Hoblitzelle 
Mrs. Hobson 
E. M. Hodgkins 
John Jacob HofF 
Madame Whitney Hoff 
Mrs. Alicia Hogan 
Holabird and Root 
Miss Jean McKinnon Holt 



Charles Savage Homer 
Mrs. Charles Savage Homer 
Mrs. B. E. Hood 
Mrs. Sarah Weekes Hoppin 
Mrs. James F. Horan 
Miss Adelaide Horter 
Frederick Formes Horter 
Hospital Book and Newspaper 

Society 
Thomas H. Howard, Jr. 
John E. Howe 

E. W. Howell Company 
Bequest of Mrs. Henry E. 

Howland 
Mrs. Joseph Howland 
James B. Howlett 
Miss Gertrude Hoyt 
Madame Charles Huard 
John Hubbard 
Joseph Howland Hunt 
Richard H. Hunt 
Mrs. R. M. Hunt 
Mrs. Ridgely Hunt 
George Leland Hunter 
Archer M. Huntington 
Mrs. Henry E. Huntington 
James Hazen Hyde 

Mrs. Richard Irvin 
Theodore Irwin 
Auguste Isaac 
Miss Winifred Ives 

August F. Jacacci 

F. H. Jackson 
M. Jamarin 
Madame Jamarin 
Arthur Curtiss James 
Mrs. Bayard James 
Mrs. Augustus Jay 

Miss Annie Burr Jennings 

Oliver Gould Jennings 

Walter Jennings 

Mrs. Morris K. Jesup 

Rutger B. Jewett 

Ernst Johnson 

Miss Fanny L. Johnson 

Johnson, Brown and Company 

Johnson and Faulkner 

Mrs. J. Herbert Johnston 

Miss Margaret Taylor Johnstone 

Mrs. Jonas 

Mrs. Cadwalader Jones 

Miss Eleanor Robertson Jones 

Francis C. Jones 

H. Madison Jones 

Miss Mary Jopling 

L. C. Levin Jordan 

A. Jouanest 

A. D. JuilHard 



107 



Frederic A. Juilliard 
Mrs. Carl Junge 

Otto H. Kahn 

Mr. Kaltenberg 

John Innes Kane 

Mrs. John Innes Kane 

Miss Elizabeth d'Hauteville Kean 

Hamilton Fish Kean 

Julian H. Kean 

Livingston Kean 

Miss Lucy Halstead Kean 

Miss Susan Livingston Kean 

Frank B. Keech 

Mrs. Lawrence Keene 

Dikran Kelekian 

Miss Joanna Kennedy 

John S. Kennedy 

Frederick Keppel 

Dr. Edward L. Keyes 

Mrs. Edward L. Keyes 

M. J. Kilmartin 

Mr. Kindermann 

Frederick A. King 

James Gore King 

Walter Kingsland 

William M. Kingsley 

W. B. Kinhard 

Miss Peggy Kipp 

Thomas E. Kirby 

Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel 

Miss Adele Kneeland 

Roland Knoedler 

Knoedler and Company 

Dr. Florian Krug 

Dr. George F. Kunz 

Mrs. C. Grant La Farge 
Thomas Lambert 
Harold G. Lancaster and 

Company 
Henry Langford 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
James F. D. Lanier 
Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Francis Lathrop 
Miss Julia Law 
Miss Virginia Lazarus 
Miss Mary Le Boutillier 
George Ledlie 
Harry Symes Lehr 
Lenygon and Company 
Mrs. Hugues Leroux 
William E. Lescaze 
Miss Margaret Leupp 
The Misses Leupp 
R. Leventritt 
Miss Florence N. Levy 
Samuel A. Lewisohn 
Miss Berthalis Lexow 



Mrs. Linzy 

W. H. S. Lloyd Company, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Luke Vincent 

Lockwood 
James Loeb 
Mrs. A. L. Loomis 
Louisiana State Museum 
Miss Alice Levering 
Mrs. C. R. Lowell 
Mrs. Edward Luckemeyer 
Miss Alice Lusk 
Miss Anna H. Lusk 
Dr. William C. Lusk 
Lyman Allen Museum 

Macbeth Gallery 

Mrs. Clarence Mackay 

Mackay, Smith and Company 

Madison Avenue Coach Company 

Raimundo de Madrazo 

Senora Maria de Madrazo 

James Maginn 

Mrs. James Maginn 

Miss Rusa MaglofF 

Miss Bridget Mahon 

Mrs. Pierre Mali 

Mrs. John C. Mallery 

Miss Elizabeth Mangin 

Miss R. E. Mangus 

Harrington Mann 

Miss Louise Mann 

Howard Mansfield 

Miss Elisabeth Marbury 

L. Marcotte and Company 

Marcus and Company 

Miss Jean Marion 

Mrs. Harry Markoe 

Mrs. Henry G. Marquand 

Tony Martel 

Signer Martini 

Arthur H. Masten 

Charles T. Mathews 

Miss Florence Mathews 

Bunkio Matsuki 

Brander Matthews 

Mrs. C. D. Matthews 

George Mauboussin 

Mrs. Henry Tobin Maury 

John Moore Maxon 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter E. Maynard 

Maynecke and Francke 

Mr. and Mrs. George B. McClellan 

Mrs. William P. McKeon 

Mrs. Stafford McLean 

McMillen, Inc. 

Miss Isabel W. McNeely 

Miss Marjorie A. McPherson 

Miss Mabel C. Mead 

Baroness Maria de Mehlem 

Lady Mendl 



S. Stanwood Menken 
Miss Ruth Merington 
Miss Elinor Merrill 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Louis R. Metcalf 
Frans Middelkoop 
H. I. Miller 
Joseph K. Miller 
Ross W. Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. William Starr Miller 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Kirkor Minassian 
Ambrose Monell 
Monroe and Company 
Alfredo Montecorboli 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Mrs. George Moran 
Thomas Moran 
Victor Morawetz 

Moravian Pottery and Tile Works 
Miss Anne Morgan 
Mrs. Edith Parsons Morgan 
J. P. Morgan 
J. Pierpont Morgan 
Mrs. J. Pierpont Morgan 
Mrs. Dave Hennen Morris . 
Miss Francis Morris 
Miss Alice C. Morse 
Mrs. Harriet K. Morse 
Richard Mortimer 
Morton Sundour Company 
Mosse, Inc. 
John L. B. Mott 
Mrs. John L. B. Mott 
Muiler and Company 
Charles A. Munn 
Mrs. Henry Whitney Munroe 
Gustav L. Munthe 
Museum of the City of New York 
Miss Elizabeth Livingston 
Musgrave 

National Sculpture Society 

John G. Neeser 

Angelo del Nero 

F. J. Newcomb and Company 

Mrs. Newman 

New Society of Artists 

Elbert Newton 

Roger Hale Newton 

Mrs. Roger Hale Newton 

Mrs. Eliot Norton 

Adam G. Norrie 

Daniel G. Nourian 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Wallace Nutting 

W. K. O'Brien 
Mrs. O'Connor 
William M. Odom 



108 



Mrs. Hermann Oelrichs 
Mrs. Leonard Opdycke 
Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim, in 

memory of Laurent Oppenheim 
Mrs. Henry Fairfield Osborn 

George S. Palmer 
William Francklyn Paris 
S. L. Parrish 
Dr. Elsie Clews Parsons 
Mrs. Florence V. C. Parsons 
John E. Parsons 
Mrs. Norton Paton 
H. Logan Patteson 
Mrs. Frederick Pearson 
The Rev. Alfred Duane Pell 
Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 
Pennsylvania Museum of Art 
People's University Extension 

Society 
Mrs. C. L. Perkins 
Mrs. Newton Perkins 
Baron Pichon 
Mrs. G. Pier 
Madame Emilie Pierrat 
Mrs. J. W. Pinchot 
George A. Plimpton 
Saul Ponon 

Mrs. Charles Alfred Post 
Mrs. Edward C. Post 
Mrs. Henry J. Post 
Mrs. Waldron K. Post 
Mrs. Clarkson Potter 
Mrs. Nathaniel B. Potter 
Mrs. Harford W. Hare Powel, Jr. 
Harford W. Hare Powel, 3rd 
Mrs. Herbert L. Pratt 
Theodore H. Price 
Mrs. John Dyneley Prince 
Mrs. Pruyn 

Providence National Bank 
Miss Marina L. Purdon 

Mrs. Harald de Raasloff 

Mrs. William Rasthe 

Frederick Rathbone 

Miss Cornelia Redmond 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Mrs. Johnston L. Redmond 

Mrs. Whitelaw Reid 

S. C. Bosch Reitz 

Mrs. S. S. Bosch Reitz 

Miss Kate L. Reynolds 

Mrs. Samuel H. Reynolds 

Sebastiano Ricci 

Seymour de Ricci 

Miss Eliza Akerly Richardson 

Dr. Rudolf Meyer Riefstahl 

Karrick Riggs 

Mrs. Herbert D. Robbins 



Charles L. Robertson 

Mrs. Thomas Robins 

Edward Robinson 

Mrs. Edward Robmson 

R. G. Robinson 

E. Willard Roby 

Madame Camille Roche 

Mrs. Francis Burke Roche 

Mrs. Francis Rogers 

Miss Harriet Rogers 

Gustav Roncin 

Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 

Mrs. James A. Roosevelt 

George Rose 

Harris P. Rothkowitz 

Alfred de Rothschild 

Madame RoufF 

Arthur C. Rounds 

Miss E. H. Rowe 

Robert de Rustaf-Jaell Bey 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell 

Miss Ellen E. Russell 

Miss Marie Russell 

Prmcess Ruspoli 

Thomas F. Ryan 

Mrs. Katherine H. Ryle 

Mrs. Russell Sage 

Luis de Hoyos Sainz 

George Sakier 

William Salomon 

Mrs. William Salomon 

Charles E. Sampson 

Milton Samuels 

Mitchell Samuels 

Mrs. Sanborn 

Gerard Sandoz 

Henry Sands 

Edmund J. Scheider 

Miss Walburga Schelble 

Susan B. Schenck 

Mrs. Angiolina Scheuermann 

Mrs. Schuyler SchiefFelin 

Jacob H. Schiff 

Mortimer L. Schiff 

Eugene Schoen 

Miss Elizabeth Hirst Schoonover 

Miss Georgina Schuyler 

The Misses Schuyler 

Mrs. Anna Schwaisst 

Miss Louise B. Scott 

Mrs. Mathewson Scott 

Mrs. Russell Scott 

Mrs. Sedley 

Mrs. Henry Seligman 

Germain Seligmann 

Jacques Seligmann 

Jacques Seligmann and 

Company, Inc. 
Edward W. Sheldon 



Mrs. Edward M. Shepard 

Mrs. Watts Sherman 

Charles H. Sherrill 

Mrs. Arthur Murray Sherwood 

Mrs. Walter Shirlaw 

James P. Silo 

Dr. Henry Mann Silver 

William S. Silver 

Slater Memorial Museum 

Mrs. Arthur Sloane 

Charles Sprague Smith 

F. Hopkinson Smith 

H. A. Hammond Smith 

Mrs. J. E. Smith 

Mrs. Ormond G. Smith 

Richard A. Smith 

William B. Smith 

Thomas Snell 

Mrs. Charles Russell Soley 

Mrs. James Russell Soley 

Mrs. John Russell Soley 

Leon V. Solon 

Hans Christian Sonne 

Mrs. E. E. Sperry 

James Speyer 

Mrs. Alfred Spice 

Spink and Son 

Mrs. E. J. Spingarn 

Mrs. Adolph B. Spreckels 

Ernest Stauffen 

Ernest Stauffen, Jr. 

Louis Stewart 

Louis Stewart, Jr. 

Miss M. Stewart 

William Rhinelander Stewart 

Mrs. L N. Phelps Stokes 

Mr. Stomor 

George Cameron Stone 

Charles Messer Stow 

Mrs. Michael Stramiello 

Miss Susan Street 

Mrs. William E. Strong 

Mary Stuart Book Fund 

Frank K. Sturgis 

Mrs. Frank K. Sturgis 

Diego Suarez 

Mrs. Cornelius J. Sullivan 

Miss Isabel Place Sullivan 

Miss Alice M. Swift 

Miss Vivi Sylwan 

Henry Symons 

Symons, Inc. 

Robert Talmadge 

J. Frederick Tams 

Mrs. Henry A. C. Taylor 

Mrs. Henry Osborn Taylor 

Mrs. Talbot J. Taylor 

William A. Taylor 



109 



Peter Teigen 

James Terry 

Richard E. Thibaut 

Richard E. Thibaut, Inc. 

Mrs. Joseph B. Thomas 

Mrs. A. S. Thompson 

Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson 

Mrs. James Ward Thorne 

Thornton-Smith, Ltd. 

J. H. Thorp and Company 

Mrs. Francis B. Thurber 

Louis C. TiflFany 

Tiffany and Company 

Tolentino Art Gallery 

Miss E. S. Torrey 

Henry R. Towne 

Miss Ethel Traphagen 

Mrs. Walter P. Treadwell 

Mrs. John B. Trevor 

Miss Emily Tuckerman 

Paul Tuckerman 

Miss Turnure 

Mrs. Hamilton McK. Twomhly 

United States Government, 
Treasury Department 
United States Shipping Board 
Mrs. Samuel Untermyer 
D. Berkeley Updike 

Marquis Val Verde de la Sierra 

Robert Van Boskerck 

Miss Lotta Van Buren 

Robert Van Court 

Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt 

Mrs. Frederick W. Vanderbilt 

Charles H. Vanderlaan 

John Van Derlip 

William Van Koerd 

Arthur S. Vernay 

Charles Vezin 

Victoria and Albert Museum 

George F. Vietor 



Her Highness the Princess Viggo 

of Denmark 
Sacha Volitchenko 

A. J. B. Wace 

Miss Anna Watemann 

Frederick S. Wait 

Mrs. Hooper Wakefield 

Mrs. Stewart Walker 

John Wanamaker 

John Wanamaker New York, Inc. 

Rodman Wanamaker 

Mrs. Felix Warburg 

Artemas Ward 

Henry Galbraith Ward 

Miss Mary H. Ward 

Waring and Gillow, Ltd. 

Mrs. C. P. Warren 

Mrs. J. Kearney Warren 

Mrs. John Hobart Warren 

Charles Waters 

Henri O. Watson 

Harry Wearne 

Louis Webb 

Clarence Webster 

Mrs. Clarence Webster 

Mrs. Hamilton Fish Webster 

Miss Alice Delano Weekes 

Frederic Delano Weekes 

Frank Weitenkampf 

Richard Welling 

Mrs. Arthur Welman 

Paul Wenzel 

Mrs. Charles E. Wetmore 

Miss Edith Wetmore 

Miss Maude K. Wetmore 

Paul Wetterwald 

Mr. and Mrs. Morrison Van R. 

Weyant 
Mrs. E. R. Wharton 
Mrs. T. M. Wheeler 
Annie G. H. White 
Henry White 



Mrs. Henry White 

Mrs. Stanford White 

Mrs. Charles E. Whitehead 

Miss Nan Whitely 

Miss Gertrude Whiting 

Mrs. H. P. Whitney 

Whitney Museum of American Art 

Mrs. Frederick W. Whitridge 

Mrs. Forsyth Wickes 

Peter A. B. Widener 

Victor Wilbour 

John L. Wilkie 

Mrs. Harrison Williams 

John Williams 

Max Williams 

William Williams 

Miss Williamson 

Lucius Wilmerding 

Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding 

Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding, Jr. 

Mrs. M. Orme Wilson 

Mrs. Eleanor C. A. Winslow 

Lawrence Winters 

Granville Lindall Winthrop 

Mrs. Robert Winthrop 

Wise Auction Galleries 

Frank S. Witherbee 

Mrs. Anna WoerishoeiFer 

Wolf and CariUo 

Women's National Republican 

Club, Inc. 
Mrs. William Meeker Wood 
Mrs. Robert Woodworth 
Maison Worth 
Eben Wright 
Henry H. Wu 
Georges Wybo 

Yamanaka and Company 
Charles R. Yandell 
A. Murray Young 
Mrs. A. Murray Young 
Mrs. Elinor Young 



110 



The Directors of the Museum have this year established the following 
classes of membership: 

Benefactors, who contribute ?1,000 or more 
Life Members, who contribute $500 or more 
Sustaining Members, who contribute $100 annually 
Subscribing Members, who contribute 350 annually 
Contributing Members, who contribute $10 annually 
Annual Members, who contribute $3 annually 

Cheques should be drawn to Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 
care of The Friends of the Museum, Cooper Square and 7th Street, New York. 

Walter Maynard, Treasurer 
The Friends of the Museum. 



Ill 



COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

IS SERVED BY THESE LINES OF 
TRANSPORTATION 



SECOND AVENUE ELEVATED— 8th Street (St. Mark's Place) Station 

THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED— 9th Street Station 

L R. T. SUBWAY, Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY, Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line— 8th Street Station 

EIGHTH AVENUE INDEPENDENT SUBWAY— Sixth Avenue and 4th 
Street Station 

HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES— 9th Street Station 
FIFTH AVENUE BUS, "Wanamaker Terminal" route 
BROADWAY BUS 

MAT)ISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS 
LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 
EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 



1 U I 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 



VOL • I ■ NO • 4 



APRIL • 1938 






r^-:^%^' 




Catalogue number 213 



la J I - '^-^ 



fJi 



Scale, 1:6 



COOPER UNION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE AND ART 

Trustees 

Gano Dunn, President 
J. P. Morgan Walter S. Gifford 

Elihu Root, Jr. Barklie Henry 



Percy R. Pyne, Jr., Treasurer Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

Edward L. Rehm, Secretary 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

Directors 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare, Chairman 

Miss Edith Wetmore, Secretary 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs, Stafford McLean 

Staff 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 
Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 



Copyright, 1938, by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 
New York, N. Y., April 11, 1938 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 4 APRIL • 1938 



FOR the fourth year the Directors present in the Chronicle an indication of the 
Museum's resources, its purposes, and its activities. There have been no 
exhibitions during the present year to report and record, for such special activ- 
ities have been held in abeyance and all energies have been devoted to the 
inventory and catalogue of the collections. As an evidence of the progress realized 
in this endeavor, the entire group of wall-papers in the Museum printed before 
1900, which has been investigated in the light of fresh information only recently 
available, is here published in a catalogue accompanied by illustrations of some 
of the more unusual and noteworthy examples. The history of a distinguished 
branch of industrial design is well reflected in these documents; but, what is 
equally important, the means of production is not lost from sight. A bibliography, 
accompanying the catalogue, indicates sources of information regarding tech- 
nique, and serves to emphasize the Directors' belief that a working museum must 
furnish visual education in techniques, as well as demonstration of essentials 
of design. 

Such, indeed, has been the theory of practical instruction that has formed the 
basis of the Museum's teaching since its first founding. It is in this direction that 
the activity undertaken by certain of The Friends of the Museum gives such 
great promise. 

115 




Catalogue number 236 



Scale, 5:12 



WALL-PAPERS IN THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS 
PRODUCED BEFORE 1900 

The process of printing is the oldest and most honored of all the forms of 
mass production; and the art of printing is represented, most properly, by a 
variety of objects in the Museum's collections. Four years ago a temporary 
exhibition called attention to the rich resources available in Cooper Union for the 
study of textile printing, past and contemporary, of which the first number of | 

the Chronicle gave some indication. The printing of wall-paper, so closely related , "^i*^ 
to that of textiles, is no less fully represented, and the extent of the collection of 
papers is shown now, for the first time, in the catalogue that follows. 

The diverse techniques employed at one time or another in the production of 
wall-paper have been so fully described, and so often, that they are not repeated 
here. The history of style, and of notable designers, is also available in many 
published accounts, which appear in the bibliography that follows. The Museum 
is concerned, in the present publication, entirely with the presenting of its own 
possessions for the benefit of those to whom the wall-papers may be unfamiliar. 
Many of the more imposing designs owned by the Museum have been reproduced, 
sometimes in color, in other publications. These are not reproduced once again in 
the Chronicle; but in their place appear designs of equal interest that have seldom, 
if ever, been published. 

It should scarcely be necessary to remind the reader of the treasury of design, 
original and engraved, that is to be found in the Museum as a parallel to the wall- 
papers here listed. Mention should be made, however, of the contemporary wall- 
papers, not included in the present catalogue, given to the Museum in 1930 by 
the manufacturers and others who had lent them for an exhibition of wall cover- 
ings held at the Museum in that year. 

The blanks in the collection will be observed — there are no German, Austrian 
or Italian papers, and too few of American and early English production. It is to 
be hoped that these wants may be supplied, as others so often have been, by 
generous friends of the Museum. 

C. S. H. 

117 




Cat. no. 68 /^UVjCMlil. Scale, 1:3 Cat. no. 70 4LMn>l-n~- 1*^1^=^ 



^^^?-5-1^ 



/^^^^2'^^ 




Cat. no. 72 



Scale, 1:6 



i^^^z-Ji-T^ 






^L,M«^>sl- 



CATALOGUE^ 



ENGLAND 

Eighteenth Century 
Roll Papers 

1. 1935-6-1. Roll of paper printed in a repeating 
design of flowers and foliage in the style of 
Pillement. 1770-1780. Illustrated, p. 123. 

Given by Mrs. Luke Vincent Lockwood 

2. 1903-17-1, -2. Two papers printed with an 
arcade of superimposed Corinthian orders; from 
the keystone of each arch hang swags of flow- 
ers, and between each pair of columns is a vase 
of flowers. Copied from paper in the hall of the 
Hamilton House, South Berwick, Maine; illus- 
trated : McClelland, Historic Wall-papers, p. 25 1 . 
Probably made in the United States, about 1900. 

3. 1903-17-3. "The Monastery." Portion of a 
repeating design, with alternating motifs of a 
ruin and shrubbery, and of portions of Gothic 
architecture. United States, about 1900; made 
by Thomas Strahan Company. Copied from 
paper found in Salem, Massachusetts; identi- 
cal paper illustrated: Sanborn, Old Time Wall 
Papers, pi. XXV. 

Given by Mrs. Newton Perkins 

4. 1931-40-16. Field strewn with small conven- 
tionalized flowers; divided by recurring vertical 
bands and alternating repeating motifs, one of 
wild roses and one of a dairymaid with a churn. 
About 1790. 

Given by Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt 

Nineteenth Century 
Borders and Friezes 

5. 1907-5-22. Border; arabesque of flowers and 
foliage, with wheat. About 1830. 

6. 1907-5-1. Frieze; egg-and-dart and bead 
mouldings above a serpentine band of grape 
leaves in green. About 1830. 

7. 1907-5-29. Frieze; alternating simple and com- 
pound acanthus leaves. About 1830. 



'All the wall-papers listed in this catalogue are printed 
from woodblocks, unless otherwise specified in the 
descriptions. 



8. 1907-5-30. Frieze; acanthus rinceaux. About 
1830. 

9. 1907-5-31. Frieze; acanthus rinceaux. About 
1830. 

10. 1907-5-34. Frieze; advancing wave motif. 
About 1830. 

1 1 . 1907-5-35. Frieze; palmette motif with heart- 
shaped surround. About 1830. 

12. 1907-5-36. Frieze; guilloche pattern. About 
1830. 

13. 1907-5-37. Frieze; torus with grains and 
fruit in simulated relief. About 1830. 

14. 1907-5-38. Frieze; double interlace of cables. 
About 1830. 

15. 1907-5-42. Frieze; acanthus rinceaux. About 
1830. Illustrated: Sugden and Edmondson, A 
History of English Wall-Paper, fig. 74. 

16. 1907-5-33. Frieze; ivy vine entwined about 
stalk. About 1850. Illustrated: Sugden and 
Edmondson, fig. 77. 

17. 1907-5-21. Border; central panel of ara- 
besque of flowers and foliage, flanked by plant 
shoots. About 1860. 

18. 1907-5-39, -40. Two friezes; architectural 
design, with laurel swags suspended between 
simulated modillions. About 1860. Illustrated: 
Sugden and Edmondson, fig. 73. 

19. 1907-5-2. Frieze; central basket of flowers 
flanked by confronted griffons whose tails ter- 
minate in floral scrolls. About 1860. 

20. 1907-5-3. Frieze; serpentine band of horse- 
chestnut leaves. About 1860. 

21. 1907-5-4. Frieze; twisted green and tan ca- 
bles, forming circles at regular intervals. About 
1860. 

22. 1907-5-11. Frieze; wide stripe flanked by 
narrower stripes set with disks. About 1860. 

23. 1907-5-12. Frieze; central cream stripe over- 
laid at top and bottom by brown repeating 
shield motif. About 1860. 

24. 1907-5-13. Frieze; central stripe flanked by 
lattice design. About 1860. 



119 




Cat. no. 123 



Scale, 1:6 



/^LMONTG^ /^"j 



25. 1907-5-14. Frieze; narrow stripe flanked by- 
wide stripes entwined by floral garlands. About 
1860. 

26. 1907-5-15. Frieze; two bands of twisted 
cables, with overlaid alternating paterae and 
bosses. About 1860. 

27. 1907-5-16. Frieze; two parallel bands, the 
upper with leaves in link design on pink field 
the lower with leaves on curved stems, surround- 
ing acorns, on cream field. About 1860. 

28. 1907-5-18. Frieze; two bands of cable pat- 
tern. About 1860. 

29. 1907-5-19, -20. Two friezes; advancing wave 
motif. About 1860. 

30. 1907-5-32. Frieze; simulated architectural 
moulding, composed of acanthus scrolls between 
leaf-and-tongue and baguette mouldings. About 
1860. 

31. 1907-5-41. Frieze; simulated architrave. 
About 1860. 

32. 1907-5-17. Frieze; scroll pattern with grape 
leaves. About 1870. 

33. 1907-5-28. Frieze; laurel branches enclosing 
circles in which heads, facing left, alternate with 
trophies. About 1880. 

34. 1907-5-5. Frieze; baguette motif formed of 
ribbons enclosing alternating clusters of moss 
roses and forget-me-nots. About 1880. 

35. 1907-5-6. Frieze; chain of alternating 
bunches of roses and cornflowers. About 1890. 

36. 1907-5-7. Frieze; serpentine chain of vari- 
ous flowers, with border of geometrical pattern. 
About 1890. 

37. 1907-5-8. Frieze; trailing vine and leaf de- 
sign forming loops in which bluebirds perch. 
About 1890. 

38. 1907-5-9. Pilaster panel; scrolls and garlands, 
medallions in two upper sections and birds in 
bottom section, with rod-like shoot of foliage 
as surround. About 1860. 

39. 1907-5-10. Pilaster panel; simulated archi- 
tectural mouldings, with foliage arabesques and 
a medallion head, in neo-Louis XVI style. 

About 1860. 

Given by Cowtan and Sons, Ltd. 



Roll Papers 

40. 1934-13-1. Two joined widths of paper 
printed with a repeating design of flowers and 
foliage rinceaux. About 1825. From the Peter 
Adriance House at Hopewell, Dutchess County, 
New York. 

Given by Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 

41. 1931^5-101. Vertical stripes of small geo- 
metrical forms flanking wide central band set 
with large vine of roses, forget-me-nots, and 
foliate forms. 1840-1850. 

42. 1931-45-108. Quatrefoils with enclosed leaf 
motifs, printed in white on white glazed paper. 
1850-1860. 

43. 1931-45-110. Diagonally crossed bands with 
stepped edges. 1850-1870. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

44. 1907-33-1. Machine-printed; vertical stripes 
of flanking white band set with flower clusters 
and pendant motif. 1860-1870. 

Given by Miss Mary Mellish 

45. 1931-45-111. Machine-printed; grisaille pat- 
tern of flowing leaf forms and scrolls, with 
flowers. 1875-1890. 

46. 1931-45-120. Machine-printed on ground of 
metallic red; paper stamped in horizontal rib- 
bing. Design in Chinese style, of roses and other 
plants, vases and strapwork. 1885-1895. 

47. 1931^5-121. Machine-printed; paper 
stamped in vertical ribbing, with raised design 
simulating cut and uncut velvet of foliate pat- 
tern. 1885-1895. 

48. 1931-45-122. Machine-printed; paper 
stamped in horizontal ribbing. Exotic birds, 
foliage and flowers. 1885-1895. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

49. 1936-5-5. Large-scale repeating design of 
flowers and foliage, with large acanthus leaves. 
Made by Morris and Company, about 1880. 

50. 1936-5-4. "The Poppy;" large-scale repeat- 
ing design of poppy flowers and leaves. Made 
by F. Arthur, about 1890. 

Given by Miss Annie May Hegeman 



121 



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Cai. no. 239,, _ 



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Cat. no. 129 



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Scale, 2:9 



51. 1937-91-1. "Flora's Feast;" personifications 
of marsh marigold, lady smocks, mayflower, 
evening primrose, Christmas rose and forget- 
me-not, after originals by Walter Crane. About 

1890. 

Given by Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 

52. 1935-23-1. "Single Stem;" arabesque of 
flowers and foliage, with pale monochrome ara- 
besque in field. 

53. 1935-23-2. "Golden Lily;" arabesque of 
foliage, lilies, tulips and other flowers, with 
stippled field. 

54. 1935-23-3. "Willow Bough;" serpentine ar- 
rangement of willow boughs. 

55. 1935-23-4. "Marigold;" vertical strips of as- 
cending plants and flowers, with regular repeat. 

56. 1935-23-5. "Powdered;" scattered conven- 
tional flowers arranged in drop repeat on field 
of foliage arabesque. 

57. 1935-23-6. "Sweetbriar;" vertical strips of 
ascending rose trees, in regular repeat. 

58. 1935-23-7. "Daisy;" clusters of conventional 
flowers, on field flecked with green, arranged in 
horizontal rows and alternating in their repeat. 

59. 1935-23-8. "Lily;" clusters of conventional 
flowers, on field of foliage arabesque, arranged 
in horizontal rows and alternating in their 
repeat. 

60. 1935-23-9. "Michaelmas Daisy;" foliage 
arabesque with clusters of flowers, in drop- 
repeating pattern. 

61. 1935-23-10,-11. "Willow;" foliage arabesque 
with single vertical repeat; in two color schemes. 

62. 1935-23-12. "Branch;" single vertical repeat 
of leaf clusters. 

63. 1935-23-13. "Honeysuckle;" arabesque of 
vertical foliage, with clusters of flowers, in drop- 
repeating pattern. 

64. 1935-23-14,-15. "Fruit;" alternating verti- 
cal repeat of four sprigs of leaves with fruit; 
in two color schemes. 

65. 1935-23-16. "Apple;" diagonal repeat of 
foliage pattern with round fruit. 

66. 1935-23-17. "Mallow;" vertical repeat of 
flowers, in serpentine arrangement. 



67. 1935-23-18. "Pimpernel;" symmetrical, 
alternate, vertical repeat; arabesque of flowers 
and foliage. 

Modern reproductions, from the original blocks, 
of wall-papers designed by William Morris. 

Given by Cowtan and Tout, Inc. 

FRANCE 

Eighteenth Century 
Domino Papers^ 

68. 1928-2-79. Domino paper; lower left corner 
of a design similar to the type used for decora- 
tive leather wall-hangings, printed in black with 
stencilled washes of red and blue-green; maker's 
number, 46, in border. About 1720. Illustrated, 
p. 118. 

69. 1928-2-80. Domino paper; fragment with 
diagonally set squares enclosed by framework 
of black lines, with green cinquefoil at points 
of intersection and red pellets enclosed within 
the squares. About 1720. 

70. 1928-2-81. Domino paper; repeating octa- 
gons enclosing rosettes. About 1720. Illustrated, 
p. 118. 

71. 1928-2-77. Domino paper; hexagonal medal- 
lions enclosing floral sprays. 1740-1750. 

72. 1928-2-74. Domino paper; serpentine rib- 
bon intertwined with floral vine, alternating 
with black band composed of leaves and fruit. 
About 1750. Illustrated, p. 118. 

73. 1928-2-75. Domino paper; two bands of 
floral guilloche against black-rouletted back- 
ground; to either side, small band with serpen- 
tine strip of flowers and foliage. About 1750. 
Illustrated, p. 118. 

74. 1928-2-82. Domino paper; stippled field and 
portion of an arabesque design of flowers and 
foliage. About 1750. 

75. 1928-2-76. Domino paper; paired chequered 
serpentine bands entwined by serpentine bands 
of small flowers periodically set with larger 
rose-like flowers. 1750-1760. 



iDomino papers were printed in one color from a 
woodblock, other colors being added by brushing 
through stencils. 



125 



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Cat. no. 102 





J Scale, 1:12 



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Cat. no. 132 



Scale, 1:4 



76. 1928-2-83. Domino paper; diagonally set 
squares enclosed in framework of black and red 
bands, with circular floral motif at points of 
intersection. About 1790. 

Painted Paper 

77. 1928-2-109. Painted paper for a screen panel; 
branches of a flowering plant similar to the 
Indian "Tree of Life." 1750-1770. 

Friezes 

78. 1931-45^8. Portion of a frieze; colonnades 
enclosing a paved court in which stands a statue 
of Jupiter. 1780-1790. Another piece of this 
paper is illustrated: Bulletin of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, v. XXIII, no. 4, April, 1928, 
p. 112. 

79. 1931-45-20. Frieze; simulated architectural 
frieze adorned with urn and thyrsus entwined 
with grapevine; blue-grey, with warm grey 
shading. About 1785, 

Roll Papers 

80. 1928-2-67. Early woodblock wall-paper, 
stencilled in darker yellow framework on ground 
of lighter yellow, with rosette printed in red 
from woodblock. 1740-1750. Illustrated, p. 122. 

81. 1931-45-10. Arabesque design of foliage and 
flowers, in the manner of Jean Pillement's Indian 
designs, printed in oranges and blue-greens. 
1760-1765. Illustrated, p. 123. 

82. 1928-2-65. Repeating pattern of foliate 
scrolls and conventionalized floral motif. About 
1760. Illustrated, p. 122. 

83. 1928-2-66. Printed and stencilled paper with 
Indian type of design derived from the "Tree 
of Life." 1760-1770. 

84. 1928-2-58. Repeating design of crossed foli- 
ate scrolls, enclosing floral sprays. About 1770. 

85. 1928-2-71. Imitation of printed linen; rec- 
tangular framework of twisted ribbon forms, 
running diagonally, in black and white dots, 
with tassels hanging from points of intersec- 
tion; vertical serpentine of slender vine with 
flowers and foliage, in black and white, on 
neutral red-orange field. About 1770. Illus- 
trated, p. 122. 



86. 1931-45-11. Repeating pattern of squares 
containing alternately a circle enclosing a seated 
figure holding an umbrella, and four intersect- 
ing arcs enclosing urns and foliage; printed in 
dark blue on a lighter blue ground. About 1770. 
Illustrated, p. 130. 

87. 1931-45-13. Alternating motifs, in orange 
and dark green, on dark blue field; pergola 
hung with bells played by man and boy in 
Chinese costume, and urn filled with flowers. 
About 1770. 

88. 1928-2-63. Bunches of roses, tied with rib- 
bons, with framework composed of long stems 
and scrolls of foliage. About 1775. 

89. 1931-45-4. Stencilled wall-paper, in dis- 
temper colors on blue ground; two alternating 
motifs, in repeat, showing man in oriental 
costume holding aloft a writing tablet, and two 
men in oriental costume cooking a bird in a 
pot over a fire. About 1775. 

90. 1931-45-15. Alternating motifs of fruit and 
flower clusters, and a bracket supporting a man 
in oriental costume, linked together by fes- 
tooned beads. About 1775. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

91. 1925-1-22. All-over pattern of flower stems 
and flowers forming a framework enclosing 
bunches of flowers, with an occasional dragon 
fly. About 1780. 

92. 1925-1-24. Repeating wreaths enclosing 
roses, with rosebuds sown over white-dotted 
field. About 1780. 

93. 1925-1-369. Pictorial panel; woman in a 
red-skirted dress, feeding chickens. 1780-1785. 
Illustrated, p. 138. This scene is a detail of the 
paper which covers the screen, 1931-45-86. 

Given by the Council 

94. 1931-45-86. Two-panel screen covered with 
wall-paper. Bucolic scenes in upper portion of 
both panels; below, frieze of butterflies and a 
seaport view enclosed in a medallion flanked 
by mermaids. 1780-1785. Portion of one panel 
repeats the design of 1925-1-369. 

95. 1928-2-95. Drop-repeating design; a vase of 
flowers flanked at base by confronted squirrels 



127 







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A L, M<5 H P3_ l9( 



Scale, 1:4 



sitting on scrolls; below, similar vase of flowers 
with addorsed satyrs. About 1780. 

96. 1928-2-98. Drop-repeating design; vertical 
twisted cable, entwined by floral sprays, flanked 
by alternating large and small clusters of roses. 
About 1780. 

97. 1928-2-99. Repeating design; rustic shelter, 
in style of Jean Pillement, with two figures of 
Chinamen derived from Pillement's Baraques 
chinois series, accompanied by festoons and 
sprays of flowers and foliage. About 1780. 
Illustrated, p. 130. 

98. 1931-45-23. Narrow tangent serpentine rib- 
bons enclosing irregular ellipses with stippled 
ground, set with single rosebuds. About 1780. 

99. 1931-45-30. Drop-repeating design of tripod 
and bouquet of flowers, with foliage scrolls and 
addorsed birds. About 1780. 

100. 1931-45-47. Small clusters of roses and 
rosebuds, against a ground stippled with white 
dotting. About 1780. 

101. 1931-45-50. Repeating design of bunch of 
pink roses and baskets of fruit, with intertwin- 
ing vine of pink jasmine, on green field. About 
1780. Reproduced, McClelland, Historic Wall- 
papers, p. 130, left. 

102. 1931-45-58. Paper for a horizontal panel; 
in centre, rectangular medallion with two fig- 
ures in grisaille; to right and left, semi-circular 
radiating fluting. To right and left of these, 
circular pink medallions, each with a figure in 
grisaille. Terminations in acanthus arabesques. 
1780-1785. Illustrated, p. 126. 

103. 1931^5-7. Alternating medallion in gri- 
saille of woman standing with sacrificial goat 
at an altar, and flower baskets from which is 
draped a wide ribbon. Above and below, large 
basket of flowers. About 1780; probably pro- 
duced in the factory of Jean-Baptiste Reveillon 
(1725-1811). 

104. 1931-45-8. Alternating motifs; two addorsed 
griffons upholding a flower basket; female figure 
sheathed in foliage, resting upon a circular 
medallion enclosing a butterfly. About 1780; 
probably by Reveillon. Illustrated, p. 138. 



105. 1931-45-25. Design simulating ribbon-like 
brocade, with vertical stripes of white line-work 
and vertical rows of pink flowers. About 1780; 
probably by Reveillon. 

106. 1931-45-28. "La chasse au faucon;" two 
motifs, one of hunting, party of three, on horse, 
the other of a landscape with architecture. 
About 1780; by Reveillon. Illustrated, p. 131. 
Original design for one motif reproduced in 
color: Clouzot and Follot, Histoire du Papier 
Peint en France, 1935, pi. VII. 

107. 1931-45-6. Alternating medallions; one 
shows two dogs guarding the carcass of a deer 
hanging head downward from a tree on which 
hangs also a hunting horn; the other shows a 
tripod urn containing flowers flanked by pea- 
cock feathers, below which is a nest with three 
young birds. About 1785 ; probably by Reveillon, 
Illustrated, p. 131. 

108. 1931^5-85. Basket of flowers; detail of a 
wall-paper designed by Jean-Baptiste Huet 
(1745-1811); printed by Reveillon. About 1785. 
The complete design, of which this is a detail, 
is illustrated: Clouzot and Follot, p. 59. 

109. 1931-45-41. Repeating design of floral ara- 
besques and scrolls, with pink and white roses, 
and fuchsias in a vase. 1780-1790; probably by 
Reveillon. 

1 10. 1931-45-5. "Les deux pigeons;" large basket 
of flowers with dove flying from its midst; 
another dove above, to right. Along each mar- 
gin, slender shaft with occasional foliation, 
intercepted by a small urn of flowers. About 
1785; made by Reveillon. Design illustrated: 
Clouzot and Follot, p. 53. Similar design, in 
reverse, illustrated: Oman, Catalogue of Wall- 
paper, London, 1929, pi. XI (a). 

111. 1931-45-35. Figure of a putto blowing two 
horns; detail of a wall-paper. 1785-1789; prob- 
ably by Reveillon. 

112. 1928-2-92. Panel, perhaps for a screen; girl 
and boy on grassy slope, with conventional 
landscape background. 1785-1789; probably by 
Reveillon. 

113. 1931-45-12. Repeating pattern developed 
on a vertical axis; a medallion, flanked by female 



129 
























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Cat. no. 184 



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Cat. no. 182 Scale, 1:13 



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gaines, surmounted by a bouquet of flowers 
with birds and butterflies; below medallion a 
tripod from which grow sprays of flowers and 
foliage. 1785-1790; probably by Reveillon. 

114. 1925-2-331. Portion of paper designed by 
Etienne de Lavallee-Poussin (1722-1803); foun- 
tain from which confronted reindeer drink; at 
top, arch with radiating fluting, from which 
hang two harps. About 1788; made by Reveillon. 
Illustrated: Gusman, Panneaux decoratifs, pi. 
5,6. 

115. 1925-2-332. Panel of paper designed by 
Jean-Baptiste Fay; at bottom, two grifi^ons on 
a base with drapery, below a vase of flowers 
with birds on the handles. In centre, diamond- 
shaped medallion with classical figures on black 
background, framed with laurel bands and foli- 
age garlands of roses and scrolls of foliage. 
About 1788; made by Reveillon. Illustrated: 
Gusman, pi. 13, 14. 

116. 1928-2-61. In centre, seated putto with 
caduceus and torch, surrounded by a border of 
interlaced pink and green braiding on a green 
field. About 1785. 

1 17. 1928-2-64. Paper imitating moire silk, with 
small bunches of flowers in drop repeat. About 
1785. 

118. 1928-2-93. Drop-repeating design of tulips 
and roses, tied with ribbon, alternating with 
horizontally placed spray of apple blossoms; 
field stippled with diagonal rows of white dots. 
About 1785. 

119. 1928-2-96. Design simulating a brocaded 
silk, with stripes of parallel white bars, of white 
dots and of pink lozenge forms between chevron 
band; alternating with these small stripes, a 
broad strip of blue, sown in two rows with 
floral and foliate whorls. About 1785. 

120. 1931-45-9. Alternating motifs: peacock 
perched on edge of fountain basin, surrounded 
by flower garlands, sprays and drapery; and 
basket of flowers held by twisted ribbon and 
bow, with long trailing flower garlands. About 
1785. 

121. 1931-45-16. Basketwork pattern in gri- 
saille. About 1785. 



122. 1931-45-21. Tangent serpentine stripes en- 
closing irregular ellipses set with pansies. About 
1785. 

123. 1931-45-83. Panel for overdoor or fire- 
board; young man with fish on a line, and 
young woman, against a landscape background. 
About 1785. Illustrated, p. 120. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

124. 1925-1-23. Alternating motifs; large shallow 
bowl, with three feet and link handles, filled 
with flowers; scene of woman under an arched 
lattice playing with a cupid. Framework of 
ribbon festoons, garlands and scrolls. 1785-1790. 

Given by the Council 

125. 1931-45-17. Panel for overdoor or fireboard; 
panoply of armor: shield, helmet, sword and 
axe, and crossed branches of laurel and oak. 
About 1785; probably made by Arthur and 
Grenard. 

126. 1931-45-18. Panel for a screen; putto feed- 
ing a chicken, under two trees. 1785-1790. 
probably made by Arthur and Grenard. 

127. 1931-45-77. Panel for a dado. Urn in cen- 
tre, containing foliage, flanked by grifibns and 
foliage scrolls; at either end, a pilaster. About 
1790. 

128. 1928-2-97. Drop-repeating design; bowl of 
flowers above a medallion enclosing a suckling 
sheep with lamb, surrounded by a wreath, and 
below a brule-parfum flanked by two birds tak- 
ing strawberries from compotes. Above the 
latter motif is the fourth motif of the design, 
of confronted putti dancing on a baldachino 
from which hang two swags. About 1791; prob- 
ably made by Jacquemart and Benard. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

129. 1925-1-370. Portion of a Revolutionary 
wall-paper. An oak wreath, on a dark blue field, 
surrounds a circular medallion with grey frame 
containing seated female figure; she leans upon 
a staff surmounted by a liberty cap, and holds 
in her right hand a small figure of Victory 
proffering a wreath. Around part of the circum- 
ference of the medallion is the motto: unite 



133 




/f6/-4^-'f^ 



Scale, 1:7 



INDIVISIBILITE DE LA REPUBLIQ.UE. 1792-1793; 

probably made by Jacquemart and Benard. 
Illustrated, p. 124. 

Given by the Council 

130. 1931-45-26. Serpentine sprays of lilac and 
other flowers. 1790-1800. 

131. 1931^5-31. Lozenge-shaped framework 
composed of blue lines running between solid 
lozenges, and flanked by foliage swags. Enclosed 
by this framework are alternating rose and tulip 
sprays. 1795-1800. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

132. 1925-1-25. Repeating medallion in brick 
red and darker red, of figure of gardener stand- 
ing on ground strip amid flowers, flower pots 
and garden tools, enclosed in draped flouncing 
of leaf forms edged with lace. 1795-1800. Illus- 
trated, p. 126. 

Given by the Council 

133. 1928-2-62. Diagonally placed rows of ellip- 
tical bosses in simulated relief, with white out- 
lines on one side and black on the other. 1795- 
1800. 

134. 1931-45-19. Diagonally running lattice de- 
sign overlaid with alternating square and oblong 
octagons; the square octagons enclose a chair, 
alternating with an ewer with mug; the oblong 
octagons enclose rose sprays. 1795-1800. Paper 
of same design illustrated: McClelland, Historic 
Wall-papers, p. 32. 

135. 1931-45-24. Octagonal shapes, formed with 
triple white lines, enclosing dark blue laurel 
wreaths with orange star at centre. 1795-1800. 
From the "Hotel de Fersen," 19 rue Matignon, 

Paris. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

136. 1900-5-3. Repeating design of floral ara- 
besques, composed of carnations and roses, and 
foliate scrolls; alternating with these, a female 
figure standing between two tripods. 1790- 
1797. From a house in Cazenovia, New York; 
said to have been hung in 1797. 

Given by Mrs. Charles S. Fairchild 



Nineteenth Century 
Borders and Friezes 

137. 1928-2-57. Border; alternating motifs of 
spray of roses and leaf with berries. 1795-1805. 
Illustrated: Chronicle of the Museum for the Arts 
of Decoration of Cooper Union, v. 1, no. 3, p. 96. 

138. 1928-2-56. Border; design of palmette and 
leaf scrolls alternately set between S-scrolls. 
1795-1805. Illustrated: Chronicle, v. 1, no. 3, 
p. 96. 

139. 1928-2-55. Border; repeating design of me- 
dallions enclosed by simple leaf forms, contain- 
taining floral spray. 1795-1805. Illustrated: 
Chronicle, v. 1, no. 3, p. 96. 

140. 1928-2-51. Border; repeating design of foli- 
age serpentine with recurring hydrangea blos- 
soms. About 1800. Illustrated: Chronicle, v. 1, 
no. 3, p. 96. 

141. 1928-2-53. Border; repeating design of floral 
spray. 1800-1805. Illustrated, Chronicle, v. 1, 
no. 3, p. 96. 

142. 1931-45-102. Portion of a roll of brilliant 
green paper, with no decoration. 1800-1810. 

143. 1931-45-109. Diagonal rows of flower forms, 
on corn-colored ground. 1800-1810. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

144. 1907-2-27. Border; yellow field, with de- 
sign in black showing alternating vases and 
musical instruments enclosed in rectangular 
framework formed by conventional leaf motif. 
1800-1815. 

Given by Cowtan and Sons, Ltd. 

145. 1928-2-54. Border; eight units of a floral 
design suggestive of Indian embroidery. About 
1805. Illustrated, Chronicle, v. 1, no. 3, p. 96. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

146. 1925-1-371. Frieze; simulated architectural 
mouldings, and figures of two putti in a wheat 
field. To right and left, portions of a vertically 
placed quiver from which droop ears of wheat. 
1805-1815. 

Given by the Council 

147. 1931-45-66. Border; leaf motif across top; 
below, peonies and leaves. About 1810. 



135 




Cat. no. 201, detail 



Scale, 1:5 



148. 1928-2-68. Frieze; simulated leaf-and- 
tongue mouldings above lotus rosettes and bud- 
ding lotus shoots, with separately printed and 
applied cable and cyma reversa mouldings be- 
low. 1810-1820. 

149. 1928-2-69. Frieze; festoon of drapery with 
embroidered border above a simulated cyma 
reversa moulding with acanthus leaves and 
palmettes. 1810-1820. 

150. 1931-45-49. Frieze; pink drapery, with 
pearls, and lace-trimmed edge. 1810-1820. 

151. 1931—45-98. Grey stripe with lozenge figure, 
alternating with dotted white band set with 
occasional plant forms; across bottom, over- 
printed palmette band in flock. 1810-1825. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

152. 1907-5-23. Border; confronted sphinxes, 
with urn in centre and candelabrum at each 
end. About 1815. 

153. 1907-5-24. Border; rosettes and foliage 
scrolls, with bead-and-reel across top, and bead- 
and-reel and leaf across bottom. About 1815. 

154. 1907-5-25. Border; foliage scrolls with swan 
in centre. About 1815. 

155. 1907-5-26. Border; military trophies. About 
1815. 

Given by Cowtan and Sons, Ltd. 

156. 1931-45-53. Frieze. Upon the centre of a 
simulated scroll of paper, partly unrolled, is 
an artisan cupid in brown; at either end, a quiver 
with arrows. Above and below, simulated 
architectural mouldings. About 1815. 

157. 1931-45-79. Frieze; urn flanked by classi- 
cal figures with lyres; at either end, a torch. 
About 1815. 

158. 1931-45-36. Simulated architectural frieze 
ornamented by a motif showing a woman at- 
tended by putti, and a basket of flowers with 
green leaves. 1815-1820. 

159. 1931-45-104. Border; band of roses, tulips 
and morning glories in naturalistic colors against 
field of dark red flock. 1815-1830. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

160. 1931-15-7. Border; interlacing lines form- 
ing ellipses along bottom edge; above, three 



symmetrical groups of leaves on striped ground. 
About 1820. 

Given by Miss Eliza Akerley Richardson 

161. 1928-2-52. Border; simulated leaf mould- 
ing above wavy band of foliage and flowers. 
About 1820. Illustrated: Chronicle, v. 1, no. 3, 
p. 96. 

162. 1931-45-68. Border; across top and bottom, 
twisted ribbon motif in yellow, flanking inter- 
twined chains of laurel foliage and flowers, on 
red flock field. About 1820. 

163. 1931-45-69. Border; foliage motifs in yel- 
low, overlaid by acanthus motifs in red-orange, 
on blue field. About 1820. 

164. 1931-45-75. Frieze; swags of roses, with 
tassels, festoons of drapery and of net. About 
1820. Piece of same design illustrated: Clouzot 
and FoUot, p. 197. 

165. 1931-45-93. Border; scalloped, following 
contours of drapery festoons. 1820-1830. 

166. 1931-45-95. Border; morning glories in 
naturalistic colors with leaves and edging in 
flock. 1830-1830. Stamped on reverse with oval 
device of maker: T L C'^- Similar in design 
with 1931-45-96. 

167. 1931-45-96. Border; morning glories in 
naturalistic colors, with leaves and edging in 
flock. 1820-1830. Similar in design with 1931- 

45-95. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

168. 1934-13-2. Border; serpentine streamers of 
flowers and foliage between rocaille flock edg- 
ings. About 1860. From the Peter Adriance 
House at Hopewell, Dutchess County, New 
York. 

Given by Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 

Roll Papers 

169. 1925-1-26. Portion of a roll of paper; de- 
sign repeating along a vertical axis, composed 
of foliate and floral sprays and scrolls, with 
bunches of grapes and confronted bluebirds. 

About 1800. 

Given by the Council 



137 



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Cat. no. 183 _ ^, 



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Cat. no. 210 



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Scale, 1:9 



170. 1928-2-59. Simulation of moire silk; alter- 
nating stripes of coral with overprinted black 
design, and of grey with overprinted green 
design. About 1800. 

171. 1928-2-60. Simulation of moire silk; stripes 
of blue and of white stippling on blue, with 
transverse blobs of white. About 1800. 

172. 1928-2-70. Framework of tangent octagons 
outlined by foliate forms and squares, enclosing 
hexagons outlined by honeysuckle motif. About 
1800. 

173. 1928-2-100. Drop-repeating design of loz- 
enges, in alternating files, filled with flower 
basket, macaws, steeple and floral arabesque. 
About 1800. 

174. 1931-43-39. Intersecting ellipses, with leaf 
forms along edge. About 1800. From the "Hotel 
de Fersen," 19 rue Matignon, Paris. Illustrated, 
p. 139. 

175. 1931-45-22. Serpentine sprays of flowers 
and foliage. About 1800. Illustrated, p. 128. 

176. 1931^5-57a, -57b. Two widths of wall- 
paper, with one similar and one identical motif. 
In the bottom half of each, a pink and green 
rose wreath, enclosing a diagonally set square 
in which is a lyre; a palmette at each corner, 
outside the wreath. In the upper half, a Pom- 
peian framework composed of urns, hanging 
musical instruments and drapery swags, enclos- 
ing grisaille figure groups: in (a), a woman with 
a lyre, attended by a putto; in (b), a woman, 
attended by a putto, placing a wreath upon a 
bust of Voltaire. About 1800; perhaps made in 
Rouen. Illustrated, p. 139. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

177. 1931-40-17. Motif from a wall-paper; hori- 
zontal lozenge, outlined in blue and white- 
reserve stripes, enclosing black field against 
which is a grey cylix with grey grapes. About 
1800. 

Given by Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt 

178. 1918-18-1. Wall-paper and border; paper 
sown with repeating conventionalized daisies 
with leaves. Border printed with morning-glory 
vine, with white and violet flowers, and leaves 



in dark green flock. 1800-1810. From the draw- 
ing room of the Jumel Mansion, New- York; 
the room is illustrated: William Henry Shelton, 
The Jumel Mansion, Boston, 1916, Houghton 
Mifflin, fac. p. 196. 

Given by Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

179. 1931-45-42. Portion of a large-scale geo- 
metric pattern; one motif circular, the other 
diamond-shaped. 1800-1810. 

180. 1931-45-84. Axial motif of acanthus below 
a basket containing fruit and wheat; border of 
papyrus motif. 1800-1810. Illustrated, p. 134. 

181. 1931-45-29. Vertical lozenge pattern of 
foliage, with floral inserts in each lozenge and 
floral rosettes at each angle of the lozenges. 
About 1805. 

182. 1931-45-37. Green field, sown with crossed 
lines of darker olive-green; brown border top 
and bottom, with dark green band of foliage 
sprinkled with pink flowers. Two figure motifs 
in centre of paper, with third motif displaying 
a cat. 1805-1810. Illustrated, p. 132. 

183. 1931-45-76. Panel for overdoor or fire- 
board. A goddess of classical antiquity, holding 
cat-o'-nine-tails in left hand, seated in shell 
drawn by two dolphins which spout water. 
Above, a cupid with a double horn, heralding 
the approach of the goddess. 1805-1810. Illus- 
trated, p. 140. 

184. 1931-45-27. Paper with borders; field cov- 
ered with dotting, leaving reserve for two motifs 
along central axis: one of a child off'ering a rose 
to a woman seated in a chair beside a table, 
the other displaying a rabbit crouched on a log. 

■ Upper border bears drapery and rose baskets; 
lower decorated with simulated architectural 
moulding. About 1810. Illustrated, p. 132. 

185. 1931-45-46. Field covered with geometrical 
figure composed of dots and lines, leaving re- 
serve for pictorial motifs along central axis: 
doves in a nest, seated woman with flower 
basket, musical instruments, and repeating 
doves in nest. About 1810. 

186. 1931-45-67. Heart-shaped leaf motif above 
chain of flowers and foliage. About 1810. 



141 




Cat. no. 190 



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Scale, 1:10 



187. 1928-2-1 14. Panel with borders and cornice; 
drapery frieze, putto with quiver and lyre, and 
woman seated before a potted rose tree. About 
1810. 

188. 1928-2-1 10. Alternating fleurons and squares 
against a background of foliage arabesques. 
1810-1820. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

189. 1931-40-18. Two figures of Bacchantes, 
standing side by side, each holding a cup and 
supported by a tree-trunk. 1810-1820. 

Given by Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt 

190. 1907-15-4. Fireboard covered with picto- 
rial paper depicting soldiers attending to a dog 
wounded on a battlefield; floral borders, 1810- 
1 820. From Ringwood Manor. Illustrated, p. 142. 

Given by Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt 

191. 1925-1-365. Top portion of a panel of paper, 
with segmental arches of varying span, capped 
with band of acanthus leaves alternating with 
lotus blossoms. About 1815. 

Given by the Council 

192. 1931-45-54. Wall-paper imitating brocade; 
framework of scrolled ribbon, enclosing bouquet 
of flowers in red flock against glossy red ground. 
1815-1825. 

193. 1931-45-55. Floral medallions surrounded 
by foliate scrolls; at top and bottom, border 
with foliate scrolls enclosing floral clusters. 
1815-1825. 

194. 1931-45-32. Motif from a wall-paper, Venus 
admonishing Cupid, with a granary in the back- 
ground. About 1820. 

195. 1931-45-33. Motif from a wall-paper; kneel- 
ing female figure before a cage formed by 
trellis-work, in which a cupid is imprisoned. 
About 1820. 

196. 1931^5-34. Motif from a wall-paper; putto 
running toward the left, against a background 
of greenery. About 1820. 

197. 1931^5-40. Dado panel, with simulated 
architectural mouldings and, in centre, figure 
of a woman and a child, against background of 
shrubbery. About 1820. 



198. 1931-45-44. Motif from a wall-paper; milk- 
maid and cow. About 1820. 

199. 1931-45-45. Motif from a wall-paper; two 
putti at an altar, with torch and basket of 
flowers. About 1820. 

200. 1931-45-60. Alternating acanthus rosettes 
and wreaths joined by acanthus scrolls and 
palmette motifs, in red flock on yellow field. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

201. 1936-10-1 to -8. Eight strips of scenic 
paper, Fues d' Italic, printed about 1820 by 
Joseph Dufour after design by Vernet. Illus- 
trated, p. 136. 

Given by Erskine Hewitt 

202. 1931-45-106. Conventionalized pattern of 
full-blown flowers and scrolling leaves. 1820- 
1830. 

203. 1931-45-107. Foliate scrolls on slightly 
glazed ground. 1820-1830. 

204. 1931-45-103. Simulation of textile, with 
design composed of palmettes, vines and scrolls. 
1820-1835. Stamped on reverse with oval de- 
vice of maker: T L C'^- 

205. 1928-2-72. Staggered repeat of large whorls 
of foliage with pink leaf form at centre. About 
1825. 

206. 1928-2-94. Colonnette in blue, with rosette 
banding and composite capital in yellow. About 
1825. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

207. 1934-13-3. Scattered sprays of foliage, with 
flowers and berries. About 1825. From the 
Peter Adriance House at Hopewell, Dutchess 
County, New York. 

Given by Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 

208. 1928-2-113. Panel from a series devoted to 
the Muses; elaborate lozenge-shaped frame- 
work, with circular medallion enclosing head, 
below which appears the name, "Thalie." 
About 1825; made by Jacques-Christophe- 
Xavier-Mader. Illustrated: Clouzot and FoUot, 
p. 204. 

209. 1931-45-1, -3. Two panels, for overdoors or 
fireboards, derived from design of Gobelins 



143 




Cat. no. 218 



/^/-i'- /V--/ 



Scale, 1:8 



tapestries woven after compositions by Jean- 
Frangois de Troy (1680-1752): La Toilette 
d' Esther^ and Le Couronnement d' Esther^. About 
1825. 

210. 1931-45-2. Overdoor or fireboard panel de- 
rived from painting: Le Grand Seigneur donnant 
un concert a sa maitresse, by Charles-Andre Van 
Loo (1705-1766), now in the Wallace Collection 
(no. 451)^ London. About 1825. Illustrated, 
p. 140. 

211. 1931-45-45. Portion of an overdoor panel 
or frieze, showing the lower portion of a lyre. 
1825-1830. The complete design is illustrated. 
McClelland, p. 229. 

212. 1931-45-81. Panel for an overdoor or fire- 
board; scene showing domestic fowl in a barn- 
yard, with a well-head. 1825-1830. Illustrated, 
p. 142. 

213. 1931-45-82. Panel for an overdoor or fire- 
board; still life with rooster, vase of roses, loaf 
of bread, cheese, salt, wine bottle and bunch 
of turnips. 1825-1830. Illustrated, cover. 

214. 1931-45-73. Panel for a fireboard, depicting 
the cortile of an Italian house, with an organ- 
grinder and a monkey. 1825-1830. 

215. 1931-45-51. Simulation of sculpture, dis- 
playing draped female figure, standing on a 
square plinth with guilloche decoration. About 
1830. 

216. 1931-45-53. Simulation of sculpture, dis- 
playing draped male figure, standing on a 
square plinth with guilloche decoration. About 
1830. 

217. 1931^5-87. Portion of a paper with three 
figures in Turkish costume. About 1830. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

^Illustrated: Maurice Fenaille. Etat general des 
tapisseries de la Manufacture des Gobelins depuis son 
originejusqu'a nos jours, i6oo-igoo; Paris, Imprimerie 
Nationale, 1907, v. 4, fac. p. 4. The painting by de 
Troy is now in the Louvre. 

^Illustrated: Fenaille, fac. p. 8. The Cooper Union 
wall-paper is copied in reverse. The painting by de 
Troy is now in the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris. 

'Illustrated: The Wallace Collection. Catalogue; pic- 
tures and drawings; London, His Majesty's Stationery 
Office, 1913, p. 130. 



218. 1915-14-1. Panel for a fireboard, depicting 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria at the Well, 
with landscape background. About 1830. Illus- 
trated, p. 144. 

Given by Mrs. J. Woodward Haven 

219. 1931-45-80. Overdoor panel or frieze exe- 
cuted with woodblock printing and painting 
in distemper. Grisaille arcade and portico, with 
figures in seventeenth-century costume; sky 
painted. 1840-1845. Illustrated, p. 150. 

220. 1931-2-101. Drop-repeating design of car- 
touches enclosing, alternately, figure of a wo- 
man on a swing and figure of a man with a 
pole-axe; the cartouches are enclosed with 
scrolls and surrounded by festoons of beading 
and drapery, reminiscent of the style of Berain. 
About 1840. 

221. 1931^5-14. Bright scrollwork frame en- 
twined by floral festoons, enclosing grisaille 
scenes after Frangois Boucher; one derived 
from his picture, Le Depart du courrier, and the 
other from UArrivee du courrier. 1840-1850. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

222. 1915-29-1. Hawking party on horse, with 
castle in background; framework of foliage. 
About 1845. Said to be from an old manor 
house near Chester, England; illustrated, Kate 
Sanborn, Old Time Wall Papers, pi. XL 

Given by Robert Talmadge 

223. 1938-8-1. Panel showing portico and water 
grasses, framed with stalks and accompanied 
by floral sprays. 1845-1855. Illustrated, p. 147. 

Given by Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 

224. 1931^5-70, -71, -72, -73. Four wall- 
papers printed from woodblocks in distemper, 
stamped in relief with gold, and further embel- 
lished with applied chromolithographed medal- 
lions. Field sown with scattered foliate and 
floral motifs; medallions, enclosed in elaborate 
framework, depict landscapes and figures. 1 850- 
1860. Illustrated, p. 148. 

225. 1931-45-74. Wall-paper printed from wood- 
blocks, stamped in relief with gold, and painted 
with distemper. Scattered conventional motifs 



145 



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Cat. no. 224 



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Scale, 1:7 



with two large designs of framework, on central 
axis, enclosing oval medallions with painted 
landscapes. About 1850. 

226. 1928-2-91. Representation of the Vendome 
Column, surmounted by a figure of Napoleon 
dressed in a long coat (the statue by Charles- 
Marie-Emile Seurre, 1798-1858, erected 1833, 
removed 1863). About 1855. 

227. 1928-2-102. Imitation of chintz, with 
Chinese figures. About 1855. 

228. 1928-2-111. Verdure paper with slender 
branches of trees, bird's nest containing two 
eggs, and two birds perched on branches. 
About 1855. 

229. 1931—45-59. Diagonally repeating design 
of four elements, in a framework of foliage: 
horsemen, with castle in background; drinkers; 
hunters; herdsmen, with sheep and cows. 1850- 
1860. Illustrated, p. 146. 

230. 1931-45-61, -62, -63, -64. Four panels of 
paper, printed from woodblocks and painted 
in distemper. Printed with simulation of grained 
wood, set with elaborately carved oval frame 
enclosing painted pictures: -61, macaws in a 
setting of tropical foliage; -62, branch of a 
tree with two songbirds and a nest containing 
eggs; -63, foliage and mocking bird; -64, trees 
and two deer. 1850-1860. Illustrated, p. 146. 

231. 1931-45-112. Portion of a roll of wall-paper, 
machine-printed in oil color with simulated 
wood graining. 1850-1860. 

232. 1931-45-127. Portion of a panel of wall- 
paper, with highly colored flowers in grisaille 
rococo framework. 1850-1860. 

233. 1931-45-65. Two large circular medallions 
in grisaille, with wreath of roses and periwinkles 
in natural colors. About 1860. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

234. 1909-23-1. Repeating design of a frame- 
work of diagonally placed chains of roses and 
foliage, with tilted basket of roses at centre. 
Printed by Desfosse and Karth in color scheme 
furnished by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier 
(18^3-1891); 182 woodblocks used in the 
printing. Paris, 1860. Illustrated, p. 147. 

Given by Wolf and Carillo 



235. 1928-2-73. Architectural framework en- 
closing square and rectangular panels depicting 
horses and men; the upper and lower panels 
derived from The Horse Fair, by Rosa Bonheur 
(1822-1899). About 1860. Illustrated, p. 152. 

UNITED STATES 

Nineteenth Century 
Bandboxes 

236. 1931-45-88. Wall-paper; portion of band- 
box. Vertical rectangle in blue, black and 
green, on neutral yellow field. An eagle with 
outstretched wings, perched upon an urn decked 
with flowers, holds an olive branch in his beak; 
1800-1810. Illustrated, p. 116. 

237. 1913-17-9a, -9b. Bandbox with cover. 
Blue field. Man in costume of the Napoleonic 
period being challenged by a soldier with a 
musket; dull pink and olive, with white deco- 
ration. 1820-1830. Box lined with a newspaper 
dated 1831. 

238. 1913-17-lOa, -10b. Bandbox with cover. 
Decorative design of parrots and palm trees. 
Red and green, buff field. About 1820. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

239. 1913^5-lOa, -10b. Bandbox with cover. 
Blue field. Red eagle, standing on red chest 
from which extend olive and laurel branches, 
right and left, bears in his beak a banderole 
inscribed: Putnam and Roff, Paper Hanging 
& Band Box Manufacr; chest is inscribed: 
Hartford Con. 1823-18241. Illustrated, p. 124. 

Given by Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson 

240. 1913-17-15a, -15b. Bandbox with cover. 
Railway carriage; coach drawn by horses; back- 
ground of houses. Red and green on yellow 
field. About 1830. Compare with bandbox cov- 
ered with paper of same design, illustrated: 
Sanborn, Old Time Wall Papers, p. 20. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 



iFormation of partnership announced in the Con- 
necticut Courant, Hartford, December 1, 1823. Dis- 
solution of partnership, on April 17, 1824, announced 
in the Connecticut Courant, April 20, 1824. Informa- 
tion communicated by the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration for Connecticut, Index of American Design. 



149 



241. 1913-9-la, -lb. Bandbox with cover. Red, 
green, white and brown on a yellow field. On 
sides of box, squirrels and trees. On top of box, 
houses with trees and a border of flowers. 
About 1830. 

242. 1913-9-4a, ^b. Bandbox with cover. In the 
shape of a top hat; covered with striped paper 
in white, grey and red, with portions of foliage 
stripes. About 1830. Illustrated: Chronicle, 
V. I, no. 3, p. 96. 

Given by Alexander W. Drake 

243. 1913-12-2a, -2b. Bandbox "with cover. 
Hunters with dogs, pink and white, with trees 
in brown; on a yellow field. On cover, hunters 
at lunch. About 1830. 

244. 1913-12-3a, -3b. Bandbox with cover. 
Woman in Roman chariot drawn by two horses. 
White, pink and brown on shaded field of buff 
and blue. About 1830. 

245. 1913-12-4a, -4b. Bandbox with cover. View 
of Capitol at Washington, with other buildings; 
figures in foreground. Olive, pink and white on 
yellow field. About 1830. 

246. 1913-12-7a, -7b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, with printing in brown, green, pink and 
white. Tempietto with setting of trees, and one 
figure. Cover has castle on top of a mountain 
rising beyond a lake. About 1830. 

Given by Mrs. James O. Green 

247. 1913-14-12a, -12b. Bandbox with cover. 
Blue field. Red house, surrounded by rail fence 
and poplar trees in red and white. About 1830. 

Given by Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson 

248. 1913-17-8a, -?b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field. Woman in chariot drawn by two griflx)ns, 
pink and red. Trees olive and dark green. 
About 1830. 

249. 1913-17-1 la, -lib. Bandbox with cover. 
Blue field, red and white trees, with figures 
grouped about a wagon. About 1830. 

250. 1913-17-12a, -12b. Bandbox with cover. 
Yellow field, with macaws in blue, brown and 
white and branches of the same colors. 1825- 
1830. Cover lined with newspaper of 1826. 
Manuscript note inside: Miss Garnet, Oring. 



251. 1913-17-16a, -16b. Bandbox with cover. 
Fanciful scene of rhinoceros with hunters on 
foot and on horseback, with background of 
mountains. Cover has view, with legend: 
Deaf and Dumb Asylum. About 1830. Manu- 
script note inside cover: Rosanna Carmany i8j6. 

252. 1913-17-17a, -I7b. Bandbox with cover. 
Oriental figure with camel, against a back- 
ground with ruined temples. Dull pink, red and 
olive on yellow field. About 1830. 

253. 1913-17-18a, -18b. Bandbox with cover. 
Red and green on yellow ground. Windmill and 
railroad, three loaded cars drawn by a horse, 
on side. Top has houses and trees, with a 
border of flowers. About 1830. 

254. 1913-17-19a, -19b. Bandbox with cover. 
Farm scene with poultry. Pink, olive and white 
on green field. On top, castle on mountain rising 
beyond a lake. About 1830. 

255. 1913-17-20a, -20b. Bandbox with cover. 
Stag-hunt on sides; on top, dog chasing ducks. 
Pink, brown and white on buff ground. About 
1830. 

256. 1913-17-21a, -21b. Bandbox with cover. 
Hunting scene with men, horses and dogs, on 
sides. On cover, terrace overlooking a river, on 
which is a steamboat. Dark green, yellow and 
white on dark blue field. About 1830. 

257. 1913-17-24a, -24b. Bandbox with cover. 
Landscape with trees, houses and figure of a 
man. Dark green, red and pink on green field. 
Cover with first capitol at Albany. About 1830. 

258. 1913-17-26a, -26b. Bandbox with cover. 
Conventional design of flowers and drapery 
festoons in pink, olive and white on yellow 
field. 1830. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

259. 1913^5-6a, -6b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, pink brick buildings: the first capitol at 
Albany. About 1830. Manuscript notation in- 
scribed inside cover: Daniel Morrell, Newtown, 
Long Island. 

260. 1913-45-lla, -lib. Bandbox with cover. 
Marine view; ships and lighthouse, in pink, 
white and brown. Legend: Sandy-Hook. Cover, 



151 



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Cat. no. 235 



Scale, 1:6 



which does not belong to box, has cow and 
ruins. About 1830. 

261. 1913-45-13a, -13b. Bandbox with cover. 
Small box. Blue field, with hunters, horses and 
dogs in white, black, gray and brown. About 
1830. Name inside cover: Susan Osborn; on 
bottom, CD. 66o, Bridgeport, C. Two express 
labels on outside of cover. 

Given by Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson 

262. 1917-36-6a, -6b. Bandbox with cover. Yel- 
low field, printed in pink, white and olive. On 
box, floral scrolls. On top, sailing vessel on 
ocean, with legend: Success to Our Commerce 
AND Manufacturers. 

263. 1918-19-la, -lb. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, red dogs chasing red deer through forest. 
About 1830. Label on cover: Dr. John T. 
Compton, . . . , Ohio. 

264. 1918-19-2a, -2b. Bandbox with cover. Yel- 
low field, printed in pink, white and green. 
Landscape with ruins, cows grazing in fore- 
ground. Cover has flowers; roses and others. 
About 1830. 

265. 1918-19-5a, -5b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, with houses in pink with black and white, 
and trees in dark green and brown. Cover has 
three figures in Turkish costume, with drapery. 
About 1830. 

266. 1918-19-9a, -9b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, printed in pink, white, green and brown. 
On box, shepherd with cows and sheep; on 
cover, three figures in Turkish costume, in 
framework of drapery. About 1830. 

267. 1918-19-10. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, with trees; horse and rider on sides, and 
dog and stag on cover. About 1830. 

268. 1918-19-11. Bandbox with cover. Side 
decorated with ducks on water, with trees and 
buildings on shore. Top decorated with house 
and mill. About 1830. 

269. 1918-19-12. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, with printing in black, brown, red and 
white. On sides, canal scene with locks, boats 
and figures. On top, conventional arrangement 
of flowers and scrolls. About 1830. Lettering on 
side: Grand Canal. 



270. 1917-36-7a, -7b. Bandbox with cover. Yel- 
low field, printed in pink, red and white. 
Houses, one of which is burning; firemen and 
apparatus in foreground. About 1830. Label 
inside cover, H. Barnes & c, Philadelphia.^ 
Compare with bandbox covered with paper of 
same design, illustrated: Sanborn, Old Time 
Wall Papers, p. 58. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

271. 1913-12-la, -lb. Bandbox with cover. 
RufFed grouse, in pink, red and white on hilly 
ground with trees. Blue field. 1830-1840. Box 
has maker's label: H. Barnes, jj Jones' Alley, 
Philadelphia. Manuscript name inside cover: 
Susanne Pierson. 

Given by Mrs. James O. Green 

272. 1913-12-5a, -5b. Bandbox with cover. Yel- 
low field, with ground design of foliage scrolls 
in white; medallion scene, repeated, of two 
figures in a boat, with trees. About 1835. Label 
inside cover: H. Barnes' Band-Box Manufactory, 
33 Jones' Alley, Philadelphia . . . 

112,. 1913-45-14a, -14b. Bandbox with cover. 
Blue field; medallion of woman driving a 
chariot, green and white, with small amount of 
pink; enframed in white conventional foliage 
scrolls. About 1835. 

Given by Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson 

274. 1913-9-2a, -2b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, printed in pink, white, brown and green 
with repeating design of peacock with flowers, 
foliage and grapes. About 1840. 

275. 1913-9-3a, -3b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, printed in white, green and brown. On 
box, baskets of flowers and fruit, and groups of 
figures. On cover, portion of picture of Clayton's 
ascent, and portion of picture of a boat attacked 
by a sea serpent. About 1840. Design illustrated: 
Julia D. Sophronia Snow, The "Clayton's 
Ascent" bandbox; in Antiques, v. XIV, no. 3, 
September 1928, p. 240. 

Given by Alexander W. Drake 

iHenry Barnes, bandbox maker, listed in Philadelphia 
directories from 1829 to 1844; from 1831 to 1844, 
his address is given as 22 Jones's Alley. 



153 



276. 1913-12-8a, -8b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field. Medallion scene of a woman on horse 
talking with a man on foot, within a framework 
of twisted foliage. Pink, green and, white field. 
About 1840. Lined with newspaper. 

277. 1913-12-9a, -9b. Bandbox with cover. Box 
has yellow field, with brown, blue and green 
printing, representing a canal in a landscape. 
Top does not belong with box; printed in 
browns, with a tempietto. About 1840. 

Given by Mrs. James O. Green 

278. 1913-45-7a, -7b. Bandbox with cover. Field 
of blue, with scene in pink, yellow and dark 
green, showing log cabin, two men and a dog 
and, in the background, a river with a steamboat 
named Ohio. Cover shows a lake, on which is a 
sailboat, with mountainous background. About 
1840. 

279. 1913-45-8a, -8b. Bandbox with cover. Sides 
and top both covered with paper showing land- 
scape with river, castles, bridge and palm 
trees. Blue field, with red, green and white. 
About 1840. 

Given by Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson 

280. 1917-36-8a, -8b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field, printed in pink, green and brown. Frame- 
work of white interlaces, enclosing medallions: 
one, of women watching clowns; one, of a basket 
of fruit. About 1840. Lined with newspapers of 
1839. 

281. 1918-19-3a, -3b. Bandbox with cover. 
Soldiers in costume of Napoleon's time, in pink 
and green, on yellow field, enframed in white 
drapery motif with tassels. About 1840. Lined 
with newspaper of 1833. Label inside cover: 
Hannah Davis, Jaffrey. Bottom missing. 

282. 1918-19-4a, -4b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field. Greyhound chasing rabbit, in pink and 
white, against row of trees, in brown, green and 
white. About 1840. 

283. 1913-17-25a, -25b. Bandbox with cover. 
Covered with wall-paper of a blue field, with 
diagonal framework of scrolls in white enclosing 
squares decorated with roses in pink, white and 
green. 1840-1845. On bottom of box and inside 



cover, newspapers of 1843. Labelled inside 
cover: ". . . Band-Boxes . . . Hannah Davis, 
East Jajffrey, N.H." 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

284. 1913-45-9a, -9b. Bandbox with cover. Blue 
field; in pink and white, figure of general on 
horse; tents in background; ground in brown. 
Legend: Genl. Taylor Old Rough and Ready, 
around top. 1845-1850. 

285. 1913-45-1 5a, -15b. Bandbox with cover. 
Blue field. On box, man and woman in costume 
of about 1835, confronted by two men in 
Hindu costume; brown, pink and white. Cover 
in same color, has two buildings with frame- 
work of daisies. About 1845. 

Given by Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson 

286. 1918-19-7a, -7b. Bandbox with cover. Yel- 
low field, printed in green, pink and white with 
Castle Garden and the surrounding park, with 
figures in foreground. Legend above building: 
Castle Garden. About 1845. 

287. 1913-17-13a, -13b. Bandbox with cover. 
Paper with repeating scenes of Gallipoli and 
Istanbul, showing shipping, soldiers and archi- 
tecture. Grey and brown, with bright blues and 
reds in the figures in each scene. 1855-1860. 
Manuscript note inside cover: Polly Reed. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

288. 1916-24-1. Bandbox with cover. Faded 
blue-grey paper, with printed image of a silk 
hat on one side and, on the other, the label 
of W. M. Shute, 173 Washington Street, Boston. 
1850-1860. Inscribed on top: PFm Monroe 
Concord, MSS. 

Given by Mrs. William Rasthe 

Roll Papers 

289. 1931-45-105, Plain corn-colored paper, 
glazed. 1840-1850. 

290. 1931-45-99. Plain paper in dull red flock. 
1860-1870. 

291. 1931-45-117. All-over pattern of althea 
leaves and budding flowers. 1860-1870. 

292. 1931-45-100. Roses in natural colors, and 
acanthus scrolls. 1860-1870. 



154 



.293. 1931H15-89. Machine-printed; floral pattern 
of bleeding heart flowers with foliage, over 
secondary pattern of small foliage. 1860-1870. 

294. 1931-45-97. Machine-printed in gold with 
dark red flock; double row of scrollwork. 1860- 
1870. 

295. 1931-45-113. Machine-printed in colors and 
gilt on glazed green ground; simulated trellis 
framework of bamboo strips, with flowering 
fuchsias and petunias. 1870-1885. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

296. 1934-13^. Machine-printed with design of 
flowers and scrolls. About 1880. 

Given by Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 

297. 1931^5-92. Machine-printed with design 
of flowers and butterflies. About 1880. 

298. 1931-45-90. Machine-printed with design 
of Chinese inspiration. About 1880. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 

299. 1937-57-2. Flock paper with serpentine pat- 
tern of flowers and foliage. About 1880; from 



the house of the late John D. Rockefeller, 
4 West 54th Street. 

300. 1937-57-3. Lincrusta paper with relief 
decoration of foliate forms. About 1880; from 
the house of the late John D. Rockefeller. 

Given by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

301. 1934—13-5. Machine-printed with repeating 
design of scrollwork. About 1890. 

Given by Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 

302. 1931-45-91. Machine-printed with design 
of vine and flowers. 1890-1900. 

303. 1931^5-114. Machine-printed with flowers 
and grasses. About 1890. 

304. 1931-45-116. Vertical panels with dentate 
leaves. 1890-1900. 

305. 1931-45-119. Design stamped in relief on 
gold paper. 1890-1900. 

306. 1931-45-115. Machine-printed with scenes 
derived from The Baby's Opera, by Walter 
Crane (1845-1915). Late 19th century. 

Given by the Misses Hewitt 



DONORS OF CONTEMPORARY WALL-PAPER, 1930 

(The papers are not included in the present catalogue) 

Frankl Galleries 
Charles Grimmer & Son 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
W. H. S. Lloyd Co. 
Richard E. Thibaut, Inc. 
Eugene Schoen & Sons 
Mrs. Cornelius Sullivan 



155 



BIBLIOGRAPHY* 



TECHNIQUE 

John Baptist Jackson. An essay on the in- 
vention of engraving and printing in chiaro 
oscuro, as practiced by Albert Durer, Hugo 
di Carpi, &c., and the application of it to the 
making of paper hangings of taste, duration and 
elegance; London, 1754. 

Jean-Michel Papillon. Traite historique et 
pratique de la gravure en bors. Paris, 1766. 

The Repertory of Arts and Manufactures, 
London, 1795, v. II, p. 90-91. 

Dictionnaire universel de commerce, banque, 
manufactures, douanes, peche, navigation mar- 
chande . . . F. Buisson, ed.; Paris, v. 2, 1805, 
p. 337. 

L. Sebastien le Normand. Manuel du fabri- 
cant d'etoffes imprimees, et du fabricant de 
papiers peints (Manuels Roret); Paris, 1830, 
Roret. 

Christ. Heinrich Schmidt. Die Papier-Tape- 
ten-Fabrication, 2^ vermehrte Auflage; Weimar, 
1848. 

J. L. Kingsley & J. P. Pirsson, eds. Eureka; 
or, the National Journal of inventions, patents 
and science, v. 1-2; New York, 1848, Kingsley 
and Pirsson. 

Dictionnaire universel theorique et pratique 
du commerce et de la navigation; Paris, 1859, 
Librairie de Guillaumin et Cie., v. 2, art.: Papiers 
Peints, by L. Wolowski, p. 971-977. 

Eugene Lacroix. Etudes sur I'Exposition de 
1867; Paris, 1867; t. 1, p. 183, f.: Koeppelin. 
Notice sur la fabrication des papier peints. 

G. Louis Figuier. Les merveilles de I'industrie; 
Paris, n. d., Jouvet, v. 2. 

Wilhelm Franz Exner. Die Tapeten- und 
Buntpapier-Industrie; Weimar, 1869. 

George Whiteley Ward. Wall Paper; its origin, 
development and manufacture (Pitman's com- 

*A few books, cited by trustworthy writers, have not 
been seen by the present writer and do not exist in 
New York in any public collection. These titles, 
however, are included in the Bibliography, and are 
distinguished by an asterisk. 

156 



P 



tio. 



mon commodities and industries); London, n. d., 
Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. 

Henri Clouzot. Outillage moderne du papiei 
peint; les usines Isidore-Leroy; in: La Renais- 
sance de I'art frangais, v. II, 1928, p. 377-383. 
v' Maurice Gruin, Lucien le Mardele, Jean 
Auberge. Manuel de I'industrie et du commerce 
du papier peint; Paris, 1935, Bailliere. 

Germaine & Georges Degaast. La technique 
de fabrication du papier peint; in: Arts et 
Metiers graphiques, no. 61, 1 January 1938, p. 
33^2, ill. 

HISTORIC WALLPAPERS 
GENERAL 

"^ Phyllis Ackerman. Wallpaper: its history, de- 
sign and use; New York, 1923, Stokes. 

y' J. G. Crace. History of paper hanging. Re- 
printed in: The Decorator, v. 22, January 22, 
1925. 

/ Henry Havard. Dictionnaire de I'ameuble- 
-ment et de la decoration depuis le XIIP siecle 

jusqu'a nos jours; Paris, Quantin, v. IV, col. 

54-87, article: Papier. 
-> Nancy McClelland. Historic wall-papers; 

Philadelphia, 1924, Lippincott. 

G. H. Morton. History of paper-hangings; 
London, 1874.* 

Gustav E. Pazaurek. Die Tapete; Beitrage 
zu ihrer Geschichte und asthetischen Wertung; 
• Stuttgart, 1922, Walter HadeckeVerlag. 

Kate Sanborn. Old Time Wall Papers; Green- 
wich, Connecticut, 1905, The Literary Collector 
Press. 

Paul Schulze. Etwas iiber Supraporten und 
altere Tapetendrucke; in: Textile Kunst und 
Industrie, v. 6, 1913, p. 420-441. 



ENGLAND 

Alan Victor Sugden and John Ludlam Ed- "74-4.4' 
mondson. A History of English W^allpaper, 1509- <it^^ 
1914; New York, n. d., Scribner's. ^ 

E. A. Entwisle. Early black and white papers; P 

in: Connoisseur, v. 97, January 1936, p. 16-17, ill. i^Co/NO/5 






74^.4 



Hilary Jenkinson. English wall-papers of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; in: The 
Antiquaries Journal, v. 5, 1925, p. 237-253, ill. 

C. C. Oman. Old wall-papers in England; in: 
Old Furniture, v. 1, 1927, p. 272-276; v. 2, p. 
168-171; V. 3, p. 15-22; v. 4, p. 217-221; ill. 

C. C. Oman. Wall-papers made in England: 
1760-1800; in: The Fine Arts, v. 19, December 
1932, p. 15-17, ill. 

Maclver Percival. Jackson of Battersea and 
his wallpapers; in: Connoisseur, v. 62, 1922, p. 
25-35, ill. 

Edna Donnell. The Van Rensselaer wall 
paper and J. B. Jackson; a study in disassocia- 
tion; in: Metropolitan Museum Studies, v. 4, 
part I, 1932, p. 77-108, ill. 

Oliver Brackett. English wall-papers of the 
eighteenth century; in: Connoisseur, v. 52, Oc- 
tober 1918, p. 83-88, ill. 

The Journal of Design & Manufactures, v. 
1-6, London, 1849-1852, Chapman and Hall 
(scattered samples of English and French wall- 
papers of the period). 

Gerald H. Crow. William Morris, designer; 
London, 1934, The Studio (special winter 
number). 

Elisabeth Luther Cary. William Morris: poet, 
craftsman , socialist; New York, 1902, Putnam. 

Paul George Konody. The art of Walter 
Crane; London, 1902, Bell. 

FRANCE 

Henri Clouzot and Charles Follot. Histoire 
du papier peint en France; Paris, 1935, Moreau. 

Henri Clouzot. Le tradition du papier peint 
au XVIP et XVIII^ siecles; in: Gazette des 
Beaux-Arts, Per. 4, t. 7, 1912, p. 131-143. 

Henri Clouzot. Le papier peint en France du 
XVIP au XIX^ siecle; Paris, 1931. 

Charles Blanc. Grammaire des arts decoratifs; 
Paris, Renouard, p. 69-89. 

Pierre Marcel. Les industries artistiques; 
Paris, n. d., Reinwald: ch. HI, p. 91-111. 

Pierre Gasman. J.-B.-Michel Papillon et ses 
papiers de tenture, p. 18-23, in: Byblis, no. IX, 
printemps 1924. 



Henri Clouzot. Le papier peint au debut du 
XVIII'^ siecle: A I'enseigne de Papillon; in: La 
Renaissance de I'art frangais, v. 8, 1925, p. 
149-160. 

Henri Clouzot. Papillon et les dominoteurs; 
in: Revue de I'art ancien et moderne, v. 59, p. 
77-86, sup. 2, February 1931. 

Henri Clouzot. L'atelier du Cartier-Domino- 
tier; in: La Renaissance de I'art frangais, v. 10, 
no. 3, February 1927, p. 83-90. 

Pierre Gusman. Panneaux decoratifs et ten- 
tures murales du XVIIP siecle et du commence- 
ment du XIX'^ siecle; Paris, n. d., Massin. 

A. Perrault-Dabot. Un papier de tenture 
grave et peint a Paris au XVIIP siecle; in: 
Bulletin de la Societe de I'histoire de Paris, v. 
LXIII, 1916. 

Auguste Martin. L'Imagerie orleanaise; Paris 
(1928), Duchartre & Van Buggenhoudt. 

Pierre Louis Duchartre & Rene Saulnier. 
L'imagerie populaire; Paris, 1925. 

Nancy McClelland. Papiers peints frangais 
dans les demeures americaines; in: La Renais- 
sance de I'art frangais, v. XI, no. 5, May 1928, 
p. 207-210. 

Marie Kimball. Thomas Jefferson's French 
Furniture; in: Antiques, v. XV, no. 2, February 
1929, p. 123-128. 

Marie-Louise Le Verrier. Old Wallpaper of 
France; in: Antiques, v. XIII, no. 2, February 
1928, p. 127-129. 

Henri Clouzot. Le papier peint a Lyon et 
dans la region; in: La soierie de Lyon, v. 15, no. 
12, December 1932, p. 298-311, ill. 

Henri Clouzot. Le papier peint revolution- 
naire; in: L'Opinion, v. 21, no. 35, 29 September 
1928, p. 15-16. 
j Egon Hessling. Etoffes et Papiers,' Le style 
directoire; Paris, n. d., Guerinet. 

Paul Lafond. L'art decoratif et le mobilier 
sous la R6publique et I'Empire; art.: Le Papier, 
p. 213-217, ill. Paris, Renouard, 1900. 

A. Calavas, publ. Papiers peints, bordures et 
ornements Empire, photographies d'apres les 
originaux; Paris, n. d. 









157 



Henri Clouzot. Papiers peints de I'epoque 
napoleonienne; in: Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1914, 
Per. 4, t. 12, p. 42-52. 

Henri Clouzot. Le papier peint a I'epoque 
imperiale; in: Revue des etudes napoleoniennes, 
Paris, V. VI, December 1914, p. 239-252, ill. 

Jacques Robiquet. L'art et le gout sous la 
Restauration, 1814 a 1830; Paris, 1928, Payot. 

Henri Clouzot. Au temps ou les murs parlai- 
ent; in: La Renaissance de l'art frangais, v. Ill, 
September 1920, p. 369-375. 

H. H. F. Jayne. The Captain Cook Wall- 
paper; in: Pennsylvania Museum Bulletin, v. 
XVII, no. 69, 1921, p. 6; no. 71, p. 16. 

William Sumner Appleton. A scenic wall- 
paper from East Dedham; in: Old Time New 
England, v. 22, October 1931, p. 51-58. 

Grace Lincoln Temple. The story of a 
wallpaper; in: Antiques, v. 15, no. 4, April 1929, 
p. 283-286. 

Henri Clouzot. Tableaux-Tentures de Dufour 
& Leroy (Les chefs-d'oeuvre du papier peint.); 
Paris, n. d., Calavas. 

Jean-Zuber. Reminiscences et souvenirs de 
Jean Zuber pere; Mulhouse, 1895* 

Jean Zuber & Cie. La fabrique de papiers 
peints de Jean Zuber & Cie a Rixheim, 1797- 
1897.* 

Fleury-Chavant, (publ.). Le dessinateur de 
papiers peints; Paris, n. d.* 

F61ix Follot. Causerie sur le papier peint; 
Paris, 1886.* 

GERMANY 

Journal fiir Fabrik, Manufaktur, Handlung 
und Mode. Leipzig, January-June 1796.* 

UNITED STATES 

Walter Kendall Watkins. The early use and 
manufacture of paper-hangings in Boston; in: 
Old-Time New England, v. 12, January 1922, 
p. 109-119,111. 

Phyllis Ackerman. Wallpapers in Early Amer- 
ican Homes; in: Arts and Decoration, v. 17, 
1922, p. 100-101, 138, 140. 



George Leland Hunter. Early American wall- 
papers. Part I; in: Good Furniture, v. XIX, 
July 1922, p. 27-36. 

Nancy McClelland. The Washington Me- 
morial Paper; in: Antiques, v. 6, no. 3, Septem- 
ber 1924, p. 138-139. 

[Homer Eaton Keyes]. The Editor's Attic; 
The Frontispiece [a Washington memorial wall- 
paper]; in: Antiques, v. 31, no. 2, February 
1937, p. 60-61, ill. 

Julia D. Sophronia Snow. The "Clayton's 
Ascent" bandbox; in: Antiques, v. XIV, no. 3, 
September 1928, p. 240-241. 

EXHIBITIONS 
ENGLAND 

M. Digby Wyatt. The Industrial Arts of the 
Eighteenth century; 2 v., London, 1851-1853. 

London. Exposition Universelle de 1851. Tra- 
vaux de la commission frangaise sur I'industrie 
des nations, publics par I'ordre de I'Empereur, 
t. VII, Paris, 1855. p. 1-24: XXVP Jury, 
Papiers de tenture, meubles, etc., par M. Louis- 
Franjois-Michel-Raymond Wolowski. 

John Burley Waring. Masterpieces of Indus- 
trial Art and Sculpture at the International 
Exhibition, 1862, v. 3; London, 1863, Day & 
Son. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Cata- 
logue of an exhibition in celebration of the 
centenary of William Morris; London, 1934. 

FRANCE 

Lair. Rapport sur I'exposition du Calvados 
enl'AnXI;1803.* 

Notice sur les objets envoy6s a I'exposition; 
Paris, 1806, p. 68, 117, 161, 235, 256, 268.* 

Paris, Exposition des produits de I'industrie 
franjaise en 1834; v. 2. 

Paris. Exposition de I'industrie frangaise en 
1844. Rapport du Jury central; Chevreul, rap- 
porteur: Sec. VI, papiers peints; v. 3, p. 337-351. 

Paris. Exposition universelle, 1855 . . . Ex- 
trait des rapports du Jury de la XXVP classe, . . 

Paris. Exposition universelle de 1867. Rap- 
ports du Jury international, publi6s sous la 



158 



direction de M. Michel Chevalier; p. 3, Paris 
1868: Classe 19; papiers peints, par M. M. 
Aldrophe, architecte de la Commission imperiale, 
membre du Jury international de 1862, p. 
221-236. 

Prosper Poit^vin. Les papiers peints et la 
papeterie; in: L'Exposition universelle de 1867 
illustre; v. 2, p. 438-439, illustrated, p. 437. 

Paris. Exposition universelle Internationale 
de 1878 a Paris. Rapports du Jury International. 
Groupe III, classe 22: Les papiers peints, papiers 
de fantaisie et stores, par M. Isidore Leroy. 

V. Poterlet & P. Rioux de Maillou. 7^ Expo- 
sition de rUnion Centrale: Le papier peint; in: 
Revue des Arts decoratifs; v. 3, 1882-1883, p. 
129-140. 

P. Rioux de Maillou. Article: Le papier 
peint, illustrated; in: L'Union centrale des arts 
decoratifs, Les arts du bois, des tissus et du 
papier, p. [343]-367; Paris, Quantin, 1883. 

Ministere du Commission de I'lndustrie et 
des Colonies. Exposition Universelle Internation- 
ale de 1889. Classe 22, papiers peints; Rapport 
du Jury international, par M. F. Follot; p. 
379-393. Paris, 1891. 

Exposition universelle Internationale de 1900, 
a Paris. Mus6e retrospectif de la Classe 68, 
papiers peints; Rapport du Comite d'installa- 
tion. Saint-Cloud, n. d., B61in freres. 

Ville de Paris. Musee Galli6ra. Exposition 
historique de I'aerostation; Retrospective du 
papier peint; Catalogue. November 1933-Janu- 
ary 1934. 

UNITED STATES 

Benjamin Silliman, Jr., & C. R. Goodrich. 
The World of Science, Art and Industry illus- 
trated from examples in the New York exhibi- 
tion, 1853-1854; New York, 1854, Putnam. 



Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Albright Art 74^ ^ 

Gallery. Exhibition of wallpaper historical and /i ■j^n, 

contemporary. December 4, 1937-January 16, ^ J" 

1938. ^^^ 



CATALOGUES AND DESCRIPTIONS 
OF COLLECTIONS 
ENGLAND 

C. C. Oman. Catalogue of Wall-papers [Vic- 
toria and Albert Museum]; London, 1929. 



FRANCE 

Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs. Les 
nouvelles collections, 19e serie, pi. 80-82; Paris, 
n. d., Guerinet. 

GERMANY 

E. G. Paulus (W. L. Campbell, transl.). The 
German Museum of Wall-papers in Kassel; in: 
Gebrauchsgraphik, v. 14, no. 5, May 1937, p. 
24-29, ill. 

German Wall Paper Museum at Cassel; in: 
Architectural Review, v. 78, October 1935, p. 
140-141. 

Heinrich Appel. Das Deutsche Tapeten Mu- 
seum zu Kassel; in: Belvedere, v. 12, no. 7-8, 
1934-36, p. 127-129, ill. 

UNITED STATES 

Preston Remington. Elizabethan Wallpapers; 
in: Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
V. XXII, no. 6, June 1927, p. 168-170, ill. 

L. Earle Rowe. French Wall-Paper; in: Rhode 
Island School of Design, Bulletin, v. 23, July 
1935, p. 43-47. 

American Art Association. Illustrated Cata- 
logue of Mr. A. W. Drake's famous collections 
. . . Part One; New York, 1913. 



14^ A 
CPtT 



159 



WORKS OF ART GIVEN TO THE MUSEUM 

January 1st — December 31st, 1937 



ACCESSORIES OF FURNISHING 

Velvet altar frontal embroidered with metal 

thread, silk and garnets; Spain, 16th century. 
Given by Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen 

Linen damask napkin; probably Germany, 

dated 1731. 
Given by Miss Marian Hague 

Wood table mat; France, late 19th century. 
Given by Miss Helen S. Stone and Bromley S. 
Stone 

Linen damask table cloth; Germany, late 19th 

century, in the style of the late 17th century. 
Given by Miss Grace Lincoln Temple 

Silk and metal embroidered corporal; Italy, 

17th century. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTURAL 
DETAILS 

Wood frame with mirror; France, late 18th 
and early 19th centuries. Marble mantel from 
the house of Henry G. Marquand, designed by 
Richard Morris Hunt (1828-1895); New York, 
about 1881. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Nine pieces of carved wood; France and Italy, 
16th to 18th centuries. 
Given by Edward F. Caldwell and Company 

BRAIDING 

Three panels of knotting designed and executed 
by the donor; United States, about 1925. 
Given by I. Weinberg 

CERAMICS 

Four terra-cotta figures representing Sicilian 
peasant types, by Angelo Leone, premiated at 
the Vienna Exposition of 1873; Sicily, mid- 
19th century. 
Given by A. Algara R. de Terreros 

Glazed and lustred pottery jug; England, 
about 1820. 

Anonymous Gift 

Glazed pottery foot-bath, glazed pottery wash- 
basin; England, about 1875. 

Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Three jasperware medallions; England, about 
1900; Wedgwood. 
Given by Edward F. Caldwell and Company 



Two glazed tiles; England, about 1880. 
Given by Miss Gertrude Crownfield 

Two blue and white stove tiles; Germany, 
18 th century. Twelve tiles made by the Mora- 
vian Pottery and Tile Works; United States, 
1937. 
Purchased, The Mrs. John Innes Kane Fund 

Eight tin-enamelled pottery tiles; Netherlands, 
17th and 19th centuries. 
Given by A.W. M. Ode, Jr. 

Two creamware egg poachers; Leeds, late 18th 
century. 
Given by Mrs. Harford W. Hare Powel, Jr. 

Four glazed earthenware tiles composing a 
motif; from a room in the house of the late 
John D. Rockefeller at 4 West 54th street. 
New York; probably France*, about 1878. 
Given by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

Glazed pottery figure of St. Paul, by Bernard 
Palissy (1510-1590); France, 16th century. 
Thirty-one tiles, Netherlands, 18th century. 
Given by Miss Edith JVetmore 

Two porcelain jars with metal covers; Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, 1922. Two tile panels; North 
Africa, probably Tunis, 19th century. Two 
bisque figures; Sevres, France, 1757-1765. Two 
porcelain figures, probably France, Louis XV 
style. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

COSTUME AND COSTUME ACCESSORIES 

Papier-mache costume figurine; France, 1869- 
1874. Five articles of lingerie embroidered and 
trimmed with lace; Paris, about 1900. Two 
pairs of satin slippers; France, late 19th 
Century. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Gold brocaded cope, embroidered with gold 

and silks; Spain, 16th century. 
Given by Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen 

Two imperial dolls; Japan, 18th century. 
Given by Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Four net caps; United States, about 1860. 
Given by Miss Gertrude Crownfield 

Embroidered shawl; India, 19th century. Lace 

collar; France, about 1845. Lace vestee; Italy, 

19th century. Taffeta cuff; United States, 

about 1870. 
Given by Elisha Dyer 



160 



Eight articles of children's and dolls' clothing; 
United States, mid-19th century. 
Given by Mrs. Elizabeth Horton Ells 

Two infants' bonnets; France, 17th and 18th 

centuries. 
Given by Herman A. Elsberg, on the Fortieth Anni- 
versary of the Museum 

Man's coat and man's waistcoat; France, late 
18th century. Woman's cape; United States, 
about 1850. 
Given by Mrs. Meredith Hare 

Man's broadcloth coat; England, about 1850. 
Given by C. Leffingwell 

Five articles of infants' and children's cloth- 
ing; United States, 1872-1876. 
Given by Miss Serbella Moores 

Eight articles of infants' and children's cloth- 
ing; United States, 1860-1890. 
Given by Miss Adele Spaulding 

Turban, four sarongs and one portion of a 
sarong, kerchief, portions of a child's dress, 
man's garment, two scarves, 295 buttons and 
a curling iron; India, Java and the United 
States, 19th century. 

Given by Miss Helen S. Stone and Bromley S. 

Stone 

Wool shawl; Paisley, Scotland, mid-19th 
century. 
Given by Miss Grace Lincoln Temple 

Silk sarong brocaded with gold metal thread; 
Sumatra, first half of the 1 9th century. Brocaded 
silk shawl; France, about 1840. 
Given by Miss Edith Wetmore 

Front of embroidered chasuble; Italy, 17th 
century. 
Given by Miss Carolyn Wicker 

Five patterns in cotton muslin of costumes in 
the collection of the Museum, made by Polaire 
Weissman; United States, 1936. 
Given by the Works Progress Administration, 
Federal Art Project, Index of American Design 

Two panels of a chasuble, embroidered in silk 
and metal thread; Italy, 17th century. Fan; 
France, 1720-1760. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 

Diploma of merit awarded by Cooper Union 
Female Institute of Art, to Elizabeth King 
Hawley, mother of donor, in 1864. 
Given by Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 

Polyorama Panoptique and six lithographed 
slides; France, 1840-1850. 
Purchased, The Misses Hewitt Fund 



Carved woodblock for printing ceremonial vis- 
iting-card; Shanghai, China, about 1868. 
Given by Mrs. James F. Horan 

Printed kakemono and flower print; Japan, 

about 1900. 
Given by Miss Francis I. Neill in memory of 
Alice Neill Carter 

Ten peep-shows, and a box for their display; 
Augsburg, Germany, 18th century. 
Given by Mrs. James Ward Thome 

Three woodcut illustrations after drawings by 
Winslow Homer, published in Harper s Weekly, 
1858-1862. Engraved bookplate of the Society 
of Colonial Dames in New York, designed by 
Mariana Griswold van Rensselaer; New York, 
1894. The Dance of Salome, by Pablo Ruiz 
Picasso; France, 1905. 
Given by Miss Edith Wetmore 

FURNITURE 

Wooden frame; Italy, 18th century. Rosewood 
cabinet; New York, about 1850. Pedestal com- 
mode; United States, 1860-1870. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Walnut doll's bed with printed cotton hang- 
ings; France, late 18th century. 
Given by Herman A. Elsberg on the Fortieth Anni- 
versary of the Museum 

Upholstered rosewood sofa and two chairs; 
New York, about 1845. 
Given by Mrs. Edwin Gould 

Two carved wooden brackets; Italy, early 18th 
century. Painted and gilded armchair and side 
chair from the Palazzo Belmonte in Naples, 
late 18th century. Sleigh chair, probably the 
Netherlands, 18th century. Walnut armchair, 
style of the 17th century in Italy. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

GLASS 

Two heraldic glass panels; Germany, probably 
Silesia, dated 1518. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Miniature cabinet made of glass and paper; 
France, dated 1771. 
Given by Mrs. A. Stewart Walker 

Quatrefoil of leaded glass made by William R. 
Mercer; United States, 1936. 
Given by Miss Edith Wetmore 

Two panels of heraldic glass; Lucerne, Switzer- 
land, dated 1695. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 



161 



GLYPTIC ARTS 

Carved wood mangle; the Netherlands, 18th 
century. Carved burlwood tankard; Sweden, 
18th century. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 



GOLD AND SILVERSMITHS' WORK 

Repousse silver medallion; probably France, 
19th century. 
Given by Miss Gertrude Crownfield 

Pair of silver buckles mounted with rhine- 
stones, engraved: "Paul Revere's Buckle"; 
United States, late 18th century. 
Given by Mrs. Frederick Die/man 



GRAPHIC ARTS 

Drawing attributed to Andrea Buscoli; Italy, 
first quarter of the 17th century. From the 
Young Ottley Collection. 
Given by Spencer Bickerton 

Twenty-five drawings by Sophie L. Crown- 
field (1862-1929), including preparatory studies 
for textile designs. 
Given by Starling W. Childs and Ward Cheney 

Sanguine and ink drawing for a toile de Jouy: 
La Route de Jouy, after the design by Horace 
Vernet (1789-1863). 
Purchased, The Mary Hearn Greims Fund 

Two charcoal drawings by Elizabeth King 
Hawley, mother of the donor, drawn in classes 
at Cooper Union; New York, 1863-1864. 
Given by Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 

Pencil drawing of designs for silver vases, by 
Georg Jensen (1866-1935). Denmark, about 
1925. 
Given by Georg Jensen Hand Made Silver, Inc. 

Five drawings and photographs of drawings 
for buildings designed by the donor; United 
States, 1929-1935. 
Given by William E. Lescaze 

Architectural sketches by William Blair, Charles 
Klauder, Abel V. Mobiew, Abram Poole and 
Gustav Umbdenstock; United States and 
France, early 20th century. 
Given by Henry Oothout Milliken 

Four drawings and two photographs of draw- 
ings and models for the first streamlined steam 
locomotive of the Pennsylvania Railroad, ex- 
ecuted by Raymond Loewy; United States, 
1935. 
Given by the Pennsylvania Railroad through Sam- 
uel M. Vauclain 



Four sketches by Augustus Saint-Gaudens 
(1848-1907), of which two are designs for the 
monument erected to Peter Cooper in Cooper 
Square, New York, and two for the Violet 
Sargent bronze plaque; United States, about 
1890. 
Given by Homer Saint-Gaudens 
Architectural fantasy by Emilio Terry; France, 

1933. 
Given by Miss Edith Wetmore on the Fortieth Anni- 
versary of the Museum 

Eight drawings by Stanford White (1853-1906), 
of which six are studies for the tomb of Peter 
Cooper in Greenwood Cemetery and two for 
the architectural emplacement of the statue to 
Peter Cooper in Cooper Square, New York. 
Given by Lawrence Grant White 

Two illuminated missals; Italy, 16th century. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

LACE 

Seven fragments of lace; European, 17th to 
19th centuries. Three lace fragments; Italy, 
18th century; Spain, 17th century; Bohemia, 
19th century. Three lace fragments; France, 
19th century; Italy 17th century. 

Given by Eli s ha Dyer 

Portion of two lace scarves; Brussels, Belgium, 
19th century. 

Given by Mrs. Walter H. May 

Lace panel; Dalmatia, 19th century, in the 
style of the 17th century. 

Given by Miss Carolyn Wicker 

LIGHTING 

Gas lighter; United States, 1850-1860. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Seven carved wood details of lighting fixtures; 

Italy, 16th to 18th centuries. 
Given by Edward F. Caldwell and Company 

Two fragments of a brass candlestick; Italy, 

18th century. 
Given by Edward F. Caldwell and Company 

Two pole lanterns; Venice, style of the 17th 

century. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 

Model of a butcher shop; England, early 19th 

century. 
Given by Miss Maude K. Wetmore 

METALWORK 

Six tin wedding anniversary presents; United 
States, 1887. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 



162 



Ten pieces of wrought iron; France and Italy, 
16th to 19th centuries. 
Given by Edward F. Caldwell and Company 

NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY 

Panel of embroidered linen; Balkan Peninsula, 
19th century. 

Given by Mrs. Frederic Dielman 
Linen sampler; Barcelona, 1800. 

Given by Herman A. Elsberg on the Fortieth Anni- 
versary of the Museum 

Darning sampler; Netherlands or Germany, 
1711. 

Given by Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Nineteen drawings for linen cut-work and em- 
broidery; United States, 1900-1905. Fifty- 
three pieces of cut-work and lace; Italy, 16th 
and 17th centuries. 

Given by Miss Margaret Taylor Johnstone 

Panel of embroidery; Spain, 17th or 18th 
century. 

Given by Mrs. Luke Vincent Lockwood 

Cover for stand; Istanbul, late 19th century. 
Two fragments of embroidery; England and 
Spain, 17th and 18th centuries. 

Given by Miss Carolyn Wicker 

NUMISMATICS 

Five plaster-of-paris medallions, reproducing 

medals and medallions; Denmark, mid-19th 

century. 
Given by Elisha Dyer 

Fifty-nine plaster impressions of intaglios; 

European, 19th century. 
Given by Mrs. Stanford White 

PAINTING 

Thirty-four paintings in oil on cardboard, stud- 
ies of flowers, by Sophie L. Crownfield (1862- 
1929); United States, late 19th and early 20th 
centuries. 

Given by Starling W. Childs and Ward Cheney 
Flowers, by Hubert Landau; water-color on 
paper; United States, about 1930. 

Given by Miss Florence Cole 

Grisaille frieze; United States about 1908. 

Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

PAPER ARTICLES 

Two glass and paper comfit boxes; France, 

early 19th century. 
Given by Mrs. Helen Bruce 

Scrapbook mounted with drawings and printed 

papers; Dublin, Ireland, first half of the 19th 

century. 
Purchased, The Mrs. John Innes Kane Fund 



Paper dolls and colored papers; United States, 
1876-1880. 
Given by Miss Grace Lincoln Temple 

SCULPTURE 

Two carved wood figures of putti; Italy or 
Flanders, late 17th century. 
Given by Mrs. A. Murray Young 

SILHOUETTES 

Giouco di luce and twenty-five pierced card- 
board slides; Savoy, Italy, about 1780. 

Purchased, The Mary Hearn Greims, George A. 

Hearn and The Misses Hewitt Funds 

TEXTILE ARTS 

Thirty samples of contemporary fabrics; Japan, 

1936. 
Given by the American Council, Institute of Pacific 
Relations 

Carved woodblock for textile printing; United 
States, late 18th or early 19th century. Portion 
of wool quilting; United States, 18th century. 
Fragment of figured silk; France, 19th century. 
Two pieces of blue-and-white printed cotton; 
United States, first half of the 18th century. 
Given by Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 

Silk cocoon case with twenty-eight cocoons; 
Japan, early 20th century. Three cotton bolls; 
United States, about 1936. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Thirty-six pieces of ribbon; France, 19th 
century. 
Given by Mrs. Helen Bruce 

Four panels of silk weaves by Cheney Broth- 
ers, from designs by Sophie L. Crownfield; 
United States, about 1900. 
Given by Starling W. Childs and Ward Cheney 

Two printed textiles; England, about 1850. 
Given by Miss Gertrude Crownfield 

Twenty-one fragments of textiles and trim- 
mings; United States and France, 19th 
century. 

Given by Elisha Dyer 

Printed linen; Russia, 18th century. Sixteen 
samples of textiles; France, beginning of the 
19th century. Designs, mises-en-carte and sam- 
ples of an experiment in the making of Velours 
Gregoire; France, 20th century, made by the 
donor. Drawing for heddle arrangement for 
weaving satin lampas, and fragment of satin 
lampas; France about 1805. Given on the 
Fortieth Anniversary of the Museum. Three 
pieces of metal brocade woven in Lyons for 
export to Russia; France, 1815-1820. 

Given by Herman A. Elsberg 



163 



Portion of printed silk designed by Tony Sarg; 
United States, about 1935. 
Given by Miss Margaret J. Gibson 

Brocaded silk, Ju Perdrix; Italy, early 19th 
century, after brocade designed by Philippe de 
la Salle, Eighteen printed textiles designed by 
well-known designers; United States, Austria, 
England, France and Germany, about 1925. 

Given by Miss Marian Hague 

Fragmentofprintedtoile:7i?a««fi/'y^rc,- France, 
about 1820. 

Given by Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Brocaded silk girdle; Poland, factory of 
Kobytka, last quarter of the 18th century. 
Silk fatah, brocaded with gold and silver 
threads; Russia, probably Moscow, 18th cen- 
tury. Gold and silver brocade; Russia, 18th 
century. Cut and uncut velvet in jardiniere 
design; Russia, 18th century. Carved wooden 
block for printing textiles; France, about 1820. 
Purchased, The Mrs. John Innes Kane Fund 

Nine pieces of silk figured with silks and paper- 
gilt; Japan, late 19th century. 

Given by Miss Francis I. Neill in memory of Alice 

Neill Carter 

Two pieces of silk brocade; Spain and France, 
17th to 18th century. 

Given by Mrs. Herbert C. Pell 

Sample of velvet taken from the walls of the 
drawing room in the house of the late John D. 
Rockefeller at 4 West 54th Street, New York; 
probably France, about 1878, in the style of 
the 17th century. 
Given by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

Five hundred and seven original designs for 
printed silks; United States, 1925-1936. 
Given by Mrs. Freddie Staack 

Fifteen fragments of dress trimmings; France, 
19th century. "Marseilles bedspread," eighteen 
textile fragments, two fragments of braid and 
one of fringe; France and United States, 19th 
century. 

Given by Miss Helen S. Stone and Bromley S. 

Stone 

Fragment of blue resist-printed linen; United 
States, 18th century. 

Given by Miss Gertrude Townsend 



Eleven samples of silk and cotton upholstery 
trimming, designed and executed by the 
donor; United States, 1922-1937. 
Given by I. Weinberg 

Twenty samples of textiles; United States, 
France and India, 1930-1936. Two printed silk 
handkerchiefs commemorating the Coronation 
of George \T and Elizabeth; England, 1937. 
Printed silk handkerchief intended to com- 
memorate the Coronation of Edward VIII; 
England, 1936. Six printed silk handkerchiefs 
commemorating the Coronation of George VI 
and Elizabeth of England; England, 1937. 
Figured satin border; France, early 19th cen- 
tury. Upholstery fabric; France, 19th century. 
Printed silk kerchief with summary of the 
United States Constitution; United States, 

1936. Eighty-four samples and books of sam- 
ples of textiles; United States and France, 

1937. Four hundred forty-six samples of printed 
textiles; France and United States, 1936-1937. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore 

Two textile fragments; Flanders and Italy, 
17th century. Twenty-one fragments of printed 
cottons; Normandy, France, first half of the 
19th century. 

Given by Miss Carolyn Wicker 

TOYS 

Painted metal sleigh; France, 1853-1873. 

Mechanical dancing toy; France, 1840-1850. 
Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Two dolls representing the Emperor and the 

Empress; Japan, 18th century. 
Given by Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Twenty-five lead soldiers in the uniforms of 

five Colonial American troops, made at the 

time of the Rhode Island Tercentenary, 1936. 
Given by Miss Edith Wetmore 

WALL-PAPER 

Printed paper, "Flora's Feast," after designs 
by Walter Crane (1845-1915); England, about 
1890. 

Given by Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 

Portion of lincrusta wall-paper taken from a 
room in the house of the late John D. Rocke- 
feller at 4 West 54th Street, New York; 
probably American, about 1880. Portion of 
flock paper from the same house; United States, 
1880-1890. 

Given by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 



164 



DONORS TO THE LIBRARY 

January 1st — December 31st, 1937 



Charles Blauvelt 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Mrs. Adolphe Borie 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Museum 

Archibald Manning Brown 

Miss Matilda Brownell 

Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Albright Art Gallery 

Rowland Burdon-Muller 

Edward F. Caldwell and Company 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

Carnegie Institute, Department of Fine Arts 

Cincinnati Art Museum 

Cleveland Museum 

Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 

Cooper Union Day Art School 

Cooper Union Library 

Detroit Institute of Arts 

Miss M. P. De Zeller 

Mrs. Frederick Dielman 

Mrs. Walter Douglas 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Elisha Dyer 

Stephen G. C. Ensko 

Sigmund Epstein 

Mrs. Emma S. Fechimer 

Miss Eugenia Lee Finn 

Fort Ticonderoga Museum 

Musee Galliera, Paris 

Georg Jensens S0lvsmedie A/S 

Miss Marian Hague 

Landesmuseum Hannover 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Mrs. A. Murray 



Miss Joanna Kennedy 

Mrs. Lucille D. Kirk 

G. Kobayashi 

Harold Lancour 

Robert W. Macbeth 

Mrs. Walter Scott McPherson 

Miss Ruth Merington 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts 

Museum of Modern Art 

Miss Elizabeth Livington Musgrave 

New York Historical Society 

Palais Royal, Stockholm 

Parke-Bernet Galleries 

Pennsylvania Museum of Art 

Portland Art Museum 

Mrs. John Dyneley Prince 

Mrs. Edward Robinson 

George Walter Vincent Smith Art Gallery 

Mrs. Freddie Staack 

Edward Stern and Company 

Marie Sterner Galleries 

Stevens Institute of Technology 

Douglas M. Stewart 

Miss Helen S. Stone 

Mary Stuart Book Fund 

Virginia Museum of the Fine Arts 

Maynard Walker 

I. Weinberg 

Miss Edith Wetmore 

Miss Maude K. Wetmore 

Mr. and Mrs. Morrison van R. Weyant 

Whitney Museum of American Art 

Yamanaka and Company 

Young 



VOLUNTEER WORKERS, 1937 



Miss Mary V. Abbott 
Randolph Bullock 
Elisha Dyer 
Miss Isabella Hardy 
G. Kobiyachi 



Miss Kate C. LefFerts 
Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Jose B. Rios 

Robert Hamilton Rucker 
Mrs. W. H. Sawyer 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT, 1937 



Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 



Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot 
Miss Maude K. Wetmore 



165 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1937 
LIFE MEMBERS 

Starling W. Childs Charles E. Sampson 



Mrs. Montgomery Hare 



Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Stephen C. Clark 
Miss Juliana Cutting 



SUSTAINING MEMBERS 

Mrs. John D. Rockefeller Miss Edith Wetmore 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 

Childs Frick 
Mrs. Childs Frick 
Luke Vincent Lockwood 



Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Resor 

Miss Maude K. Wetmore 



CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 



Mrs. Hamilton Fish Armstrong 

Mrs. Robert Bacon 

Bailer Brothers 

Miss Isabel A. Ballantine 

Mrs. Richard Billings 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Mrs. Milton J. Blair 

Mrs. V'alter Phelps Bliss 

Mrs. Archibald M. Brown 

Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler 

Henry Clifford 

Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Clinton 

Cohen 
Mrs. Henry B. du Pont 
Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. Elisha Dyer 
H. A. Elsberg 

Mrs. Harry Harkness Flagler 
Walter S.Gifford 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Meredith Hare 
Wallace K. Harrison 



Miss Harriet Abbe* 
Mrs. Franklin Abbott 
Dr. Phyllis Ackerman 
Anonymous 

Miss Julia E. Auchincloss 
Richard G. Belcher 
Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 
Mrs. Adolphe Borie 
Mrs. C. B. Borland 
Mrs. J. Nelson Borland 
Mrs. William B. Bristow 
Mrs. Reuben H. Broaddus 
Miss Gertrude Brooks 
Mrs. Dorrance Brown 
Mrs. Ludlow S. Bull 
Rowland Burdon-Muller 



^Deceased 



Mrs. T. A. Havemeyer 
Miss A. M. Hegeman 
Barklie Henry 
Mrs. Barklie Henry 
Mrs. Beekman Hoppin 
Miss Francis H. Ives 
Mrs. Walter B. James 
Mrs. C. Hallam Keep 
C. O. von Kienbusch 
Mrs. Thorn Kissel 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
Miss Claudia Lyon 
Mrs. H. Edward Manville 
Mrs. James W. Markoe 
Mrs. George B. McClellan 
Mrs. Stafford McLean 
Mrs. William R. Mercer 
Miss Eleanor Merrell 
Edward A. Miller 
Mrs. William H. Moore 
Miss Anne Morgan 

ANNUAL MEMBERS 

George Chapman 
Miss Emily Chauncey 
Mrs. Edward B. Cole 
Miss Florence Cole 
Miss Izabel M. Coles 
Miss Rachel Crothers 
Mrs. Carl A. de Gersdorff 
Mrs. William Adams Delano 
Mrs. H. Casimir de Rham 
Baron Voruz de Vaux 
Mrs. William H. Dixon 
Mrs. Francis Donaldson 
Miss Caroline King Duer 
Henry F. du Pont 
Miss Eleanor O. Eadie 
Mrs. Frederick W. Ells 
L. J. Farey 



Miss Katharine de B. Parsons 

Mrs. B. Burnside Potter 

Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Miss Marie Russell 

William J. Ryan 

Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee 

Hardinge SchoUe 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

Mrs. William Reed Thompson 

Mrs. James Ward Thome 

Miss Emily Tobias 

Dr. Maximilian Toch 

Mrs. John B. Trevor 

Mrs. Richard Trimble 

Thomas J. Watson 

Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 

Miss Gertrude Whiting 

William Williams 

Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding, Jr. 

Mrs. Egerton Winthrop 

Mrs. A. Murray Young 



Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 
Mrs. Mansfield Ferry 
Robert T. Francis 
William E. Glyn 
Miss Minnie Goodman 
Roger Granger 
Mrs. William Greenough 
Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 
Mrs. Edward S. Harkness 
Mrs. J. Amory Haskell 
Miss Ethel Haven 
Hearst Magazines, Inc. 
William W. Heer 
Morris Helburn 
George S. Hellman 
Mrs. E. C. Henderson 
Mrs. Bayard W. Henry 



166 



ANNUAL MEMBERS— Continued 



Mr. and Mrs. Philip Hofer 
John Hoey 
Mrs. William Hogan 
Mrs. James F. Horan 
Mrs. Thomas H. Howard 
Charles Bain Hoyt 
Mrs. Harry Hutton 
Miss Louise M. Iselin 
Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 
Miss Anna A. Jackson 
Mrs. Herbert Ten Broeck 

Jacquelin 
Morgan W. Jopling 
Mrs. Otto H. Kahn 
Frederick R. King 
Mrs. Warren Kinney 
Mrs. G. H. Kinnicutt 
Mrs. Gustav E. Kissel 
Mrs. Agnes Kremer 
Mrs. Harry Kreuter 
Miss Ellen B. Laight 
Mrs. Mervin L. Lane 
Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Mrs. Frederic W. Lincoln 
Robert W. Macbeth 



Howard Mansfield 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Mrs. Henry Tobin Maury 

Joseph M. May 

Mayorkas Brothers 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 

Miss Serbella Moores 

Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. D. Percy Morgan, Jr. 

Mrs. Edith P. Morgan 

George L. K. Morris 

Mrs. E. A. Morrison 

Nicholas Newlin 

Stephen L. Newman 

Mrs. George Nichols 

Mrs. Charles Norton 

Ex Norton 

William Odom 

Miss Catherine O' Kelly 

Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 

Miss Mary Parsons 

Mrs. Robert H. Patterson 

Miss A. G. Peck 

Miss Meta A. Peper 



Miss Marian Powys 

Pratt Institute 

Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 

Mrs. Edward Robinson 

Mrs. James Gamble Rogers 

Talbot M. Rogers 

Mrs. Elihu Root, Jr. 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell, Jr. 

Mrs. William Jay SchiefFelin, Jr. 

Miss Elizabeth Hirst 

Schoonover 
Miss Louise B. Scott 
Jacques Seligmann and Co. 
Miss Dorothy Shephard 
Dr. Otto Steinbrocker 
Mrs. M. M. Sternberger 
Miss Annette Tilden 
Mrs. R. E. Tomlinson 
Mrs. S. Breck P. Trowbridge 
Paul Tuckerman 
Mrs. Coffin Van Rensselaer 
Walter M. Walters 
I. Weinberg 
Mrs. Stanford White 
Mrs. M. Orme Wilson 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Directors of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes of 
membership: 

Benefactors, who contribute $1,000 or more 
Life Members, who contribute $500 or more 
Sustaining Members, who contribute $100 annually 
Subscribing Members, who contribute $50 annually 
Contributing Members, who contribute $10 annually 
Annual Members, who contribute $3 annually 

Cheques should be drawn to Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 
care of The Friends of the Museum, Cooper Square and 7th Street, New York. 

Walter Maynard, Treasurer 
The Friends of the Museum. 



167 



COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

IS SERVED BY THESE LINES OF 
TRANSPORTATION 

SECOND AVENUE ELEVATED— 8th Street (St. Mark's Place) Station 

THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED— 9th Street Station 

L R. T. SUBWAY, Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY, Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line— 8th Street Station 

EIGHTH AVENUE INDEPENDENT SUBWAY— Sixth Avenue and 4th 
Street Station 

HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES— 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS, "Wanamaker Terminal" route 

BROADWAY BUS 

MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS 

LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 

EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 



(rn 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 5 APRIL • 1939 




CONSTANTIN GUYS, 1805-1893 

La Presse 

From the Collection of Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

Bequest of Erskine Heivitt 



ai 1. 



^ 



COOPER UNION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE AND ART 

Trustees 
Gano Dunn, President 
J. P. Morgan Walter S. Gifford 

Elihu Root, Jr. Barklie Henry 



Edwin S. Burdell, Director 
Percy R. Pyne, Jr., Treasurer Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

Edward L. Rehm, Secretary 
John R. Safford, Superintendent of Buildings 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

Advisory Council 

Mrs. Stafford McLean, Chairman 

Miss Edith Wetmore, Secretary 

Elisha Dyer 

Miss Marian Hague 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Staff 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 



Copyright, 1939, hy the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 
New York, N. Y., April 24, 1939 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 5 APRIL • 1939 



THE Advisory Council presents in the Chronicle an account of the 
Museum's activities during the past year, with suggestions for new 
undertakings and further development in the future. Many objects of 
beauty and importance have been added to the collections through gift or 
purchase, and certain of these are illustrated in the following pages. The 
successful exhibition of ceramics, based on theories previously expounded 
in the Chronicle, is recorded in description and pictures. And one of the 
last direct connections with the Founders of the Museum, in the Bequest 
of Erskine Hewitt and the Gift of Norvin Hewitt Green, is all too briefly 
cited in the following pages. 

Changes in the administration of the Museum are to be reported. Miss 
Susan Dwight Bliss, an original member of the Board of Directors since 
its founding in 1931 and for many years before a devoted supporter of the 
Cooper Union, resigned in March, 1938; to fill her place, Mrs. Robert B. 
Noyes was appointed. In December, Mrs. Montgomery Hare, who had 
been Chairman of the Board of Directors and of its successor the Advisory 
Council, resigned; Mrs. Stafford McLean has been appointed Chairman in 
her stead. Mrs. Hare, like Miss Bliss, had worked for many years in 
advancing the interests of Cooper Union; and both have most fully earned 
their retirement from the Museum's affairs. In March, 1939, Mr. Elisha 
Dyer and Mr. Henry Oothout Milliken were appointed to the Advisory 
Council. 



171 




Jl 



UNGLAZED POTTERY 
From Mesopotamia, Eeypt, Iran, Peru, and Costa Rica 




A. 



ALKALINE GLAZED WARE 

From Egypt, Greece, Rome, the Near East and China 



uf^oHT'i ^ ^^ 



BAKED CLAY IN THE SERVICE OF MAN 

To COMMEMORATE the eightieth anniversary of the opening of Cooper Union, the 
Museum held in the autumn of 1938 an exhibition presenting clay as an instrument 
of progress in science, art and social philosophy, the leading educational interests of 
Cooper Union. 

Through the generosity of the Trustees, a fund was provided for constructing in 
the entrance gallery one hundred and sixty running feet of removable partitions con- 
taining twelve glass-fronted niches equipped with interior lighting, to serve as cases. 
This increased the usable wall area threefold, and gave an articulation to the space 
which made the theme of the exhibition readily comprehensible. 

Of the one hundred and ninety-five objects which represented the history of 
Baked Clay in the Service of Man, almost three-fourths were included in the section 
devoted to science. Their purpose was to outline the essential processes and the major 
discoveries in the evolution from unglazed pottery to porcelain. On the introductory 
wall a diagrammatic display told of the steps by which raw clay is converted into 
pottery. Beginning with a lump of clay on a pedestal at one end, the diagram ex- 
plained the steps of kneading, shaping, drying and baking which had to be mastered 
before even the crudest pottery ware, as represented by a jar from Yucatan, could be 
produced. Also shown here were examples of clays for stoneware and porcelain and 
the mineral sources of ceramic glazes and colors. 

First of these geological specimens was granite, the ultimate source of all pottery 
and porcelain, containing as it does the chemical ingredients which resolve into clay 
through slow disintegration. It was pointed out that while science knows that clay 
consists of one part silica, one part alumina and small amounts of other common 
elements, no man has yet been able to combine these ingredients to make synthetic 
clay. 

There followed a group of minerals essential to the production of ceramic glazes: 
trona and halite for alkaline glaze, galena for lead glaze, cassiterite for tin enamel, 
and orthoclase for feldspathic glazes. 

Another group of minerals represented the only sources of metallic colors, except 
gold, used to the end of the eighteenth century. They were: cuprite (cuprous oxide, 
CuoO) which with the addition of lime and soda was the pigment of many blues 
and greens; hematite (ferric oxide, FeoOg), which produced pale yellow, orange, 
brown, red and other tones ; wad, a hydrated manganese dioxide with cobalt oxide 
and impurities, indispensable for purple and certain blues ; stibnite (antimony sul- 
phide, Sb2S3), frequently combined with iron to produce yellow; and cassiterite 
(stannic oxide, SnOo) , used to produce an opaque white. 

This display called attention to the discovery made by some unheralded primitive 
man, that clay, easily moulded and worked when wet, becomes hard and stony when 

173 




LEAD GLAZED POTTERY 

From The Netherlands, Italy, France, England, and Pennsylvania 




(M^. 



TIN ENAMELLED POTTERY, SOME WITH LUSTRE GLAZES 

From Iran and Spain 



/t^HCNo-- ^0 



baked. Upon this discovery all subsequent development rests. 

From this point the exhibition devoted eight cases to the broad stages of techno- 
logical progress by which man acquired a mastery of clay and clay materials. The 
first four of these units dealt with porous pottery, and included some of the oldest 
examples in the exhibition. In each case a master label indicated in brief the relation 
of the contents to each division of the sequence. 

Ungla2ed porous pottery was naturally the first case of this series and its key label 
pointed out that: "Clay must have seemed a magical substance to early man, for 
unlike wood or stone it could be shaped with ease, yet when placed in a fire it lost 
its softness but kept its form. In his first years of sedentary life man used clay for 
cult objects as well as for the pots, bowls and jars in which he cooked, ate and stored 
his food. From Egypt he learned to use the potter's wheel and from the Near East 
the kiln for baking.^ Not content with making good vessels in a variety of forms, he 
expressed his love of decoration by the use of colored clays, incised lines and moulded 
ornament." 

A fragmental painted bowl from Tepe Gawra, and a red and buff pot from 
Hierakonopolis, represented early efforts in potting and painting along the Tigris 
and the Nile. Other examples from Tepe Gawra, dating beyond 4,000 B.C., were a 
female figurine and a corrugated and incised jar, discovered by the University 
Museum-Baghdad School Expedition of 1935, and here shown for the first time, 
through the courtesy of the University Museum, Philadelphia. A black and red effect, 
illustrated by a cylindrical vase from Abadiyeh, was first attained by the predynastic 
Egyptians who presumably blackened the tops of these wares by partly burying them 
in sand while still hot and then subjecting them to the action of a dense smoke.^ 

The remaining unglazed objects, all more recent, and chosen because they repre- 
sented significant trends in the use of baked clay, were: a cuneiform tablet and 
envelope from Nippur, Iraq; a slip-coated, long-spouted jug from Luristan, Iran, of 
a form imitating a metal model, even to the rivets at the base of the spout ; and two 
pieces from ancient America— a portrait jar of the Muchik culture of Peru, and a 
small tripod bowl from Mercedes, Costa Rica. The latter illustrated negative paint- 
ing, a technique in which the decoration was produced by painting in wax on the 
vessel, which was then entirely covered with a black wash. Upon dipping the dried 
vessel into hot water the wax was melted off, leaving the design in the natural color 
of the clay. 

Alkaline glazed pottery, shown in the second case, was a great improvement over 
unglazed ware which was so porous that little could be done to prevent the evapora- 

^ Lowie, Robert H. An Introduction to cultural anthropology (for potter's wheel) ; and Speiser, E. A. 
Excavations at Tepe Gawra during the season of 1936-37. In: Bulletin of the American Institute for Iranian 
Art and Archaeology, v. V, no. 1, June 1937 (for kiln). 

2 Lucas, Alfred. Ancient Egyptian materials and industries, p. 327-332. 

175 



tion or loss of liquids stored in it. Water-proof coatings of grease, wax and varnish 
were tried, but were not entirely successful. In Egypt a new material was developed 
by fusing sand with an alkali, such as a salt of sodium in the form of wood or plant 
ashes. ^ This was actually a kind of glass, and was first used for coating small objects 
of stone and faience. ^ While it could be used only on very siliceous clay, this alka- 
line glaze was a very efficient answer to the problem of porosity. , 

In the land of its origin, alkaline glaze was not frequently used on articles of 
baked clay but principally on an "artificial paste" consisting almost entirely of 
particles of quartz ground fine by hand ; this was the faience of Egypt, so well known 
for its copper-tinted blue and green glaze. The Museum was fortunate in being able 
to show, through the courtesy of the Brooklyn Museum, four faience tiles from 
Sakkara, the only examples of their kind in this country. Dating from about 3,000 
B.C., they display a high degree of skill in the use of alkaline glaze. 

Much classical pottery belongs in the division of alkaline glaze. Greek red-figured 
ware, as exemplified by a fifth century Attic amphora lent by the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, was decorated by painting the background with a black glaze con- 
sisting chiefly of an alkali, clay, and ferrous oxide. ^ This black was too dense to turn 
red under the oxidizing condition of firing which produced the red of the figures. 
The hucchero negro and terra sigillata wares of the Romans were similarly produced. 
Recent investigations by Dr. A. A. Benedetti-Pichler of New York University have 
proved by analysis that some of the Roman wares widely described as lead-glazed 
contain only a negligible amount of that element (less than one per cent.), and 
belong actually in the alkaline class. Through the co-operation of Miss Gisela M. A. 
Richter of the Metropolitan Museum of Art we were able to apply this designation 
for the first time in a public exhibition to a Roman glazed cup of the first century 
B.C. to first century a.d., on the assumption of its similarity to the tested fragments. 

In certain localities of the Near East where suitable clays occur, a rich alkaline glaze 
colored with metallic oxides was employed with great success in monochrome wares 
as in the splendid turquoise blue Iranian bowl of the thirteenth century lent by 
Fahim Kouchakji, and in the Rhodian and Damascus wares of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries, also shown. An important innovation of the Near East was 
the practice of applying the glaze over painted decoration, rather than in reverse 
process. This contributed a new brilliance and permanence to ceramic colors. 

Although alkaline glaze as employed in the Near East had its advantages, its use 
could not become very widespread because few regions had both the siliceous clay 
and the potter's clay which had to be blended to make a suitable body to which it 

1 Lucas, Alfred, op. cit. Presents the possibility of the invention of alkaline glaze and faience in northern 
India. 

- Lucas, Alfred, op. cit., p. 107. 

3 Richter, Gisela M. A. The Craft of Athenian pottery, p. 49. 

176 



would adhere. It was in the Near East, probably in Mesopotamia about 2,000 B.C., 
that a glaze containing oxide of lead was developed.^ This adhered to ordinary clay, 
took color well, and was easily applied; but, being transparent, it often required a 
coating of liquid clay or slip to hide imperfections in the ware. By the thirteenth 
century B.C. an opaque white glaze had been perfected which combined the oxides 
of lead and tin.- 

Frequently a glaze rich in tin was used as a background for painted decoration, 
and over this a layer of colorless lead glaze was dusted ; at a second firing glazes and 
colors were fused into one.^ This was the technique employed in the manufacture of 
two important groups of ware: the majolica of Italy, and the Delft of Holland. The 
former was produced in great quantity, especially in the form of glazed drug jars 
which became the standard equipment of Italian hospitals after the Black Plague of 
the fourteenth century. The demand for these created an important stimulus for the 
artists of the time and gave the potters great proficiency in handling their materials. 
The Italian technique was imitated with outstanding success at Delft, where both 
Chinese and local styles of decoration were employed. A butter dish of 1680-1740, 
lent by Miss Edith Wetmore, served as an example of polychrome Delft ware. 

Lead glaze unassociated with tin was represented by a figure of Saint Paul in the 
style of Bernard Palissy (1510-1589) ; an English slip-decorated dish of about 1800 ; 
and a Pennsylvania-German slip-coated plate with sgraffito decoration, by David 
Spinner (1758-1811). 

Another great contribution of the Near East was muff^le-firing,^ in which colored 
glazes were baked upon the already fired tin enamel. A special form of this was lustre 
painting, in which the designs, painted in metallic colors, became iridescent films of 
metal when baked at low temperatures. This technique was represented by a Rhages 
bowl in brown lustre from Iran, twelfth to thirteenth century, and a large Hispano- 
Moresque plaque of the sixteenth century lent by the Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

Of unique interest was an Iranian bowl belonging to Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Upham 
Pope. An archaeological type specimen in that its painted decoration was the first of 
its kind to have been found at Tabriz, this bowl confirms the statement in ancient 
documents that a branch of the famous Kashan school of artists migrated to Tabriz. 
The glazes of Iran contain artificially prepared clay and much silica, making it 
difficult to classify them. In general, however, the tile glazes contain oxide of tin 
while pottery vessels are coated with a lead or other transparent glaze,-"' as shown by 
a fourteenth century gilt star tile from Kashan and a twelfth century bowl from 
Rakka in nearby Syria. 

1 Brooklyn Museum. The Art and technique of ceramics (pamphlet). 

- Brooklyn Museum, op. cit. 

" Hannover, Emil. Pottery and Porcelain, v. I, p. 243. 

•* Hannover, Emil. op. cit., v. I, p. 53. 

'> Hannover, Emil. op. cit., v. I, p. 59. 

177 




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As illustrated by examples up to this point, many skilful ways had been devised 
to overcome the coarseness and porosity of common pottery. Then came the impor- 
tant discovery of clays which became dense and very hard when baked at high 
temperatures. One of these, kaolin, was used as early as the seventh century in China. 
The other, pipe clay, was discovered in Germany during the fifteenth century. 
Articles made from these materials were impervious even when unglazed, and were 
called stoneware. 

Among the most interesting Chinese examples in the exhibition was a stoneware 
vase of the Sung Dynasty (960-1280). Its decoration consisted of a series of bands, 
the first of which showed the unglazed body ; the next was covered with transparent 
glaze; then a band of slip allowed to run in drips; and finally one plain band of 
slip and glaze in which floral motifs were made with paper cutouts which were 
removed after the vase had been dipped in the slip. Other Chinese stonewares con- 
sisted of a funerary urn of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. -220 a.d.), and a Chien Yao 
tea bowl of the type used in China for tea contests and in Japan for the tea ceremony 
which underlies the aesthetics of that country. It was coated with a peculiar "hare's 
fur" type of glaze, a purplish-black shot with delicate lines of brown. 

European stoneware was represented by Dutch, German and English specimens, 
including among the more notable a red teapot of Arij de Milde ware of the type 
made as early as 1685, lent by Koopman Antiques; and a red tea caddy by Johann 
Friedrich Bottger, dating about 1715, from the collection of Mr. and Mrs. George 
B. McClellan. Also shown was English salt-glazed ware of the eighteenth century, 
including a scratched blue plate, lent by Mrs. Luke Vincent Lockwood ; a coffee pot 
with enamel decoration, lent by Ginsburg and Levy; and a cream jug from the 
Museum's own collection illustrating the use of a plaster mould and the extreme 
thinness of the ware. Jasperware, made of a highly refined stoneware clay, was repre- 
sented by examples of Wedgwood. 

Color, glaze, impermeability — these things man had mastered in his work with 
clay, but another important quality was still to be realized. That was translucency, 
which waited upon the development of a new ceramic texture approaching that of 
glass — a texture which we associate with porcelain, and for which there is only one 
specific term: porcellaneous. This texture was first attained by the Chinese, who 
invented porcelain. 

Baked clay at its best is porcelain, a material consisting largely of kaolin and 
petuntse. Kaolin, the purest type of clay, is white and infusible. It constitutes the 
""bones" or body of the ware. Petuntse, a kind of weathered granite, fuses at a high 
temperature and serves, like muscle, to hold the body together. It also forms the 
chief ingredient of the glaze, binding the whole inseparably. In its highest stage of 
technical refinement, porcelain stands apart from all other clay wares in its hardness, 
whiteness, nonporosity, resonance and translucency. 

179 









EXHIBITION: BAKED CLAY IN THE SERVICE OF MAN 
A't^M'O \t -re /" Partial view, with central display of porcelain 
' — « N, O 






ALmo(X T»~ el 4^ CONTEMPORARY CERAMICS 

Arabian, by Alexander Archipenko; Javanese 

Mother and Child, by Paul Bogatay 

The case contains work by Davis, Grotell, Phillips, Lukens and Soini 



This supreme ware was given a central location in the exhibition to emphasize its 
importance. Confronting the visitor immediately upon entering was an isolated 
porcelain vase, arresting in its size and color. A label at its side stated that "the pro- 
duction of porcelain was man's culminating step in the mastery of baked clay," and 
directed the visitor to the case of unglazed pottery, where the story of porcelain's 
development began. The example used here was a unique Ming Dynasty (1368- 
1644) vase of peach bloom color with enamel decoration picturing three dignitaries 
descending upon clouds to a palace on an island in a lake. This vase, from the col- 
lection of Warren E. Cox, also illustrated another Chinese contribution: the use of 
colored flint glass or enamel for painted decoration over the glaze. 

Other Chinese porcelains included a white bronze-form beaker of the Yung Ch'eng 
period, a white K'ang Hsi bottle with incised decoration under the glaze, a pair of 
square dishes of Imperial Porcelain with three-color decoration painted on the un- 
glazed or biscuit porcelain, and a pair of five-color ewers, also of the K'ang Hsi 
period. These were lent by Parish-Watson and Company. From lenders acknowledged 
elsewhere were a Ting-yao flat bowl and a ying ch'ing tea bowl, both of the Sung 
Dynasty (960-1280), and a figure group representing a governor of the Dutch East 
India Company and his family, dating about 1700. Supplemented by blue and white 
ware, the above examples illustrated the four classes of Chinese porcelain decoration: 
monochrome glaze, including white ; underglaze decoration, as blue and white ; glaze 
on biscuit; and enam.el decoration over the glaze. ^ 

Reflecting the keen desire of European potters to imitate the whiteness and trans- 
lucency of Chinese porcelain, the exhibition presented a limited assortment of artificial 
or soft paste porcelains, so called because compounded principally of clay, quartz and 
powdered glass. Outstanding among these were several pieces lent by the French 
Institute in the United States, including a plate of the rare Rose Pompadour color 
made at Sevres in 1757 ; a turquoise blue cup and saucer, also of Sevres and of about 
the same date; and a translucent white statuette from Mennecy, 1760-70. Other 
examples of this "near porcelain" were a Chantilly sauce boat with Kakiyemon 
decoration, about 1735, the gift of Mrs. George T. Bliss; a St. Cloud cup and saucer 
with blue underglaze lambrequins and moulded decoration, about 1712-30, given by 
Mrs. John B. Trevor ; a plaque for furniture, from the Bequest of Erskine Hewitt ; 
and a pair of covered jars, Mennecy, 1740-50, given by Mrs. Edward Luckemeyer. 
Related pieces were a plate from Buen Retiro, Spain, 1760, and a cup and saucer 
of Venice ware, 1770-80, lent by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

Although artificial porcelain was made in Europe as early as 1475, it remained 
for Johann Friedrich Bottger of Dresden to produce the first true porcelain in 1709 
by employing clays and rocks like those the Chinese used. Within forty years his 

^-Encyclopaedia Britantjica, l4th ed., v. XVIII, p. 340. 

181 




/ • - N C N 1 13. ^4 k CONTEMPORARY CERAMICS 

Duck by Walters, bowl by Nina Hatfield 
Plate by Reigger 




J^^'lc (V( Ti: >--47 CONTEMPORARY CERAMICS 

rnrant's head by Jennewein; carved tile by Harriette Miller; 
shallow bowl by Anita Linzee and bowl by Henry Varnum Poor 



jealously but vainly guarded secret had spread to other parts of Germany as well as 
Austria and Russia. In France the search for similar materials was not successful until 
1765, and it was 1770 before the Royal Factory at Sevres made porcelain of the same 
nature. From that time the manufacture of true or hard paste porcelain supplanted 
the artificial or soft paste porcelain all over the Continent. German hard paste was 
represented in the exhibition by a selection of choice pieces dating from 1725 to 
1740, and including a coffee pot, cup and saucer with polychrome Chinoiserie dec- 
oration, the former from the McClellan Collection; various beverage vessels with 
gilt Chinoiserie, and a small perfume bottle in the form of a statuette of William 
Shakespeare, the latter lent by Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen. 

Of special technical interest were a Chelsea plate and a Worcester strainer with 
blue transfer-printed underglaze decoration, representing the bone ash porcelain 
peculiar to England. So successful was this material, in which burnt bones were 
mixed with kaolin and feldspar, that even to the present day it has managed to keep 
the production of hard paste porcelain, except for a very few years, entirely out of 
England. 

Since the limited exhibition space prevented any adequate historical representation 
of the uses of baked clay in art, it was decided to devote the art section of the 
exhibition to the work of modern ceramists, thus reflecting the revival of interest in 
ceramic art among both artists and laymen. Having passed through the era of genteel 
"china painting," we are rediscovering in clay a plastic and challenging material 
for the production of decorative objects as well as useful vessels. And with simplified 
modern interiors there is a growing demand for such ceramic objects in decoration. 
The pieces in this section were, with the exception of two Danish ones, unique 
products of modern American ceramists. 

The widespread use of terra-cotta for sculptures was illustrated by Carl Walters' s 
"Duck," lent by Nelson A. Rockefeller; Alexander Archipenko's "Arabian," and 
Paul Bogatay's group: "Native Woman and Child." Unglazed porous pottery was 
the material of a deep bowl by Nina Hatfield, with stylized animals painted in slip, 
as well as for a modern San Ildefonso Pueblo bowl of polished black, made by 
Marie Martinez and lent by Edward G. Kent. Glazed pottery had the largest repre- 
sentation, including a bowl with sgraffito decoration by Henry Varnum Poor and 
another in the same technique by Helen Clark Phillips. In colored glazes were a 
carved white bowl by Dorothea Warren O'Hara, a slip-coated bowl with underglaze 
decoration by Martha Davis, and a turquoise bowl by the late Anita Linzee, lent by 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes. In this same group belong a crackled yellow vase by Glen 
Lukens, a carved tile, "Joy," by Hariette Miller, and a vase in cobalt and turquoise 
blues, by Maija Grotell. Stoneware pieces included a large plate with slip decoration 
by Harold Reigger, and a high fired globular vase with copper red glaze by Arthur 

183 




DISPLAYS SUGGESTING THE SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF BAKED CLAY 



E. Baggs. Unglazed porcelain was employed in two sculptures: a baby's head by C. 
Paul Jennewein, and a figure of Moses by Blazys. In glazed porcelain were a blue 
bowl with underglaze decoration, by William Soini; a tall vase with white glaze 
running in drips, made by the late Adelaide Alsopp Robineau; and two Danish 
pieces, one with flambe glaze given by Mrs. A. Murray Young, the other decorated 
with a gazelle in brown under crackled glaze, and lent by the Newark Museum. 

No consideration of baked clay in the service of man could overlook the impor- 
tance of this material in the field of architecture. Since ancient days in Mesopotamia 
and Egypt, the use of brick has had an influence upon the development of large 
scale production and the introduction of variety in the texture and color of wall 
surfaces. Contrasted in the exhibition were an inscribed brick from Babylon of 
about 650 B.C., the property of the University Museum, and several large slabs of 
colored wall ashlar, a new glazed terra-cotta product which is having its place in the 
modern trend toward f unctionalism and extreme simplicity in architecture. These and 
tiles with colored glazes in wide variety were given by the Federal Seaboard Terra 
Cotta Corporation. 

The remaining section of the exhibition was devoted to the social importance of 
baked clay. In one case eight specimens, differing widely in age and origin, stood 
as symbols of the many-sided role of baked clay in social history. First of these was 
a polished red bowl from Abadiyeh, Egypt, of the Predynastic Period, before 
3200 B.C. Its label described it as a symbol of Domestication: "In Egypt and else- 
where, vessels of baked clay came into wide use when man gave up his nomadic life 
and turned to agriculture. Cooking was greatly improved, as food could be prepared 
by standing the vessels in the fire." 

Next came a wheel-made jar from Khafaje, Iraq, of the first Ur Dynasty, 2900- 
2500 B.C. It represented Specialization: "In Egypt and the Near East the potter's 
wheel came into use more than 5,000 years ago. With this development pottery 
making became an occupation for men,i enabling some to earn a living by exchang- 
ing their products for food procured by others." 

A Zapotec funerary urn from Zimatlan, Oaxaca, Mexico, of about 1000 A.D., lent 
by the American Museum of Natural History, was shown in its relation to Religion: 
"In ancient America and elsewhere pottery vessels containing food were often buried 
with the dead, indicating man's faith in an after life and his confidence in the dur- 
ability of baked clay. Many civilizations had certain pottery forms which were 
exclusively for ceremonial use." 

A Chinese perfume bottle made for the Persian market during the period of Chia 
Ch'ing, 1522-1566), stood for Commevce: "For almost a thousand years Chinese 

1 Stern, Bernard J. In: Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, v. XII, p. 280. 

185 



porcelain has been an article of trade.i Persia, India and Egypt created an increasing 
demand, and by the seventeenth century the East India Companies were vying with 
each other to deliver this commodity to Europe, which had not yet learned to pro- 
duce porcelain for itself." 

A majolica drug jar of Castel Durante, Italy, 1555, called attention to the devel- 
opment of the Guild System: "In Italy during the Renaissance pottery-making became 
an industry around which centered the economic life of whole towns. Master crafts- 
men directed the work of apprentices, and formed guilds for the promotion of their 
common interests." 

A white porcelain tea caddy by Johann Friedrich Bottger, dating about 1715, 
represented an important advance in Technology: "In Germany, about 1710, the 
glazed white porcelain of China was duplicated. This step brought the ceramic art 
of Europe to maturity. Two fashions of the period influenced porcelain production: 
the popularity of Chinese decoration ; and the drinking of tea, coffee, and chocolate, 
which created a demand for porcelain beverage sets." 

A jasperware butter dish of the last quarter of the eighteenth century typified 
the role of baked clay in the growth of the Factory System: "In England in the 
1770's Josiah Wedgwood increased his output and reduced production costs by 
improving his equipment and hiring skilled workers to take care of individual 
operations in the manufacture of his wares.^ His ingenuity placed pottery with iron 
and cotton in the forefront of the Industrial Revolution." 

Finally, a glazed porcelain insulator, lent by the Consolidated Edison Company of 
New York, symbolized the place of clay in Major Industry: "In the United States, 
clay products valued at more than $300,000,000 are manufactured each year, requir- 
ing the labor of more than 100,000 men."^ 

Extending this theme in pictorial form was a diorama of an early nineteenth 
century red ware pottery in New England, made and lent by the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. Complete with wax figures of a potter and his apprentice, 
the model illustrated a horse-drawn clay mill, a potter's wheel, a glaze mill, racks for 
drying ware, kiln for baking, and an assortment of finished pieces displayed as if for 
sale. It was a faithful representation of one of the family industries which flourished 
throughout New England at this period. 

In an adjoining case the social importance of baked clay was demonstrated in yet 
another way, as indicated by the caption, "From the Potter: Two Materials, Two 
Techniques." Here again were eight objects, four dating from ancient times and 
four representing products of 1938. The first pair, an Egyptian canopic jar of glazed 

1 Burton, William. Porcelain, a sketch of its nature, art and manufacture, p. 61. 

2 Burton, William. Josiah Wedgwood and his pottery, p. 19-25. 

3 United States Department of Commerce. Biennial Census of Manufactures, 1933, p. 104 (statistics 
for 1927). 

186 



faience and a modern chemical glass flask, reminded the visitor that glass is really 
"glaze" used as a separate material instead of as a coating on some other substance. 
In Egypt, the land of its origin, it was employed for centuries by the potter before 
someone realized that vessels could be made of it alone. Today glass makes countless 
contributions to our health and well-being, and is indispensable to science, art and 
industry. Enamel, the second material from the potter's glaze, was represented by 
a wall nail of the Hurrian people, dating about 1800-1450 B.C., which appeared to 
be coated with a disintegrating tin enamel. In sharp contrast was a modern circular 
plaque of enamel on copper, by H. Edward Winter, serving to illustrate that an 
enamel is a glassy coating, which may be colorless, transparent or opaque for use 
on iron, copper and other metals. The Chinese and the French have made notable 
use of it in art. Today we see it most abundantly as a coating for metal cooking 
utensils and plumbing fixtures. 

Similarly treated were two techniques received from the worker in clay, namely, 
moulding and turning. The Egyptian who made the moulded sun-baked brick here 
shown was an early link in a chain of events which led to the countless moulded 
articles of metal, rubber and plastics which are so much a part of our world today. 
The modern note was supplied by a set of bright green knife handles of a phenol- 
formaldehyde plastic, and the lead mould in which they were formed. This exhibit 
was lent by the Catalin Corporation of America. When the potter of the ancient 
world shaped his wares by turning them under his hand, he established a technique 
which in more recent times has been employed in the production of useful and dec- 
orative articles in wood and metal, as illustrated in the exhibition by a wheel-made 
vase from Thebes, about 1500 B.C., and a spun aluminum tray, lent by Wright 
Accessories, Incorporated. 

In these various ways the Museum attempted to summarize for its visitors the 
importance of baked clay in the world today. With a scope so broad, it was inevitable 
that there should have been many gaps in the representation, from the viewpoint of 
the ceramic expert. The exhibition, featuring one of the basic materials of our 
civilization, was somewhat in the nature of an experiment to determine the feasibility 
of a program of changing exhibitions, to emphasize the interrelationship of art and 
science. The nature of the Museum is such that a similar approach to textiles, metals, 
wood, glass, and plastics would be entirely practicable. 

In its present seriously overcrowded quarters, the Museum has a large burden in 
caring for its collections and meeting the demands of those who daily use its refer- 
ence facilities; nevertheless, it is attempting to be actively educational through its 
exhibitions and related functions. Happily, its association with the Cooper Union 
implies that in any such interpretive work it will not overlook the social importance 
of whatever theme it places before its public. 

Carl C. Dauterman 

187 




MODEL OF A NEW ENGLAND POTTERY OF ABOUT 1800 
y^UMON T'~ Made and lent by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 



American Museum of Natural 

History 
Anonymous Lender 
Arthur E. Baggs 
Alexander Blazys 
Paul Bogatay 
Brooklyn Museums 
Catalin Corporation of 

America 
Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton 

Cohen 
Consolidated Edison Company 

of New York 
Warren E. Cox 
Miss Martha Davis 
B. F. Drakenfeld and Co. 
Federal Seaboard Terra Cotta 

Corporation 
Ferargil Galleries 
Ford Ceramic Arts, Inc. 



French Institute in the United 

States 
Ginsberg and Levy, Inc. 
Miss Maija Grotell 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Mrs. Nina Hatfield 
Edward Ringwood Hewitt 
Charles Bain Hoyt 
Edward G. Kent 
Miss Isabelle Knobloch 
Koopman Antiques 
Fahim Kouchakji 
C. W. Kraushaar Art 

Galleries 
Lenox, Incorporated 
Mrs. Luke Vincent Lockwood 
Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology 
Mr. and Mrs. George B. 

McClellan 



Metropolitan Museum of Art 
E. and A. Milch Art Gallery 
Newark Museum 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
Mrs. Dorothea Warren O'Hara 
Parish-Watson and Co., Inc. 
Philadelphia Museum of Art 
Mrs. Helen Clark Phillips 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Upham 

Pope 
Victor Raffo 
Rehn Galleries 
Harold Reigger 
Nelson A. Rockefeller 
Shearwater Pottery 
William Soini 

Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts 
University Museum 
Miss Edith Wetmore 
H. Edward Winter 
Wright Accessories, Inc. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, BAKED CLAY IN THE SERVICE OF MAN 



I. SCIENCE 

Binns, Charles Fergus. Ceramic technology; 
New York, 1896: The D. Van Nostrand com- 
pany. 

Binns, Charles Fergus. The Potter's Craft; 
a practical guide for the studio and workshop ; 
2d. ed., New York, 1922: D. Van Nostrand 
company. 



Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, N. Y. The art 
and technique of ceramics ; an exhibition pre- 
sented by the Rockefeller Foundation internes 
of the Brooklyn Museum. June 24-September 
7. Brooklyn, the Museum, 1937. 

Burton, William. Porcelain, a sketch of its 
nature, art and manufacture; New York, 
1906: Cassell and company, limited. 



188 



Clay products cyclopedia. Chicago, 1924: 
Industrial publications, inc. 

Cox, George James. Pottery, for artists, 
craftsmen and teachers; New York, 1914: 
Macmillan co. 

Crane, F. D. Materials and methods of early 
pottery; in: American Journal of Archaeol- 
ogy, V. 40, 1936, p. 47-48. 

Dillon, Edward. Porcelain; London, 1904: 
Methuen and co. 

Hannover, Emil. Pottery and porcelain; a 
handbook for collectors. Translated from the 
Danish of Emil Hannover. Edited with notes 
and appendices by Bernard Rackham ; London, 
1925: Ernest Benn. 3 v. Bibliographies. 

Lucas, Alfred. Ancient Egyptian materials 
and industries ; Second edition, revised. Lon- 
don, 1934: E. Arnold and company. 

Mcllhenny, H. P. Pottery, its history and 
technique; in: American ceramic society bul- 
letin, v. 15, May 1936, p. 195-197. 

Richter, Gisela Marie Augusta. The craft of 
Athenian pottery; an investigation of the 
technique of black-figured and red-figured 
Athenian vases; New Haven, 1923: Yale 
University Press. 

IL ART 

The art with an inferiority complex; with 
portfolio of the work of eight living Ameri- 
can ceramists; in: Fortune, v. 16, December 
1937, p. 114-122. 

Atherton, Carlton. Pottery design through 
the ages; in: Design, v. 35, September, 1933, 
p. 6-9. 

Benson, E. M. Twentieth-century ceramics; 
in: American magazine of art, v. 27, May 
1934, p. 254-260. 

Cowan, R. Guy. Art, industry and education 
in ceramics; in: American ceramic society 
bulletin, v. 15, January 1936, p. 5-12. 

Design (periodical) v. 36, April 1935. 
Entire issue devoted to ceramic art. Articles 
by Waylande Gregory, Charles M. Harder, 
Glen Lukens, Myrtle Meritt French, Arthur 
E. Baggs, Edgar Littlefield, Harold S. Nash, 
E. H. Strong, Ilonka Karasz, Richard F. Bach. 



Gregory, Waylande de Santis. Tools and 
materials: ceramic sculpture; in: American 
magazine of art, v. 28, August 1935, p. 500- 
502, and September 1935, p. 561-563. 

Holmes, William Henry. Origin and de- 
velopment of form and ornament in ceramic 
art; Washington: Government Printing Of- 
fice, 1886, p. 437-465; in: U. S. Ethnology, 
Bureau. Annual report, no. 4. 

Pottery and porcelain; in: Encyclopaedia 
Britannica; l4th ed., 1929, v. 18, p. 338-372. 

Schmidt, Robert. Porcelain as an art and a 
mirror of fashion. Translated and edited with 
an introduction by W. A. Thorpe; London, 
1932: George G. Harrap and company, 
limited. 

III. SOCIAL IMPORTANCE 

Childe, Vere Gordon. Man makes himself; 
(Library of science and culture, v. 5) ; Lon- 
don, 1936: C. A. Watts and company. 

General Ceramics Company. The evolution 
of industrial ceramics; New York, 1934: 
General Ceramics company. 

Harrison, Herbert Spencer. Pots and pans; 
the history of ceramics; London, 1928: G. 
Howe, limited. 

Hart, Hornell. The technique of social 
progress; New York, 1931: Henry Holt and 
company. 

Lowie, Robert Harry. Introduction to cul- 
tural anthropology; New York, 1934: Farrar 
and Rinehart, incorporated. 

Mason, Otis Tufton. The origins of inven- 
tion: a study of industry among primitive 
peoples; New York, 1895: C. Scribner's Sons. 

Maddock's, Thomas, Sons Company. Pot- 
tery: a history of the pottery industry and its 
evolution as applied to sanitation, with unique 
specimens and facsimile marks from ancient 
to modern foreign and American wares ; 
Philadelphia, [1910]. 

Schapiro, Meyer. Pottery; in: Encyclopaedia 
of the social sciences, v. 12, 1934, p. 279-284. 

Usher, Abbott Payson. A history of mech- 
anical inventions; New York, 1929: McGraw- 
Hill book company, incorporated. 



189 




SEDAN CHAIR WITH PAINTED PANELS 
REPRESENTING THE LEGEND OF DIANA AND ENDYMION 

Venice, mid- 18th century 
. Bequest of Erskine Heicitt 



REPORT OF THE CURATOR 

This year marks another notable milestone in the history of the Museum's develop- 
ment. With the important additions to the collections, the Museum has materially 
expanded its service to the public, in meeting the increasing demands for informa- 
tion, for advice in problems of research, and for the loan of objects to other museums 
and institutions. A new type of exhibition has been given experimental treatment 
in the display "Baked Clay in the Service of Man" which exemplified the three-fold 
nature of the educational programme of Cooper Union in Science, Art, and Social 
Philosophy. The exhibition opened on November third in honor of the Eightieth 
Anniversary of the founding of Cooper Union and the Installation of the new 
Director of the Institute, Doctor Edwin S. Burdell, and continued through January 
seventh. The increased activities have been accomplished with the assistance of a 
group of volunteer workers and one thousand eight hundred thirty-seven hours of 
student labor made available through the National Youth Administration. 

The outstanding contributions to the collections, numbering over seventeen thou- 
sand objects, were largely from the Bequest of Erskine Hewitt and the gift of Norvin 
Hewitt Green. The late Miss Florence Mathews gave a Brussels tapestry of the six- 
teenth century in memory of her brother, Charles Thompson Mathews, a member of 
the former Council of the Museum ; Miss Grace Lincoln Temple gave an important 
collection of wall-papers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, from England, 
France, and America ; and the many generous gifts from the Friends of the Museum 
and the purchase of more than eight thousand original drawings of architecture and 
the decorative arts further strengthened our already excellent representation in these 
departments. 

It is impossible to do justice in the limited space available in the present issue of 
the Chronicle to the importance of the works of art received from the Cooper and 
Hewitt House at Nine Lexington Avenue, the home for many years of the Founders 
of the Museum. These priceless treasures were collected by the Misses Hewitt, with 
the thought of their incorporation with, and further enrichment of, the Museum's 
collections of documents of drawings, textiles, and the decorative arts in general. 
This gracious intention has received its fulfilment this year. 

In such activities the Museum has come closer to the realization of its original and 
basic ideas. The student, the visitor with special interest, and the layman in no less 
degree continue to secure practical knowledge, instruction, and pleasure. This encour- 
ages us in our efforts to broaden the appeal and usefulness of the Museum. 

Mary S. M. Gibson 



191 



WORKS OF ART GIVEN TO THE MUSEUM 

January 1st — December 31st, 1938 



ACCESSORIES OF FURNISHING 

Damask napkin; France, 19th century. 
Given by Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 

Bed spread; United States, 19th century. 
Given by Mrs. J. Insley Blair. 

Wall hanging; Soemba, Netherlands East. 

Indies, 19th century. Wall hanging; India, 

19th century. 
Purchased, The Friends of the Museum Fund. 

Pillow cover; United States, 19th century. 
Given by Norvin Heivitt Green. 

Sixteen items of accessories of furnishing, 

including curtains and pillow covers; United 

States, 19th century. 
Bequest of Erskine Heivitt. 

Tapestry, Priam greeting Helen, woven by 

Jacques Geubels after design by Michel 

Coxcie; Brussels, about 1590. 
Given by Miss Florence Matheivs in memory 
of her brother, Charles Thompson Matheivs. 

Damask table cloth; probably Belgium, 

about 1800. 
Given by Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor. 

ALPHABETS AND INITIALS 

Commemorative card of the Merrymount 
Press; Boston, 1932. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

ARCHITECTURAL DECORATION 

Three fragments of a carved wood ceiling; 
Toledo, Spain, 15th-l6th century. 

Given by Dr. \Falter Leo Hildburgh. 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING 

Plan of bedroom in country house of Mrs. 

Marshall Field, with water-color drawing 

of one side of room, by Elizabeth Hoopes ; 

United States, 1935. 
Given by McMillen, Inc. 

ARMS AND ARMOR 

Six iron arrow-heads; Japan, l6th century. 
Given by Dr. Walter Leo Hildburgh. 

CERAMICS 

Two tile fragments; Iran, 13th century. 



Eight tiles ; Bristol and Liverpool, England, 
18th century. 

Purchased, The Friends of the Museum Fund. 
"Service de I'accouchee," painted and gilded 
faience; Mennecy, France, 1740-1750. Etui 
in the shape of a stalk of asparagus, soft 
paste porcelain; France, about 1750. 

Given by Norvin Hewitt Green. 

Three hundred forty-four pieces of pottery 
and porcelain ; Belgium, China, England, 
France, Germany, Italy and Japan, 18th- 
19th century. From the collection of .Miss 
Eleanor Garnier Hewitt. 

Bequest of Erskine Hewitt. 

Glazed and lustred pottery relief figure 
of a griffin; Spain, 1 5th- 1 6th century. Four 
fragments of tin-enamelled pottery; Seville, 
Spain, l4th-16th century. Four painted ter- 
ra-cotta ceiling tiles; Spain, probably 15th 
century. 

Given by Dr. Walter Leo Hildburgh. 

Nine glazed porcelain tiles ; United States, 
1938. 

Given by Kohler Company. 

Fifteen tin-enamelled pottery tiles; The 
Netherlands, 18th century. 

Given by 'William Rave. 

Lead-glazed porcelain dish with transfer- 
printed decoration; made by Barr, Flight 
and Barr; Worcester, England, 1807-1813. 

Given by Miss Marie L. Russell. 

Tin-enamelled earthenware tile; Iran, l6th- 
17th century. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

COSTUME AND COSTUME ACCESSORIES 
Printed silk handkerchief; England, con- 
temporary. 

Given by Miss Susan Dwight Bliss. 

Man's girdle, silk plain compound twill ; 
Morocco, late 19th century. 

Purchased, The Friends of the Museum Fund. 
Two hundred two items of costume and 
accessories of costume, including bonnets, 
caps, collars, handkerchiefs, hats, hoods, 
neckties, parasols, slippers, stockings and 
vestees; France and United States, 19th 
century. 



193 




Vsii^DOW PUPPETS AND SCORE 
FROM THE THEATRE SERAPHIN 
Paris, about 1812 
Given by Erskine Heivitt 



AutAOoWi^-- ^^3 



WROUGH'^STfeEL MUSrCRACK 

From the collection of Prince Demidov 

at San Donato, Florence 

Bequest of Erskine Hewitt 




COSTUME ACCESSORIES FORMERLY BELONGING TO MEMBERS OF THE 



l-l ,\<-L - f) ^ HEWITT FAMILY 

n UMOMTt^ c<'^\S' Given by Norvin Hewitt Gr 



Given by Nori'in Hetvitt Green. 

Silk lace collar; Spain, 19th century. 

Given by Miss Marian Hague. 

Linen apron embroidered with wool, made 
and dyed by Polly Rice Cole with materials 
produced on her property; Cheshire, Berk- 
shire County, Massachusetts, about 1817. 

Given by Mrs. Montgomery Hare. 

Thirty-three items of costume accessories, 
including belts, reticules and sashes; France, 
Italy and United States, 19th century. 

Bequest of Erskine Hetvitt. 

Pair of iron buckles; Rouen, France, 18th 
century. 

Given by Dr. Walter Leo Hildburgh. 

Pair of embroidered cotton sleeves ; France, 
about 1855. Collar and pair of cuffs; 
France, mid- 19th century. 

Given by Miss Marcelia McKeon. 

Woman's embroidered silk hat; India, 19th 
century. 

Given by Kirkor Minassian. 

Twelve fashion drawings; France, 1895- 
1900. 

Given by Mrs. Freddie Staack. 

Four printed silk handkerchiefs with designs 
commemorating the Coronation of George 
VI and Elizabeth of England; England, 
1937. 

Given by Miss Helen 5. Stone. 

Pair of lace lappets; Binche, 18th century. 

Given by Mr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor. 
Embroidered silk handkerchief case ; France, 
19th century. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

Man's cotton girdle; man's silk girdle; 
China, early 20th century. Silk tie-dyed 
scarf; India, early 20th century. Braided 
silk tie; Japan, early 20th century. 

Given by Miss Carolyn Wicker. 

ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 

Ten groups of printed, colored and cut-out 
paper figures; Augsburg, Germany, 18th 
century. 

Given by Miss Caroline King Duer. 

Five woodcut illustrations after drawings 
by Winslow Homer, published in Apple- 
ton's Journal and Harper's Weekly, 1869- 
1872. 

Purchased, The Friends of the Museuin Fund. 
Chromolithograph peep-show: L'Exposition 



Universelle de 1867 \ Paris, 1867. 

Given by Norvin Hewitt Green. 

Five hundred thirty-two prints, by Victor 
Adam, Bartolozzi, Chodowiecki, Debucourt, 
de la Joue, Le Prince, Morland, Peyrotte, 
Pillement, St. Non, Smith, Tiepolo and 
others; 18th-19th century. 

Bequest of Erskine Hewitt. 

Twelve New Year's cards of the Merry- 
mount Press, with woodcut illustrations by 
Rudolph Ruzicka; United States, 1916- 
1935. Lithograph; Midair, by Louis Lozo- 
wick; United States, 1931. Lithograph: 
Roof tree, by Rockwell Kent; United States, 
1928. Etching: Stoops in Snoiv, by Martin 
Lewis; United States, 1930. Eight color 
prints by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Monfa; 
France, 1893. Eight color lithographs of 
series, Histoire Ancienne, by Honore 
Daumier; France, 1842. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

FURNITURE 

Two mahogany armchairs, eight side chairs, 
made by John Hewitt; New York, ISIO- 
1820. 

Given by Mr. and Mrs. Norvin Heiuitt Green. 
Sedan chair with carved and gilded wood 
frame, and painted panels depicting the 
story of Diana and Endymion ; Venice, mid- 
18th century. Carved and gilded chaise 
longue with stylistic elements of the period 
of Louis XIV. Carved oak armoire a deux 
corps; probably Northern Germany, late 
18th century. Screen with four painted 
panels by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince; France, 
about 1760. 

Bequest of Erskine Hetvitt. 

GLASS 

Five circular pieces of hand-blown glass 
for windows; Northern Europe, 18th cen- 
tury. 

Given by Norvin Hetvitt Green. 

GLYPTIC ARTS 

Three figures for a creche group; Italy, 

early 19th century. 
Purchased, The Friends of the Museutn Fund. 

GOLD AND SILVERSMITH'S WORK 
Six miniature objects in silver filigree; 
Italy, mid-19th century. 

Anonymous Gift, in Memory of Albert and 

Rebecca Elsberg. 



195 




. f 








^ 



Silver cream jug, nine silver spoons; 
watches, chains, studs, brooches, and brace- 
lets; France and United States, 18th- 19th 
century. 

Given by Norvin Heu'itt Green. 

Fourteen pieces of pinchbeck jewellery; 
England, 1840-1850. 

Given by Miss Alice Morse. 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

Three drawings by Jean-Baptiste Oudry, 
1686-1755; one drawing by Hubert Robert, 
1733-1808. Water-color drawing: Travel- 
ling Showmen: Germany, late 19th century. 

Purchased, The Friends of the Museum fund. 
Eight thousand, two hundred twenty-six 
drawings for architecture, ceramics, jewel- 
lery, metalwork, stage decoration and other 
subjects; Italy, 17th-19th centuries. Form- 
erly in the collections of Giovanni Pian- 
castelli and Mrs. Edward D. Brandegee. 

Purchased, General Funds. 

Three hundred sixty-two drawings by 
Bernard, Boucher, Caruso, Cochin, Robert 
Cruikshank, Guardi, Huntington, Le Prince, 
Longhi, Pordenone, Ramsay, Rowlandson, 
Tiepolo, Watteau, Wheatley and others. 

Bequest of Erskine Hewitt. 

Design for a wall-paper: Zinnias, by A. 
Elizabeth Wadhams; United States, 1935. 

Given by Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 

Sepia drawing by Gaston Redon ; France, 
1915. 

Given by Henry Oothout Milliken. 

Drawing: Miseries of Reading Rooms — 
No. 1; United States, 1850-1860. 

Given by Miss Edith Wetmore. 

HARDWARE 

Two wrought iron curtain brackets; Spain, 
l6th century. 
Given by Dr. Weaker Leo Hildburgh. 

LACE 

Portion of linen bobbin lace with two 

pricked patterns used for its making; 

Binche, 18th century. 
Given by Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen. 

Two bobbin lace panels and one border; 

Milan, 18th century. Bobbin lace border; 

Flanders, early 18th century. Flounce, 

point de Sedan; France, about 1733. 
Purchased, The Friends of the Museutn Fund. 



Thirty-two pieces of machine-made lace; 

United States, late 19th century. 
Given by Norvin Hewitt Green. 

Five pieces of needlepoint lace; France and 

Italy, 17th-20th centuries. 
Given by Miss Marian Hague. 

Four pieces of lace; France, 19th century. 
Given by Erskine Hewitt. 

Strip of reticello and needlepoint lace; strip 

of reticello and punto in aria; Italy, I6th 

century. 
Given by Miss Margaret Taylor Johnstone. 

Piece of needlepoint lace; Italy, 17th cen- 
tury. 
Given by Miss Alice Morse. 

Three pieces of bobbin lace ; Buckingham 

and Honiton, England, 19th-20th centuries. 
Given by Miss Marian Powys. 

Thirty-eight fragments of lace; Europe, 

I6th-19th centuries. 
Given by Mr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor. 

LACQUER 

Two leaf-shaped boxes with silver and gold 
decoration; China, 19th century. 
Given by Norvin Hewitt Green. 

METALWORK 

Wrought steel music rack with cipher of 
Marie Antoinette. From the collection of 
Prince Demidov at San Donato, Florence. 

Given by Norvin Hetvitt Green. 

NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY 
Portion of an embroidered cotton girdle; 
Poland, 19th century. 

Given by Mrs. Marion Moore Cole?nan. 
Fragment of embroidery; Egypto-Arabic, 
12th- 13th century. Panel of embroidery; 
Rhodes, 17th- 18th century. 

Purchased, The Friends of the Museutn Fund. 
Fragment of embroidered cotton; Italy, l6th 
century. Two silk embroidered bands ; Italy, 
l6th century. Four embroidered fragments; 
Fostat, Egypt, 10th-13th centuries. Three 
fragments of wool embroidery ; Peru, Para- 
cas Culture, about 500 A.D. 

Given by Miss Marian Hague. 

Twenty-two pieces of embroidery; China, 
Greece, Japan and Turkey, 19th century. 

Bequest of Erskine Heivitt. 



197 




/OJ.S % ~S^- ^^iL FRANCESCO GUARDI, 1712-1793 ^^^^ ^-^G- ^iS 1 

Decorative drawing \ 

From the Warwick, Madrazo and Sarah Cooper Hewitt Collections 
Bequest of Erskine Hetfitt 



r 



A- 







'^>?/- 



V- - 



V > GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO, 1696-1770 

^7"c?-4vj^ Venus and Time H\^T-\0'^V^^ A^T 

From the Collections of Raimundo de Madrazo and Sarah Cooper Hewitt 
Bequest of Erskine Heivitt 



Embroidered sleeve ruffle; Germany, 18th 
century. Embroidered net; Hungary, first 
half of 18th century. 

Given by Miss Margaret Taylor Johnstone. 
Silk embroidery; Balkan Peninsula, 19th 
century. Silk and mirror-glass embroidery; 
India, 19th century. 

Given by Kirkor Minassian. 

Six examples of drawnwork; New York, 
1892. 

Given by Mrs. Julia K. Stake. 

Two pieces of cutwork; France, I6th cen- 
tury. Linen embroidery; France, 18th cen- 
tury. Four pieces of embroidery; Germany, 
18th century. Embroidery; Italy, l6th cen- 
tury. 

Given by Mr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor. 

PAINTING 

Portrait of Aliss Eleanor G. Hewitt; about 
1890. 

Given by Norvin Heivitt Green. 

Portrait of Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt, by 
James Carroll Beckwith; oil on canvas, 
1899. Portrait of Miss Eleanor Garnier 
Hewitt, by A. de Brunelo; oil on canvas, 
1888. Portrait of a child; oil on canvas; 
Spain, early 19th century. The Immaculate 
Conception, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo; 
oil on canvas, about 1750. 

Bequest of Erskine Hetcitt. 

PAPER ARTICLES 

Pin-pricked colored paper picture; France 
or Switzerland, first quarter of 18th cen- 
tury. 

Given by Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen. 
Three printed and embossed Valentines; 
Germany or United States, about 1868. 

Given by Mrs. Harford W. Hare Powel, Jr. 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Twenty-three stereopticon slides; Philadel- 
phia, about 1854. Thirty-three photographic 
cartes de visite of generals and civilians of 
the Civil War period; New York, 1861- 
1865. 
Given by Norvin Heivitt Green. 

SCULPTURE 

Bronze group: Bacchantes. 
Bequest of Herman A. Els berg. 



Bronze bust of Abraham Lincoln; United 
States, 20th century. 

Given by Norvin Hewitt Green. 

TEXTILE ARTS 

Portion of silk and metal double cloth, a 
part of the Cope of San Valero, formerly 
in the Cathedral of Lerida, Spain; Spain, 
13th century. 

Anonymous Gift. 

Resist-dyed cotton weaves ; Netherlands East 
Indies, 19th century. 

Given by N. D. Bader. 

Silk weave brocaded with silver thread; 
Bianchini Eerier, Inc., Lyon, France, con- 
temporary. 

Given by Miss Susan Dioight Bliss. 

Collection of fabrics and drawings for tex- 
tiles designed by Herman A. Elsberg and 
woven under his direction ; France, early 
20th century. 

Bequest of Herman A. Elsberg. 

Woven portrait of Philippe de La Salle, 
1723-1803, designer of textiles; designed 
by Louis Reybaud, Lyon, France, 1854. 

Given by the Estate of Herman A. Elsberg. 
Three paintings on sheer linen, four of a 
series representing the five senses, accompa- 
nied by verses by Paul Scarron, 1610-1660. 
Wool netting; Egypt, 5th century. Textile 
pattern book with samples of one hundred 
two textiles; Crefeld, Germany, 19th cen- 
tury. Silk compound cloth; Iran, 17th cen- 
tury; silk and metal plain compound cloth, 
brocaded; Lucca, l4th century. Seven frag- 
ments of plain cloth and tapestry; Peru, 
400-1400. 

Purchased, The Friends of the Museum Fund. 
Printed cotton border; France, early 19th 
century. 

Given by Miss Mary S. M. Gibson. 

Bone swift for winding wool; United 
States, early 19th century. 

Given by Norvin Hewitt Green. 

Cotton towel strip; Italy, l4th century. 
Two textile fragments; Italy, I6th century. 
Silk velvet; Spain, 18th century. 

Given by Miss Marian Hague. 

Sixteen hundred forty-six samples of dress 
fabrics; France and United States, 1938. 

Given by William Hardy, Inc. 



199 



Two pieces of linen and wool fancy twill ; 
United States, early 19th century. 

Given by Mrs. Montgomery Hare. 

Eighty-three pieces of textile fabrics ; China, 
France, Italy, Japan, United States; 17th- 
20th centuries. 

Bequest of Erskine Heivitt. 

Blue and yellow silk and linen double 
cloth; Spain, 17th century. 

Given by William H indie y. 

Folder mounted with samples of fabrics 
used for upholstering, drapery, and floor 
covering in bedroom in country house of 
Mrs. Marshall Field. 

Given by McAiillen, Inc. 

Two printed cotton textile strips ; United 
States, mid- 19th century. 

Given by Miss Marcelia McKeon. 

Four fragments of silk compound cloth ; 
Egypt, 10th-12th century. Two pieces of 
printed cotton; India, 18th-19th centuries. 

Given by Kirkor Minassian. 

Three book marks, silk plain cloth, bro- 
caded; England, about 1875. Bought at 
the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, 
1876. 

Given by Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby. 

Brocaded silk compound cloth; France, first 
half of 18th century. 

Given by Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes through 

the Museum of the City of Neiv York. 

Mercerized cotton, silk, hemp and metal 
compound satin, used at Coronation of 
George VI and Elizabeth of England; Eng- 
land, 1937. 

Given by Miss Helen S. Stone. 
Brocaded silk; France, about 1870. 

Given by Mr. and Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor. 

TOYS 

Magic lantern slide, mechanical clown, 
music box, and wood and metal dolls' 
dishes; France and Germany, 19th century. 

Given by Norvin Heivitt Green. 

Toy theatre with printed and colored 
scenery and characters for the play; Cin- 
derella, or The Little Glass Slipper, by 



Benjamin Pollock; London, 1877-1930. 
Given by W. H. Solle. 

WALL-PAPER 

Block-printed paper with scenic medallions 
against framework of Gothic architecture; 
France, about 1845. 

Given by Mr^. Calvin Allison. 

Two pieces of wall-paper; France, about 
1840. 

Given by Mr. and Mrs. Walter Dickson. 
Twelve fragments of wall-papers at one time 
used as book covers; England, France and 
United States, 1760-1830. Twelve lengths 
of wall-paper; United States, 1890-1905. 
Fragment of wall-paper border; United 
States, late 19th century. 

Given by Paul F. Franco. 

Panel of wall-paper block-printed in dis- 
temper colors; France, 1845-1855. 

Given by Miss Mary S. M. Gibson. 

Four rolls of wall paper with floral design ; 
France, about 1900. 

Given by Norvin Hewitt Green. 

Two pieces of wall-paper copied from 
originals in the collection of the Museum; 
France, about 1830. 

Given by Mme. Charles Huard. 

Twenty-six pieces of wall-paper, of which 
six are derivations of originals in the col- 
lection of the Museum; United States, 1937. 

Given by Jones and Erwin, Inc. 

Roll of wall-paper: Zinnias, and two cylin- 
ders used for its printing; United States, 
1935. 

Given by Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 

Fifteen samples of wall-paper; United 
States, contemporary. 

Given by Alfred Aiontecorboli. 

One hundred twenty-two pieces of wall- 
paper; England, France and the United 
States, 18th-20th centuries. 

Given by Miss Grace Lincoln Temple. 

Two lengths of wall-paper, designed by 
Paul Wescott and produced by Richard E. 
Thibaut, Inc. ; the first wall-paper to be 
printed by ofl^set. United States, 1938. 

Given by Paul Wescott. 



201 



.-c?' 






DONORS TO THE LIBRARY 



January 1st — December 31st, 1938 



Franklin Abbott 

Addison Gallery of American Art 

Curtis Clay Aldridge 

American Art Association Anderson Galleries 

Bergdorf and Goodman Company 

Spencer Bickerton 

M. H. Birge and Company 

Mrs. Grace Hall Blashfield 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Alan St. H. Brock 

Rowland Burdon-MuUer 

Andre Carlhian 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

Miss Mari Carter 

Ward Cheney 

Ciba Company, Inc. 

Mme. Helena Cichowicz 

Mme. "Wieslawa Cichowicz 

Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Cooper Union Day Art School 

Cooper Union Library 

Corning Glass Works 

Carl C. Dauterman 

Allison Delarue 

A. Algara R. de Terreros 

Mrs. Frederick Dielman 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Elisha Dyer 

Musee Galliera, Paris 

Miss Katherine Garvin 

Georg Jensens S0lvsmedie A/S 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Mrs. Harry St. Clair Hathaway 



Erskine Hewitt* 

Hispanic Society of America 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

Jones and Erwin, Inc. 

Joseph S. Kennard 

M. Knoedler and Company 

Harold Lancour 

Miss Kate C. Lefferts 

Lenox, Incorporated 

Mrs. Francis H. Lenygon 

Mrs. Walter Scott McPherson 

Filippo Marchello 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Alfred Montecorboli 

Miss Serbella Moores 

Moravian Pottery and Tile Works 

Miss Alice Morse 

Museum of the City of New York 

Parke-Bernet Galleries 

Miss Emma Piatt 

William Rave 

Robert Hamilton Rucker 

Mrs. Angiolina Scheuermann 

The Misses Schneider 

Miss Elizabeth Hirst Schoonover 

Mrs. P. Sondergaard 

Miss Ruth Lyle Sparks 

Thomas Strahan and Company 

Mary Stuart Book Fund 

Mrs. James Ward Thorne 

Wall-paper Manufacturers, Ltd. 

Miss Edith Wetmore 

William Bradford Press 

W. A. Young 

Zeiss Ikon A. G. 



VOLUNTEER WORKERS, 1938 



Franklin Abbott 
Randolph Bullock 
Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. Harry S. Koopman 



Mrs. Mervin L. Lane 
Edward B. Lang 
Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Miss Kate C. Lefferts 
Miss Serbella Moores 



Jose B. Rios 
Robert Hamilton Rucker 
Mrs. Forrest Stockton 
Miss Lotta Van Buren 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT, 1938 



Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
* Deceased 



Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 



Miss Florence Mathews* 



203 




SERVICE DE L'ACCOUCHEE • 



Y'S^^-^^^ 7^ Q Tin-enamelled pottery (faience) ALtABb^iTCL eL ^ ^ 

' Mennecy, mid-18th century ^ "• 



;nnecy, mid-18th century 
Gh'en by Norvin Heivitt Green 



:iKC 




"f'^^-'^n-<r^o 



PORTION OF A PORCELAIN TEA SERVICE 

Meissen, about 1725 

From the Collection of Eleanor Gamier Hewitt 

Bequest of Erskine Hewitt 



^WC?^ R.-2^ (^(J-^ 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM, 1938 



BENEFACTORS 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen Mrs. A. Murray Young 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss Starling W. Childs Charles E. Sampson 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 

Mrs. John D. Rockefeller Miss Edith Wetmore Miss Maude Wetmore 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 



Miss Juliana Cutting 
Mrs. Childs Frick 



Mrs. Stafford McLean Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Mr. and Mrs. Barklie Henry Henry D. Williams 



CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 



Bailer Brothers 

Miss Isabel A. Ballantine 

Charles F. Biele and Sons 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Mrs. Edward Hardy Clark 

Henry Clifford 

Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton 

Cohen 
Gano Dunn 

Mrs. Henry Belin du Pont 
Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. Elisha Dyer 
Herman A. Elsberg* 
Mrs. Harry Harkness Flagler 



Walter S. Gifford 

Mrs. Edwin Gould 

Mrs. Frederic S. Gould 

Miss Marian Hague 

Miss Annie May Hegeman 

Charles Bain Hoyt 

Mrs. Walter Belknap James 

Jones and Erwin, Inc. 

Airs. Henry Langford 

The Manhattan Storage and 

Warehouse Company 
Mrs. James W. Markoe 
Mrs. William R. Mercer 
Edward A. Miller 



Mrs. William H. Moore 
Miss Katherine de Berkeley 

Parsons 
Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 
William J. Ryan 
Mrs. Herbert L. Satterlee 
Miss Helen S. Stone 
Mrs. James Ward Thorne 
Miss Emily Tobias 
Mrs. John B. Trevor 
Carl Otto Von Kienbusch 
Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 
William Williams 
Lucius Wilmerding, Jr. 
Mrs. Egerton Winthrop 



Mrs. Franklin Abbott 
Mrs. William Felton Barrett 
Mrs. Henry G. Bartol 
Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 
Mrs. C. B. Borland 
Mrs. J. Nelson Borland 
Miss Gertrude Brooks 
Mrs. Ludlow S. Bull 
George Chapman 
Mrs. Francis E. Corbett 
Mrs. Carl A. de Gersdorff 
Mrs. William Adams Delano 
Baron Voruz de Vaux 

* Deceased 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Mrs. Francis Donaldson 

Joseph Downs 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Miss Eleanor O. Eadie 

Mrs. Frederick W. Ells 

Miss Alice S. Erskine 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Mrs. Oliver D. Filley 

Robert T. Francis 

Miss Minnie Goodman 

Roger D. Granger 

Mrs. Roger D. Granger 

Mrs. William Greenough 



Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 

Michael M. Hare 

Mrs. Michael M. Hare 

Mrs. J. Amory Haskell 

Miss Ethel L. Haven 

William W. Heer 

Mrs. Edward Cairns Henderson 

Mrs. Bayard W. Henry 

Mrs. Harry Hutton 

Miss Louise M. Iselin 

Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Miss Anna A. Jackson 



205 











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Morgan W. Jopling 

Mrs. Otto H. Kahn 

Frederic R. King 

Mrs. Warren E. Kinney 

Mrs. Harry F. Kreuter 

Miss Ellen B. Laight 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Mrs. Frederic W. Lincoln 

Raymond Loewy 

Robert W. Macbeth 

Roger W. MacLaughlin 

Miss Harriet Marple 

Miss Nancy V. McClelland 

Robert T. McKee 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Heiiry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Douglas M. Moffat 



Alfred Montecorboli 

Miss Serbella Moores 

Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. Alexis V. Moschcowitz 

Mrs. George Nichols 

Mrs. Charles Dyer Norton 

William M. Odom 

Mrs. Donald Oenslager 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 

Mrs. John E. Parsons 

Miss Mary Parsons 

Mrs. Robert H. Patterson 

Miss Meta A. Peper 

Mrs. Robert Burnside Potter 

Pratt Institute 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell, Jr. 



Mrs. William Jay Schieffelin, Jr. 

Miss Elizabeth Hirst Schoonover 

Miss Louise B. Scott 

Germain Seligmann 

Miss Dorothy Shepard 

Miss Ruth Alms Sorgel 

Dr. Otto Steinbrocker 

Mrs. M. M. Sternberger 

Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 

Mrs. CoiBn Van Rensselaer 

Mrs. Clarence Webster 

L Weinberg 

Dr. Davenport West 

Mrs. Stanford White 

*Miss Nan Whiteley 

Mrs. Francis de Ruyter Wissman 



* Deceased 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss Mrs. Montgomery Hare 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors, who contribute $1,000 or more 
Life Members, who contribute $500 or more 
Sustaining Members, who contribute $100 annually 
Subscribing Members, who contribute $50 annually 
Contributing Members, who contribute $10 annually 
Annual Members, who contribute $3 annually 

Cheques should be drawn to Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in care of 
The Friends of the Museum, Cooper Square and 7th Street, New York. 

Walter Maynard, Treasurer 
The Friends of the Museum. 



207 



COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 
is served by these lines of transportation 

SECOND AVENUE ELEVATED 8th Street (St. Mark's Place) Station 

THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED 9th Street Station 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line— 8th Street Station 

L R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 

INDEPENDENT SUBWAY Sixth Avenue and 4th Street Station 

HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS "Wanamaker Terminal" route 

BROADWAY BUS EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 

MADISOK-FOURTH AVENUE BUS LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 



\J I 



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Li5Ri^«,V. 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 



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ION cover; ITALY, SIXTEENTH CENTURY. SEE PAGE 2 



i5-/u(Vl(!)f^-^;£^ *^'^ 



VOL • I . NO . 6 



APRIL • 1940 



COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

T R U ST EES 

Gano Dunn, President 
J. P. Morgan 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 

OFFICERS V' 

Edwin S. Burdell, Director 

Robert Winthrop, Treasurer ■; 

Edward L. Rehm, Secretary 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

John R. Safford, Superintendent of Buildings 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Mrs. Stafford McLean, Chairman 

Miss Edith Wetmore, Secretary 

Elisha Dyer 

Miss Marian Hague 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

S T A F F 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 



Copyright, 1940, by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 6 APRIL • 1940 



THE work of the past year in the Museum, as it appears in the 
following pages, is reviewed by the Advisory Council with a 
certain degree of satisfaction. There has been, in many directions, 
progress to^vard long-desired ends; and though the important ques- 
tion of inadequate quarters has yet to be solved, a partial solution 
has been achieved through the accomplishments of the past fwelve 
months. 

Arrangement of the collections within the confined space avail- 
able for display has continued, with the reconstruction of five 
galleries and the restoration of office space previously sacrificed 
to the needs of the exhibition program. Further portions of the rich 
collections assembled in earlier years have undergone study and 
research, and are in process of installation. Iinportant additions 
have been made to the collections, notably the group of laces from 
the collection of the late Mrs. John Pierpont Morgan, and two 
special exhibitions have been held. 

Public response to the Museum's efforts has been greater than 
ever before, in so far as the number of visitors can be considered 
indicative. Much gratitude is due to the Trustees of Cooper Union, 
who have allotted an increased sum for the support of the Museum; 
and the contribution made by the Friends of the Museum continues 
to be of the greatest value in underwriting activities which other- 
wise could not be performed. The devoted work of the volunteer 
assistants, who are mentioned on a later page, has been of particular 
value during the year. 

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FIG. 1. DETAIL OF A PAGE FROM AN EARLY LACE PATTERN BOOK, L'hoiiestO eSSempW, BY MATEO 
PAGANO, PUBLISHED IN VENICE, IN 155O. COMPARE WITH THE LACE IN FIG. 2. 




'p'-^7-^^ 



FIG. 2. PANEL OF NEEDLEPOINT LACE, VENICE, i6tH CENTURY 
GIVEN BY MISS ELEANOR GARNIER HEWITT 



(D2c:f.p/^b^f^^ ^^-P 



LACES IN THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS 

Among the earliest acquisitions of lace by the Museum was what still 
remains one o£ its most important treasures. This is a piece of Italian 
cutwork with pattern in needlepoint which came as a loan from Miss 
Eleanor Garnier Hewitt (fig. 2) .^ Dating from the sixteenth century, it 
is a piece that breathes the very spirit of the Renaissance in its workman- 
ship and in its design. There are angels, placed either side of a fountain 
beside which are scrollins^ branches of oak leaves, and under which are 
two well-drawn stags lying quietly at rest; there is also a vase ^vith scrolls 
and leaves, acorns and flowers; while, at either end, a lion walks along 
with head and tail erect. This piece, known technically as punto tagliato 
a fogliami, is a splendid illustration of the steps by which needlepoint 
lace proceeded from openwork embroidery on linen, to the point where 
it was pure lace, no longer dependent on the linen foundation. In this 
case, the pattern is worked in punto in aria, further enriched with little 
curls and knobs, and is placed against a reticulated background formed 
of threads left in the linen from which parts had been cut away. The 
strip is edged with bobbin lace points. 

A special importance is given to this piece in that we know where the 
inspiration for the pattern may have been found. In a book by Mateo 
Pagano,- which was published in Venice in 1556, we find figures similar 
to the angels (fig. 1) and the lion, and other details appear in an earlier 
book by Pagano,'^ published in 1550. As to the use of such lace it is inter- 
esting to see that it is worn by ladies in portraits painted by sixteenth 
century artists as in that of the Venetian lady by Paris Bordone in the 
Museum at Douai in France. 

. But even before this very important piece had arrived at the Museum, 
other gifts had been made. In fact in the first Annual Report published 
by Cooper Union after the Museum had been founded (1896) , indeed 
in the very first gift, that of the Misses Hewitt, there are several pieces of 
lace. In 1898, the Annual Report lists "a large and valuable piece of 
Venetian Point Lace," given by Sehor Raimundo de Madrazo (fig. 4) .* 
This is a graceful design of scrolls with flowers and leaves worked in the 
finest buttonhole stitches. It is typical of seventeenth century design and 

1 Bequeathed in 1931. 1931-27-26, Panel of needlepoint lace, Venice, I6th Century. Illustrated in Morris, 
Frances and Hague, Marian: Antique Laces of American Collectors, Published for The Needle and Bobbin 
Club by William Helburn, Inc., New York, 1920, pi. XVI. 

2 Pagano, Mateo. La gloria et I' honore de ponti tagliati a fogliami. Venice, 1556. 4to. No. 87b in Arthur 
Lotz: Bibliographic der modelbiicher. Leipzig: Karl W. Hiersemann, 1933. 

^ Pagano, Mateo. L'honesto essempio. Venice, 1550. 4to. Lotz, no. 85a. Facsimile reprint, Venice, Ongania, 

1878, in Cooper Union Museum Library. 

4 1898-1-1, Panel of needlepoint lace, Venice, 17th century. 111., Morris and Hague, op. cit., pi. XXXIII. 




/^^3^IV6 



FIG. 3. 



BORDER OF NEEDLEPOINT LACE, ITALY, 1 7TH CENTURYyV / kyt q pj ^'^ 
GIVEN BY MRS. FREDERIC SALTONSTALL GOULD Zi,*^ U- 




/^^ST'/- 



FIG. 4. PANEL OF NEEDLEPOINT LACE, VENICE, 1 7TH CENTURY 
GIVEN BY RAIMUNDO DE MADRAZO - 



may be considered an example of fully developed lace. The leaves, stems 
and flowers are lightened by tiny spaces which appear as a delicate line of 
tracery, or as diamonds, chevrons, or patterns based on these forms. 
Picots were used to enrich the raised portions of the pattern and also 
on the brides, which sometimes form dainty ornaments in themselves. 
This type of lace is often found in portraits. 

From time to time other pieces were added by the Museum's friends 
to its growing collection; pieces of which we have not space to speak here 
but which added to the value and usefulness of the collections. This is 
particularly true of the Misses Hewitt, whose constant thoughtfulness 
and generosity resulted in many gifts, far too many to mention in a short 
article. These gifts, though spread out over many years, will be treated 
together with no differentiation as to gifts made during their lifetime, 
or the bequests made by them or by Erskine Hewitt, or the gifts of 
Norvin Hewitt Green, as all belonged, at one time, to the Misses Hewitt. 

Of the gifts not yet described, perhaps the outstanding one is the 
cover — now shown on a cushion (ill. on cover) .^ This is of linen with 
portions cut out, the remaining part being embroidered and some of 
the spaces ornamented with needlework stitches. In the center, in 
needlepoint, is a woman with an animal, probably a unicorn; and, sur- 
roundings them, worked in the linen, a balanced design in which scrolls 
and vines appear. The cushion cover is put together with bands of 
reticello in a typical design of wheels within squares. No one can fail to 
admire the beauty of the design — its symmetry, its rich intricacy, its 
proper proportion of light and dark (the amotnit of linen left as related 
to that cut away) ; and above all, the skillful needlework in which satin 
and buttonhole stitches predominate. 

Many bits of reticello have come from the HeAvitts, either as strips or 
as details in the enrichment of covers made of fine white linen. But it 
was not only the early laces that interested the Misses Hewitt for they 
also acquired examples of the later types, both needle and bobbin, and 
these may now be seen in the exhibition cases in the Museum. There are 
exquisite lappets of Binche lace, made in the early eighteenth century 
and showing delightful patterns of flowers on a ground of fond de neige. 
There is a lappet of bobbin lace made in Flanders about forty years 
later with a pattern of flower sprays within a scalloped border. There is 
a fine strip of Valenciennes and a border of point d'Alen^on. 

The following years also bear record of gifts of lace, some large, some 

5 1931-5-43 Cushion cover, intagliatela, seamed with reticello, Italy, I6th century. 111., Morris and Hague, 
op. cit., pi. XXX. 




FIG. 5. TWO FLOUNCES OF NEEDLEPOINT LACE, FRANCE, EARLY i8tH CENTURY 
GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 



/^^/^^MTe- 47 J 



small, some very important, others less so but all contributions from 
kind and generous friends to the Museum's collection. Thomas Snell 
was one of the early donors and one of his gifts was a very fine group*' 
of small pieces which served, for many years, to show lace types and 
which now forms the backbone, so to speak, of the Study Collections 
which will be described later. From Ambrose Monell, a handsome set 
of ecclesiastical pieces'^ in embroidered filet, including chasuble, mani- 
ple, stole and chalice cover, was received. They were exhibited near the 
beautiful embroidered altarpieces and the velvets of the J. P. Morgan 
collection. 

A large and important collection of lace, received in 1933, was Mrs. 
Frederic Saltonstall Gould's generous gift of 257 pieces.^ This included 
lengths of both needle and bobbin laces, many small pieces, and a strip 
of linen decorated with drawn work in various stitches. Reticello and 
needlepoint from Italy and the more delicate bobbin laces of Flanders 
and northern France, including a fine series of Valenciennes laces, con- 
tribute to the interest of this collection, as do pieces from Belgium, 
Holland, Russia and the eastern Mediterranean centers of Syria and 
Malta. The laces of the aristocrats and of the peasants are represented. 
And besides the old laces, there are examples of modern ^vork from the 
Italian cities of Genoa and Capri, from Alen(:on in France, from Eng- 
land and from other places Avhere the lace industry lasted into the twen- 
tieth century. It is this comprehensiveness which makes the collection of 
special value to a museum where people interested in lace are con- 
tinually coming to study and often have the ^vish to compare different 
types. The usefulness will be evident when it is kno^^vn that sixty-one 
of Mrs. Gould's pieces were used on the Study Charts, these sixty-one 
pieces falling into nineteen of the twenty-eight classifications in the 
history and development of lace. 

From Miss Edith Wetmore came two of the Museimi's finest pieces 
of lace, two flounces in Point de France (fig. 5) dating from the early 
part of the eighteenth century.^ To one who appreciates the technique 
of lace-making the high quality of these pieces is at once apparent and 
words seem entirely inadequate to express one's pleasure in them, or to 
describe them for the reader's enjoyment. Yet the attempt must be made 

^ 1897-8-1 through -333, Collection of embroideries and laces for study purposes: Italy, Flanders, France, 

and other countries, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. 

'^ 1910-22-1 through -4, Chasuble, stole, chalice cover and altar frontal of filet lace, Italv, 18th century. 

^ 1933-1-1 through -257, Collection of laces; Italy, Flanders, France, and other countries, 17th, 18th, and 

19th centuries. 

9 1935-17-1 and -2, Two flounces, needlepoint lace. Point de France, early 18th century. 111., Morris and 

Hague, op. cit., pi. L, LI. 



so that people unable to visit the Museum may know these things of 
superlative artistry with their millions of tiny stitches, each one so 
cleverly wrought to do its part in forming the beautiful whole. The 
wider flounce, meastiring three and one-quarter yards in length by 
twenty-three inches in width, has a pattern of the candelabra type in 
which two alternately-placed vases of flowers standing under canopies 
are shown with flowers and bands which, winding through the pattern, 
take curving, but also angular, turns. It is the angular turns which lend 
a touch of the formal elegance of the days of Louis XIV to the design. 
To the second piece given by Miss Wetmore, a flounce or border, all of 
the compliments paid to the first flounce may be paid with equal sin- 
cerity. Yet this piece has also a distinctive character which gives it its 
own charm, in the greater simplicity of pattern and in the more natural- 
istic rendering of plant life, for here we may recognize the tulip, the 
carnation, the narcissus and other of our flower favorites. 

A third example of Point de France, ^"^ recently purchased from funds 
given by The Friends of the Museum, is a portion of a flounce. This 
piece also has great richness of detail which is lightened by the grand 
brides picotees which here, as in the other flounce, provides a regular 
ground for the varied details of the closely worked toile. Here again, in 
similar arrangement so characteristic of the laces of that time and place, 
are vases with plant forms, alternately placed and filling the width of 
the flotmce, the spaces between showing a delightful arrangement of 
spring flowers. 

A very useful and welcome gift was that of Mr. and Mrs. Ernest G. 
Vietor, who gave a collection of forty-nine small pieces of lace.^^ Such 
pieces, sometimes used singly but often in comparison with others, are 
excellent for studying technique and pattern. Thirty-one pieces illustrat- 
ing eleven of the twenty-eight classifications were taken from this source 
for use on historical and technical charts which were being prepared 
at the time the gift was received. 

Among other pieces in the Bequest of Miss Adele Kneeland, received 
through Mrs. Philip Ainsworth Means, is a group of seventeenth-century 
laces of several types which have been arranged to show the range of lace 
at this time. From Flanders comes a piece of bobbin lace (fig. 6) ^- and, 
for comparison with it, a piece of Milan lace.^'^ Then there are two other 

10 1938-30-5, Portion of a flounce, needlepoint lace. Point de France, about 1730. 

11 1938-23-1 through -49, Collection of laces, Italy, Flanders, France, and other countries, 17th, 18th, and 
19th centuries. 

12 1939-64-19, Strip of lace, bobbin, Flanders, 17th century. 

13 1939-64-10, Strip of lace, bobbin, Milan, 17th century. 




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laces from the north of Italy, both with bobbin braid; but in one, a bob- 
bin mesh, and in the other, there are needle-made filling^s and brides. 
All four pieces show the pattern of scrolling flowers and leaves so typical 
of this period. Needlepoint lace is represented by a delightful panel in 
Venetian flat point (fig. 6) ^^ of similar design. 

But not all of the laces at Cooper Union Museum are old laces and 
among the recent gifts are two which prove that lace making still con- 
tinues and that it is still an expression of contemporaneous events. In 
the spirit of this age, these two pieces are machine-made. The first is a 
fragment of the lace made in France to commemorate Lindbergh's his- 
toric flight of May 20-21, 1927, over the Atlantic Ocean. ^'^ The design 
shows a monoplane, an ornament representing the stars and stripes and 
the words "Hurra to Lindbergh." This was given by Mrs. Samuel Cabot. 
The second piece, ^"^ made at the time of the Royal Jubilee of King 
George and Queen Mary of England in 1925, was given by Miss Mary 
S. M. Gibson. It shows a crown, the dates 1910 and 1935, and a conven- 
tionalized rose spray. 

Thus it is that a collection such as this started by the Misses HcAvitt, 
becomes known in time and attracts other gifts, either through the col- 
lection itself which acquires friends, or through the friends of the 
donors. During the past winter evidence of this came in the gift, made 
by Mrs. George Nichols, of laces from the collection of her mother, 
Mrs. J. P. Morgan, a gift which included fine examples of most of the 
important types of lace. 

To begin with there is the piece of ecclesiastical lace^^ which is one 
of the earliest. Here are medallions within flowering wreaths, placed 
asrainst a background of flowers and, in each medallion, the crowned 
Virgin with the Child in Her arms and two saints in attendance. 

Other Italian pieces show the needlepoints of Venice and, in a little 
group of five pieces, one may see point plat de Venise, gros point, point 
de neige or rose point — all characteristic types in characteristic patterns 
and all worked with exquisite skill. One piece, the gros point, ^^ shows 
a pattern of gracefully twisting stems with pomegranates and curling 
leaves, the toile of fine buttonhole stitches with parts worked in relief. 

14 1939-64-18, Panel of lace, needlepoint, Italy, 17th century. 

15 1939-52-3, Lace, machine, France, 20th century. 
IS 1936-24-1, Lace, machine, England, 20th century. 

17 1939-66-1, Ecclesiastical lace, needlepoint, Italy, 17th century. See Johnstone, Margaret Taylor: Raguia: 
the mystery spot in lace-history, in the Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club, 1926, vol. X, no. 1, p. 8. 

18 1939.66-.2, Border, needlepoint, Italy, Venice, 17th century. 

221 




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FRANCE, 15TH CE!^TURY 



1ER OF NEEDLEPOINT I.ACE, POINT D ALENCON, FRJ 
GIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE NICHOLS, FROM THE COLLECTION OF HER MOTHER, MRS. J. P. MORGAN 



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/^3^'^'^{( '^""- 9- ^^^^ BORDER OF BOBBIN LACE, MILAN, EARLY i8tH CENTURY /j|, M ^^ 7^ 'T / 
' CIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE NICHOLS, FROM THE COLLECTION OF HER MOTHER, MRS. J. P. MORGAN 



In two pieces in rose point (fig. 7) ,'^'^ scrolling lines somewhat difficult 
to trace, but never monotonous, form an excuse for an abundance of 
delicate flowers and leaves which, like the brides, are edged with tiny 
picots producing an extremely light and dainty effect. There is also flat 
Venetian point-'^ and, contrasting with it, a Flemish version-^ of the 
same type of lace. They were much alike for there -^vere close ties, com- 
mercially and intellectually, between the people of Flanders and those 
of Italy. Techniques and patterns were passed back and forth with a 
resulting similarity in the laces which makes it difficult at times to tell 
in which place a given piece originated. 

Nor have the bobbin laces of Italy been neglected, for the gift includes 
several. There is a cap crown-- made of bobbin braid which has been 
twisted and looped back on itself in many irregular twists. Each little 
loop or twist thus formed has been filled in with needlepoint stitches 
and the tape joined with needle brides. As arranged now the piece is 
edged with a narrow bit of pillow lace, scalloped on one border and ^vith 
the little seeds, or wheat ears, so typical of Genoese workmanship. An 
example of lace-'^ entirely bobbin-made is the eighteenth century border 
with pattern of scrolls and leaf forms joined with double tie bars orna- 
mented with picots. The third piece (fig. 9) -^ is the border of Milanese 
in a handsome design showing the "candelabra" formed of tape looped 
into whorls, somewhat as in the first of these pieces, and joined, not with 
needle stitches, but with bobbin ground which has been worked in after 
the pattern had been completed. 

Although Mrs. Morgan, like most of the lace collectors of her genera- 
tion, probably bought her laces primarily for wearing they are, because 
of their lovely quality, museum pieces as well. Being very fond of lace, 
she wanted to have it near her where she could see and enjoy it. Conse- 
quently she often selected pieces with which to have her gowns trimmed, 
and frequently wore a lace shawl or carried a lace-trimmed handker- 
chief. This fondness for lace was a feeling that she shared with the ladies 
of the past who also loved the fragile, web-like material and who con- 
sidered it the choicest ornament they could have, so that it became to 
them an important part of costume. And to both men and women in the 

ly 1939-66-3, Flounce, needlepoint, Venice, 17th or early 18th century. 111., Morris and Hague, op. al., pi. 
XL. 1939-66-4, Border, needlepoint, Venice, 17th or early 18th century. 111., Morris and Hague, op. cit., pi. 
XLIV. 

20 1939-66-5, Border, needlepoint, Italy, 17th or early 18th century. 

21 1939-66-6, Border, needlepoint, Flanders, 18th century. 

22 1939-66-10, Cap crown, needlepoint and bobbin, Italy, early 18th century. 

23 1939.6(5-9^ Border, bobbin, Italy, early 18th century. 

24 1939-66-11, Border, bobbin, Italy, Milan, earl/ 18th century. 




I yiP^ 'ftS7 lO. "icARF OF NEEDLEPOINT LACE, POINT D'ARGENTAN,^L.H0N^ ^ l * 



FRANCE, I 8th century 

GIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE NICHOLS, FROM THE COLLECTION OF HER MOTHER, 

MRS. J. P. MORGAN 



seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, costume and dressing were impor- 
tant parts of life to which they, unlike the men and women of today, 
frankly gave the major portion of their time and attention. The result 
was, of course, a ^vide demand for lace and the French sent huge sums 
of money to Italy for it, until Colbert in 1665, recognizing as inevitable 
the fact that the fashionable world insisted on buying lace, organized the 
industry in France in order that the money should be spent at home to 
the advantage of the French people. 

Up to this time the heavier lace had been made. It ^vas worn flat, or 
slightly gathered, as was the style in the seventeenth century when col- 
lars, either the standing type which came high up to the ears, or the fall- 
ing variety which rested on the shoulders, ^v^ere enriched with lace, and 
when wide bands of lace were worn as borders on albs by the dignitaries 
of the Church and as flounces by the ladies of the Court. But gradually, 
as lighter laces ^vere made, the fashions changed and gathers and ruffles 
became more and more popular until, with the coming of the eighteenth 
century and the spread of French taste over Europe, the new style of lace 
was Avidely used. The patterns were, at first, gay and charming Avith the 
spirit of the rococo and, later, dainty and fine with the restraint marking 
the classic revival. Great gentlemen wore ruffles at their throats and 
wrists and, at times, even on their shoes; great ladies wore lace on their 
bodices, on their skirts (often yards and yards of it) , on their sleeves, 
and at times even in their hair. It had a tremendous vogrue before the 
French Revolution especially, and was also known in the nineteenth 
century when hand-made lace was applied to net, and shawls and man- 
tillas were worn. In Mrs. Nichols's gift there are laces of almost all 
periods. 

Representing the eighteenth century in Italy there are several pieces 
of Burano lace. Sleeve ruffles-'^ and a border show the distinctive charac- 
teristics of the output of this island. The flowers, naturalistic in drawing, 
if not definite as to species, are made with the finest of little stitches, 
and a band curving through the pattern gives the opportunity to use 
many needlepoint designs. It is pointedly of the eighteenth century in 
design and technique and is typical of the Italian laces at the time they 
were receiving inspiration from the French. Another pattern of Burano 
is seen in the garniture (fig. 11) ,^^ or set, of six pieces. Three of them 
are shaped, perhaps for use as a fichu and revers, and three are strips 

-^ 1939-66-8, Lace border and two ruffles for sleeves, needlepoint, Italy, Burano, 18th century. 
-^ 1939-66-7, Garniture, needlepoint, Italy, Burano, 18th century. 

22r, 








10t3^ TIG. II- PtVRT OF A GARNITURE OF NEEDLEPOINT LACE, BURANO, ITALY./tsTHniENTORVT" I \ 
' GIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE NICHOLS, FROM THE COLLECTION OF HER MOTHER, MRS. J. P. MORGAN 




IIG. 12. LNGLlSll LACE BOBBINS OF THE 1 8tH AND IQTH CENTURIES 
PART OF A COLLECTION GIVEN BY MRS. C. H. JUDKINS. SEE PAGE 233. 



which have a total length of over five yards. This would have been hand- 
some trimming for a dress such as we see worn by the Venetian ladies in 
portraits painted two hundred years ago. 

P'rench needlepoint of the eighteenth centtny is well shown in a ntmi- 
ber of pieces. All have dainty flower patterns, sprays of small flower and 
leaf forms with details of the petit reseau, definitely outlined with the 
Alen^on cordonnet which, in several instances, is edged with tiny picots. 
Surroiniding each pattern is one of the characteristic meshes attributed 
to Alen^on and Argentan — the looped buttonhole,-'^ the tortille,-* or 
the hexagon-^ with buttonholed sides. For showing the adaptability of 
these designs to definite areas, we would point out a scarf (fig. lo) .'^^ 
Beautifully made, its design shows bands of openwork stitches arranged 
in five V-shaped forms with sprays growing out of them and other de- 
tached flo^vers sprinkled over the ground. The whole is siuTotnided by 
a border of scallops with flowers and "jours" filled with fancy stitches. 

Borders presented a definite problem to the designer, for they were 
often gathered and worn as ruffles so that the pattern was not clearly 
seen. One border (fig. 8) ^^ of point d'Alen^on, with details so fine that 
a magnifying glass is needed for real appreciation, is particularly delight- 
ful, with small carnations and sno^v-drops arranged as detached motives 
and surrounded by garlands of little flowers. 

Bobbin laces are included too. Among the Mechlins,^- there are a 
lappet and a narrow border of special charm. Both have the S"\vinging 
band with decorative stitches from which are thrown off sprays of flowers 
outlined with the characteristic silky thread. Then there are several 
other borders^^ ornamented with flowers arranged, generally, as a band 
along the border above which is a small motif as a bud, or 'a leaf, or a 
ring, sprinkled over the close, even mesh. 

Other borders, of Valenciennes, show this lace in a number of attrac- 
tive designs — designs which are in themselves not very different from 
those of Mechlin, but which are worked in a different way. Here there 
is no silky outlining thread, only a ro^v of open stitches outlining the 
toile which, with its threads crossing at right angles to form the cloth 
stitch, sets off the pattern very definitely from the ground of square 
mesh — a mesh which indicates that these pieces are of, or near to, the 

2'^ 1939-66-18, Border, needlepoint. Point d'Alencon, France, 19th century. 

28 1939-66-17, Two lappets, needlepoint. Point d'Alencon, France, 18th century. 

29 1939-66-12, Scarf, needlepoint, Point d'Aigentan, France, 18th-19th centuries. 
.30 1939-66-13, Scarf, needlepoint. Point d'Alengon, France, ISth century. 

31 1939-66-14, Border, needlepoint. Point d'Alengon, France, 18th century. 

32 1939-66-19, Border, bobbin, Mechlin, 18th century. 1939-66-20, Lappet, bobbin, Mechlin, 18th century. 

33 1939-66-21 through -28, Eight borders, bobbin, Mechlin, 18th and 19th centuries. 



nineteenth century. One which is a general favorite, is the blackberry 
pattern^^ showing a graceful design of blossoming plants whose leaves 
form the irregularly-shaped edge. This piece is unfinished at one end 
and the threads hanging from it are of great interest to all who like to 
see how things are made. 

From Flanders in the eighteenth century come four pieces^'^ of Point 
d' Angleterre — that lace so greatly admired in England and given this 
name in the hope of misleading customs inspectors. They are a border, 
two sleeve ruffles and a fan mount, not a set, but all showing the features 
of this artistic lace. 

In the next century Belgian lace was very much used and often the 
bobbin-made ornaments were applied on a machine-made net. This is 
the case in the parts of a dress^*^ dating from about 1900, on which are 
graceful ribbon-tied festoons of lace flowers and ornaments, and of cross- 
ing bands of flowers and leaves. Somewhat restricted on the upper part 
of the dress, the ornament spreads out on the full skirt and train into 
most attractive sweeping cmves. 

Three handkerchiefs,^'^ each one with the initials J N M in an exqui- 
sitely embroidered monogram, and each one edged with lace, Mechlin, 
Alen^on, and Point d'Angleterre, show yet another way in which the 
ladies who loved lace made use of it. 

With a mere mention of the shawls,^^ a blonde lace shawl, trians^ular 
in shape with flowers in shining silk and a large, oblong mantilla of 
black Chantilly in one of the best of these lovely designs, we must end 
these descriptive notes. But we do not want to close without extending 
to the Museum's many friends a cordial invitation to come and see this 
lace which has so greatly enriched its collection. 

Elizabeth Haynes 

34 1939-66-33, Border, bobbin Valenciennes, 18th-19th centuries. 

35 1939-66-39, Two sleeve ruffles, bobbin, Point d'Angleterre, 18th century. 1939-66-40, Border, bobbin. 
Point d'Angleterre, 18th century. 1939-66-49, Fan mount, bobbin. Point d'Angleterre, 18th century. 

36 1939-66-38, Parts of a dress, bobbin lace applied on net, Brussels, 19th century. 

S'^ 1939-66-46, Handkerchief, linen edged with Point d'Angleterre, 18th century. 1939-66-47, Handkerchief, 
linen edged with Point d'Alencon, 18th century. 1939-66-48, Handkerchief, linen edged with Mechlin lace, 
19th century. 

38 1939-66-43, Shawl, Chantilly, Belgium or France, 19th century. 1939-66-45, Mantilla, France or Spain, 
19th century. 



228 



THE LACE STUDY COLLECTION 

WITH CHARTS AND CARDS SHOWING 
THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LACE 

The Museum, folloAving the first principles of Cooper Union, aims espe- 
cially to meet the requirements of students and so it was decided to form 
a Study Collection which ^vould explain the history and technique of 
lace making. The plan in use, of Charts and Cards, was evolved with the 
help of Miss Marian Hague, a member of the Advisory Council, and it 
was based on the plan which she employs for her own Study Cards. 
Actual specimens, mounted on cards, show many points, such as the 
weight and kind of thread, the size of pattern, and other important 
details of specific types of lace. Explanatory drawings at enlarged scale^ 
are of further value in making the laces more comprehensible than 
photographs or book illustrations can be. 

As to the Study Charts, there are twenty-eight and these are exhibited 
in two sets of swinging frames; one set for needle and one for bobbin 
laces. We think of these sets as very large books — and they do resemble 
books, not only because they are displayed in such a way that the frames 
are turned as one turns the leaves of a book, but because the stibject 
matter progresses, chart by chart, as a book progresses, chapter by 
chapter. For text we have explanatory labels, but short ones, for this is 
a book in which the illustrations far outnumber the lines of text. The 
illustrations are actual bits of lace and drawings which help one to 
understand them. We have shown, in this way, two hundred forty-five 
pieces of lace, received from thirty-two donors. 

Book One is for needlepoint lace. Embroidery, later to have a book 
of its own, is included because of the close connection that existed be- 
tween embroidery on net, or cloth, and the development of needle lace. 
When cloth was obtained by hand-weaving of hand-spun threads, even 
a small piece of linen was precious and, because it was precious, was 
worth enrichment. Sometimes this was done by working embroidery 
stitches on the linen and sometimes by drawing away, or cutting out, 
certain of the threads. When this was done, new threads were put in, 
either as wrappings for the remaining bars, or as lines stretched across 
the spaces which were then worked over in buttonhole stitches, giving 
ornament and partial filling. From this developed what the Italians of 

1 Similar to those by Mme. Kefer-Mali and Mme. Lucie Paulis, published by Marie Schuette in Alte Spilzen; 
ein handhuch fiir Sammler und Liebhaber. Berlin, 1914. 



/;j/ 



^^-ufi. 



c,-/.^4 



3-^^^t 



/<^^ 



W^0L\- 




L 3 



FIG. 1. PIECES OF HANDWORK SHOWINCr SIMILAR PATTERNS, AND PHOTOSTAT OF A PAGE FROM 

Esemplario di lavori (one of the early pattern books) by Giovanni andrea vavassore, 

PUBLISHED IN I532. SEE PAGE 235. 
THIS IS NUMBER 1 OF THE STUDY CHARTS SHOWING THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LACE. 






i: 




If;. 2. NEEDLE LACES, SHOWING THE TRANSITION FROM THE RECTANGULARnrO THTE SCROLLING 

TYPE OF pattern; ITALY, SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES. SEE PAGE 22g. 

THIS IS NUMBER lO OF THE STUDY CHARTS SHO\VING THE HISFORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LACE. 

t 0,3 <^^^^ ' 
- 1%^ 



-^^i^-rJ 



3~(- ^1 



r-l.H'^^ 










FIG. 3. EARLY BOBBIN LACES, ITALY, HXTEENTH CENTURY, AND PHOToJtATS 0^'''ra^;ESM%TO'^e 

Pompe, PUBLISHED BY THE BROTHERS SESSA IN VENICE IN 1557. SEE PAGE 235. 

THIS IS NUMBER 18 OF THE STUDY CHARTS SHOWING THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF LACE. 



the sixteenth century called "punto in aria," meaning that the stitches 
were worked on threads "in the air," in contrast to embroidery in which 
the threads were laid on cloth. We term it needlepoint lace and we say 
that its characteristic feature is just this, that it is made of buttonhole 
stitches worked on threads laid "in the air," or, in other words, without 
foundation. 

The story of lace as told on these Study Charts shows that slight dif- 
ferences have occurred in the working of the stitch (see the Study Cards 
for Needlepoint, Brussels, Alen^on, and Argentan lace) and that the 
quality of the thread varies in accordance with climatic conditions and 
methods of treatment (see Cards for Flemish and Italian laces) and that 
the designs change in accordance with the spirit of the country and the 
changing interests of the people who make, and buy it. 

Book Two records the history and development of bobbin lace. To 
begin with, it is shown that bobbin lace is made with a thread attached 
to a bobbin (as needlepoint is made with a thread attached to a needle) ; 
the bobbin weighting the thread so that it can be more easily handled. 
Then come drawings to show how the bobbins are manipulated to 
weave the threads into the various braids and stitches used by the lace 
makers. Many of these stitches have descriptive names as cinq trous, 
fond de neige, and again, because certain forms were favored in certain 
places, they became known by the name of that locality and we have the 
reseaux named for, and used at, Mechlin, Valenciennes, and Brussels 
(see Study Cards explaining these types) . 

Through the generosity of Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen, we are able 
to show a master pattern of parchment with a design marked on it, a 
paper pricking made from the parchment for use as a working pattern, 
and a completed piece of lace in this same design. 

After passementerie, from which it is held that bobbin lace developed, 
the lace itself is shown. First the Italian dating from the middle of the 
sixteenth century and being used contemporaneously with the needle- 
point, and then the seventeenth century laces of Milan and Flanders 
especially, and the later varieties from all the lace-making countries 
which included, besides the above, France and England, Holland and 
Spain, and others. The last chart is devoted to embroidery and there 
are collars and veils which might have belonged to our grandmothers, 
or even their grandmothers. 

In studying these laces, especially the earlier pieces, it is very interest- 
ing to search for the source of their patterns. Much help comes to us in 
this from the early pattern books in the Sarah Cooper Hewitt Memorial 

233 



Library acquired, in part, through purchases, but principally from the 
gifts of the Misses Hewitt, especially from Miss Eleanor Garnier Hewitt's 
fine collection of lace and textile books. We have been able to trace the 
origins of patterns found on laces here to such books as that published 
by the Fratelli Sessa, Le Pompe,^ and the Esemplario cli Lavori of Vavas- 
sore.^ Photostats of these pages have been made and placed near the 
laces, or embroideries, which have been worked from them. In several 
instances we have found a pattern developed in more than one tech- 
nique, as the Liberia pattern taken from Vavassore and worked in red 
silk in cross stitch on white linen and again as cut work in white linen 
(see fig. i) .•* 

The Study Cards are an integral part of the Study Collection scheme 
and, we believe, deserve a paragraph. On each card we try to state one 
fact or make one definite point, using a single, or several pieces of lace, 
generally a drawing and, when it seems advisable, a label. As it is 
intended that these cards shall include specimens of all types, countries, 
and periods of laces, we are assembling, in this way, a library of lace 
information and, as we believe this particular thing is not being done 
elsewhere, we like to consider it a distinctive contribution which will 
spread the knowledge of lace for the present generation and preserve it 
for the future.^ 

Elizabeth Haynes 

2 (Sessa, Giovanni Battista and Marchio.) Le pompe opera nova nellaquale si retrovatio. Venice, 1557. 4to. 
Lotz No. 95a. 

3 Vavassore, Giovanni Andrea. Esemplario di lavori. Venice, 1532. 4to. Lotz No. 67d. 

4 For additional information on this subject, see the articles by Miss Margaret Harrington Daniels: Early 
Pattern Books for Lace and Embroidery, in the Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club, 1933, vol. 17, no. 2, 
pages 3 and 21 ; and. An Exhibition of Early Pattern Books. Lace. Embroidery, and Woven Textiles, in the 
Bulletin of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, March, 1938, Vol. XXX, no. 3, page 70. 

s In the effort to work out a new and better approach to this subject, we have consulted many authorities; 
among them are: Christie, Mrs. Archibald. Samplers and Stitches, London, 1929. Henneberg, Alfred, Freiherr 
von. The Arts and Crafts of Old Lace, Munich, 1931. Lowes, Mrs. Chats on Old Lace and Needlework, 
London, 1908. Schuette, Marie, Alte Spitzen ; ein handbuch fiir Sammler und Liebhaber, Berlin, 1914. 
S(harp), A. M. Point and Pillow Lace, London, 1899. 



235 




exhibition: 4001 buttons — partial view /j f .-jj-r,- IUaK' 




TOP row: portrait heads in BLUE-AND-WHITE stoneware, probably ENGLAND, LAST QUARTER 
OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. CENTER: PORCELAIN, 175O-I775, FRANCE; TEMPERA ON METAL WITH 
COVER GLASS, FRANCE, EIGHTEENTH CENTURY; PORCELAIN, EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY, FRANCE. 
BOTTOM row: enamel; COLORED GLASS; PIERCED SILVER, SET WITH PASTE BRILLIANTS; ENAMEL; 
PRINTED celluloid; ALL FRENCH, OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



/^^t3^> r^- 



-t => 



BUTTONS: 
HISTORICAL NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY^ 

The little object of ornament and utility called the button is not so 
trivial as the scant literature about it would suggest. At present there is 
a spreading wave of enthusiasm for button collecting, stimulated no 
doubt by the low cost and modest space-requirements of buttons as well 
as by the variety and quality of their design. To more than thirteen 
thousand people in this country the manufacture of buttons offers a 
means of livelihood; in 1937 their handiwork was valued at some thirty- 
one millions of dollars. '^■^ 

From February 5th through April 6th, 1940, the Museum held a spe- 
cial exhibition called Four Thousand and One Buttons. It attracted de- 
signers, students, manufactmers, and collectors, many of whom raised 
questions concerning the history of buttons. The information which 
follows was compiled from the answers to these inquiries. It represents 
a mere essay into a field which invites much wider attention. 

HISTORICAL NOTES 

What is the earliest known button? The answer depends entirely 
upon the kind of button that is meant, for many things have been called 
buttons which have nothing at all to do with the function of holding 
articles of clothing together. That is why it is possible to say that the 
Egyptians as early as the Sixth Dynasty wore buttons; actually these 
4,600-year-old objects are badges which were suspended singly from a 
string about the neck.^^ Buttons of paste and gold leaf have been found 
among the Mycenaean ruins of 1500 B.C.^^ Many of us are familiar with 
the buttons that appear on the bridles of horses in Assyrian sculpture, 
and we have heard that the Schliemann site at Mycenae yielded buttons 
of gold.^*^ Nevertheless, for buttons attached to costumes we have no 
conclusive evidence among the remains of any of the Mediterranean 
cultures. 

The first real record of buttons on European costumes seems to exist 
in the architecture and literature of the late twelfth and early thirteenth 
centuries. Among the sculptured figures on the Cathedral of Chartres 
are some of women wearing a row of small buttons, closely spaced, along 
each sleeve.^ That the fashion was shared by men is indicated in lines 

1 The numerals refer to books listed in the Bibliography that follows. 



ill one of the Cotton Manuscripts: 

"Botones azured wore like ane 
From his elboth to his hand."^ 

The fashioning of gold and silver buttons was for several centuries 
restricted to jewelers because pearls, sapphires, and other precious stones 
were used in their embellishment. In the middle of the thirteenth cen- 
tury a corporation of button-makers was formed in France to supply 
the growing market.^*^ Gradually there appeared craftsmen who worked 
with more ordinary materials, as in the fourteenth century, when ivory, 
bone, and horn were fashioned into buttons by bead-makers.^*^ Sheet 
metal and wire, especially brass and copper, were also used at this time. 
These early costume buttons were essentially ornamental; the prosaic 
task of fastening one's clothing was left to pins, buckles, girdles, and 
the like. 

As time went by the demand for buttons grew to amazing proportions. 
While in the fourteenth century a woman's cloak might have fifty but- 
tons, and a man's doublet nearly eighty, in the sixteenth century 13,600 
gold buttons were used on a single costume belonging to Francis I.^*^ 
With buttons so numerous among royalty, the demand for them among 
lesser folk was a natural development. It is not surprising that during 
the sixteenth century buttons were adopted on a large scale by the com- 
mon people as objects of utility. 

Without question, the great period in the history of button design 
was the eighteenth century. Jewel buttons in particular became increas- 
ingly ingenious in design, as evidenced by the diamond buttons of the 
Comte d'Artois, each of which encased a miniature watch. ^•'' More usual 
were buttons of other cut stones, and of mother-of-pearl encrusted with 
silver and gold. By the middle of the century, the English had brought 
to a high development the manufacture of buttons of cut steel. ^*'' These 
will always rate among the most interesting of buttons from the stand- 
point of craftsmanship, as each of the faceted bits of steel with which 
they are studded — on some, a hundred or more — had to be separately 
cut and polished, then riveted to a disc of metal. In the last quarter of 
the century they enjoyed great popularity in France and became an 
important article of commerce. 

Picture buttons represent another eighteenth century development.^'^ 
Many were painted on metal or ivory, with domed glass covers for pro- 
tection. Among the classes of ornamentation were antique subjects, his- 
torical scenes, portraits, and playing cards. Jean-Baptiste Isabey (1767- 

238 



1855) is known to have painted buttons during his yotith, copying tab- 
leaux of lovers, flowers, and landscapes from Boucher and Van Loo. 
Similarly, figures after Watteau and Greuze were applied to buttons in 
paint and in enamel. In 1788 architectural subjects became popular, and 
collectors formed "galleries" of button pictures of the monuments of 
Paris. Another kind of painted button was the balloon button, reflect- 
ing the interest in balloon ascensions aroused by the Montgolfier 
brothers. Revolutionary themes and symbols replaced these subjects in 
France during the closing years of the century. 

The button makers of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries 
showed much inventiveness in the variety of materials which they em- 
ployed. Some excellent work was done in porcelain decorated with deli- 
cate figures and flowers, sometimes with the surface modelled to repre- 
sent woven material. Wedgwood and his imitators supplied blue-and- 
white stoneware with portraits, trophies, and antique subjects in very 
low relief. Little shells, insects, and mosses were arranged under glass 
into compositions resembling miniature habitat groups, and in the same 
way small butterflies and birds ^v^ere fashioned of brightly colored 
feathers. Metal buttons were made for both civil and military wear. 
Chiefly used were silver, copper, and such alloys as pewter, bell-metal, 
pinchbeck, bronze, and brass. Plating of silver and gold was common. 
When the nature of the riietal made it practicable, buttons were cast in 
one piece with the shank; otherwise, loops of durable wire were soldered 
to the backs to increase the length of wear. Frequently tooled or stamped 
metal foil was applied over a core or mould of wood, bone, or ivory. 
Buttons made in this way were very colorful when decorated with 
spangles or embroidered designs in metal thread. 

Although chiefly supplied by England, biutons ^vere made in America 
at various times and places.^'' The American colonies entered the scene 
in 1706, when a manufactory of buttons was established in New Eng- 
land. In Philadelphia, Caspar Wistar made brass buttons and buckles 
before 1750; shortly afterward, Henry Witeman, another Philadelphian, 
began the manufacture of metal buttons near the Fly Market in New 
York. Joseph Hopkins, in Waterbury, made sterling silver and silver 
plated buttons in 1753. Benjamin Randolph, the master cabinet-maker 
of Philadelphia, annoimced in an advertisement dated 1770 that he was 
making buttons "of apple, holly, and laurel wood hard and clear. "^-^ In 
1774, the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts recommended the use 
of domestic papier mache buttons to reduce the imports from the 
mother country. Very soon after the Revolution, however, "buttons, 

239 




EMBROIDERED COSTUME AND ACCESSORIES, WITH COVERED BUTTONS; FRAN 



CE AND SPAIN, 1775-185O 




TERIIlS FOR BUTTONS | 



THE ANIMAL, VEGETABLE, AND MINERAL KINGDOMS CONTRIBUTE MAT 

TOP group: antler; leather; ivory; moulded hoof; shark skin; beetle and moss; tortoise- 
shell. BOTTOM row: sarcilla seeds; vegetable ivory; mother-of-pearl, mounted on bronze; 
painted cork; jet; carved wood; agate. 



buckles, and other trinkets" were being imported annually into this 
country to the value o£ $60,000. At that time silk buttons were being 
made by household manufacture, especially in ConnectictU. The fa- 
miliar name of Baron von Steuben figures in button history through his 1 
invention, in 1789, of a button of conch shell to be worn with suits of 
pepper-and-salt colors. In those years people made horn and pewter but- 
tons at home, sometimes using the moulds which itinerant pedlars 
carried as part of their stock-in-trade. Gradually the making of buttons 
became an occupation for grotip employment. In Waterbury in 1790 
the brothers Samuel, Henry, and Silas Grilley opened a shop for the 
manufacture of pewter costume buttons. At the same time groups of 
Shakers were tttrning out jacket, coat, and sleeve buttons in polished 
brass, pewter, and horn covered with cloth.^- In Philadelphia there were 
two button factories in 1797; in the following year metal buttons were 
being made in large quantities in Massachusetts, particularly the coun- 
ties of Plymouth and Bristol. 

In the middle of the nineteenth century about t^venty thousand peo- 
ple were employed in making buttons in France. '^ There was an espe- 
cially great demand for porcelain buttons, the manufacture of which 
flourished at Montereau and Briare, respectively within fifty and one 
hundred miles of the capital. Paris was the center for covered buttons 
and those of metal, enamel, shell, bone, and horn. Germany ranked sec- 
ond in number of workers. In addition to her active home market, she 
furnished great quantities of cheap biutons to England, Russia, Spain, 
Italy, and the United States. 

In England, Birmingham ^vas the leading producer, especially of shell 
buttons, a field in ^vhich only Vienna ofl:ered any serious competition. 
The East Indies, Manila, the Bay of Panama, the Red Sea, and the Per- 
sian Gulf were the main sources of supply. Not all British buttons were 
of shell, however. Any Dickens reader knows of the large buttons of brass 
or horn which men wore on their Pickwick coats in the late 1830's. 
Indeed, quantities of covered buttons and others of metal, nuts, and 
hoofs also were made in Birmingham. Notable types of buttons from 
other parts of Europe were the engraved silver ones of the Netherlands, 
1 the silver filigree of Spain, the miniature mosaics of Italy, and the glass 
buttons of Bohemia. 

The nineteenth century marked the establishment and growth of 
several branches of button manufacture in the United States. The worn- 
out kettles of the New England rum distilleries, and the discarded 
sheathing from the shipyards supplied copper, which was mixed with 

241 




salesman's sample card with buttons of the PERiOD^/ir|OM T' — 

FRANCE, LAST QUARTER OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY UkSi^ 






METAL BUT TONS FOR UNIFORM AND CIVILIAN WEAR 
GILT BRASS, SILVER, CUT STEEL, BRASS, GERMAN SILVER, COPPER AND BRONZE 



N^^\t u c^o/^ 



imported zinc to form sheet brass. The market for this material was 
practically limited to Waterbury, where it was stamped into buttons 
which were easily marketable because high in value for their bulk and 
weight.*^^ 

In 1802 the firm of Abel Porter and Company ^vas formed, engag- 
ing thirteen men in making gilt btutons from sheet brass. With the 
declaration of war in 1812 Aaron Benedict of Waterbury foresaw the 
demand for military btittons of brass. He forth^vith bought all the old 
brass ware he could find, and ^vhen that was gone he resorted to pewter.'^'' 
His success eventtially led to the establishment of a large organization 
which mierged with another to form the Waterbury Button Company. 
The firm of Abel Porter and Company, which in 1816 became Leaven- 
worth, Hayden and Scovill, continued to make gilt buttons of naively 
high quality until 1821, when Jonas Craft, an immigrant, revealed to 
them the British method of making threepence worth of gold go as far 
as a dollar's worth. In 1868, as the Scovill Manufacturing Company, this 
firm was manufacturing 1500 gross of brass buttons daily. Among the 
interesting designs struck here were buttons with the portrait of George 
Washington, a set of ^vhich was given the Marquis de Lafayette in 
1824, buttons for the projected Texas Navy, for the Pony Express, 
and for trainmen of the "iron horse" era. Other localities which became 
prominent for their metal buttons were Attleboro and Haydenville, 
Massachusetts. 

In 1855 the manufacture of shell buttons was introduced into the 
United States. Soon vast quantities of mother-of-pearl were imported 
from China, Australia, and the South Sea Islands. A new note was 
sounded in 1891 when J. F. Boepple recognized the potential value of 
the fresh ^vater mussels at Muscatine, Iowa. By the turn of the century 
the annual production of fresh water shell buttons stood at 4,759,671 
gross, and button factories dotted the banks of the Mississippi from 
Goodhue Comity, Minnesota, to Pike County, Missouri.*^- 

In 1859 a new material of vegetable origin made its appearance. This 
was the nut of the corozo palm (genus Acrocomia) of Ecuador, Colom- 
bia, and Panama. Its commercial name, vegetable ivory, suggests its 
color and texture. It is strong, readily worked, and easily dyed.^ Even 
today it is the staple material for buttons on the more expensive grades 
of men's suits and overcoats. 

The trend away from natural materials which is so much in evidence 
today made itself felt as early as the 1770's, when papier mache was 
used. This was followed by hard rubber, of which buttons were made 

243 



for the Army and Navy from 1851 to 1869, and for civilian wear as well. 
In Newark, New Jersey, the brothers J. W. and I. S. Hyatt invented 
celluloid in 1869. This was the first of those chemical blendings of the 
most unexpected substances to form something totally different in ap- 
pearance from any of the ingredients. In the long list of modern plastics 
an important place in the button field is held by those made of cotton 
treated with acids and camphor, of carbolic acid and formaldehyde, of 
furfural, urea, and the casein of milk. 

What future is there for buttons? Men who know the industry say 
that, in spite of the slide fastener and other devices which have replaced 
buttons to some degree, the industry will continue to grow and to 
improve. Buttons, freed again for decorative use, are beginning to 
attract the attention of designers capable of expressing the nature of the 
newer materials. Perhaps they will enjoy a second golden age. 



The exhibition. Four Thousand and One Buttons, consisted for the 
most part of material given at various times by the Misses Sarah Cooper 
Hewitt and Eleanor Garnier Hewitt, augmented by gifts from the 
American Catalin Corporation, the Associated Button Corporation, 
Miss Grace Bigelow, Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen, the Baroness Alma 
Dahlerup, Elisha Dyer, Mrs. Elizabeth Horton Ells, Mrs. Charles S. 
Fairchild, Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer, Norvin Hewitt Green, Mrs. 
Millia D. Harkavy, Mrs. Lucy Work Hewitt, H. Maxson Holloway, Mrs. 
John Innes Kane, Mrs. George B. McClellan, the McKee Button Com- 
pany, Miss Serbella Moores, Mrs. Robert B. Noyes, Mrs. Edward Robin- 
son, the Scovill Manufacturing Company, William S. Silver, Mrs. James 
Russell Soley, Bromley S. Stone, Miss Helen S. Stone, the Marquis Val 
Verde de la Sierra, and Waldes Koh-i-noor, Incorporated. Loans were 
received from the individuals and organizations whose names follow: 
H. Maxwell Baiter, the Brooklyn Museum, Cartier, Incorporated, Miss 
Emily Robbins Childs, Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen, Elisha Dyer, Miss 
Janet H. Douglas, Miss Mary S. M. Gibson, Miss Marian Hague, Georg 
Jensen Handmade Silver, Incorporated, William Heimann, Mrs. Harry 
S. Koopman, Miss Alice Morse, the New York Historical Society, the 
Newark Museum, Miss Mary A. Noon, Mrs. Robert B. Noyes, the 
Philippson Manufacturing Company, Plastic Ware, Incorporated, Miss 
Marian Powys, Mrs. Angiolina Scheuermann, the Scovill Manufacturing 
Company, the Tennessee Eastman Corporation, Mrs. Charles D. Thomp- 
son, Miss Edith W^etmore, Verdura, Incorporated, and I. Weinberg. 

Carl C. Dauterman 

244 



B' 



SL \Ac 



BUTTONS: A BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The following bibliography is a listing of the more important printed 
sources of information on buttons. The material has been divided, some- 
what arbitrarily, into three groups: General, including trade journals, 
catalogues of collections, notes on exhibitions, and sfeneral works; 
History, including all material treating of or showing the use of buttons; 
and. Manufacture, including items concerned with the processes and 
materials used in making buttons, labor conditions in the industry, and 
button manufacturers. 

The items are arranged alphabetically in each classification. Brief 
annotations have been made to clarify ambiguous titles or to bring out 
unique or important features. 

Some selection has been exercised in discarding unimportant items 
offering no new information, or articles of technical nature on button 
machinery. 

GENERAL 



1. Art in Buttons, Inc. Art in buttons, v. 
1-36. Rochester, N. Y.: Art in buttons, 1906- 
1931. illus. 8vo. 

An irregularly published periodical, the house or- 
U(>^ g^" °^ ^'' '" Buttons, Inc. 

2. Crummett, Polly de Steiguer. Button 
collecting. [Chicago: Lightner pub. co., cop. 

1939]- 157P- illus- 8vo. 

The only work to date on buttons from the col- 
lector's point of view. 

3. Encyclopedia Americana. New York, 
1938. V. 5, p. 91-92. 

4. Encyclopedia britannica. 14th ed. Lon- 
don, 1929. V. 4, p. 470-471. 

5. Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. The Emilio 
collection of military buttons, American, 
British, French and Spanish, with some of 
other countries, and non-military, in the 
museum of the Essex institute. Salem: Essex 
institute, 1911. 264P. plates. 4to. 

Excellent descriptive catalogue of the most impor- 
tant collection of military buttons in the country. 
Notes on the provenance and historical associations 
useful. 

6. Four hundred years of buttons featured 
in [Cooper union] museum exhibition. 
(Hobbies. Chicago, 1940. 410. v. 45, no. 2., 
p. 17.) 

7. Hobbies, the magazine for collectors. Chi- 
cago: Lightner pub. co., 1939-date. 410. 

Buttons, a monthly department, began appearing 
January, 1939; v. 43, no. 11. 

8. Jones, W. Unite. The button industry. 






London: Pitman and sons [1924]. ix, 113, 
23p. front., illus. i2mo. 

The only work at present on the subject. Covers 
Europe and America with especial emphasis on the 
industry in Great Britain. 

9. Morgan, Wilfred B. Check list calico 

buttons. South Hanover, Mass.: the author, 

cop. 1939. [28]p. illus., diagrs., charts. i6mo. 

Supplement no. 1. [South Hanover, 

Mass.: the author, cop. 1940.] [i6]p. illus. 

i6mo. 

No text but illustrates 146 known calico button 
designs. Contains chart for measuring buttons. The 
supplement illustrates 51 additional designs. 

10. Rathbone, R. L. B. Buttons. (Art jour- 
nal. London, 1909. 4to. v. 71, p. 7-15. illus.) 

Good general account with special mention of 
metal buttons. 

11. Ropes, Willis H. The Essex institutes 
collection of buttons. (Early American in- 
dustries association. Chronicle. New York, 
1937. V. 2, no. 1, p. 6.) 

12. Singleton, John. The romantic story of 
buttons. (American magazine. New York, 
1925. 4to. V. 99, no. 5, p. 53. 198-201.) 

13. Waldes Museum, Prague. Berichte aus 
dem knopfmuseum Heinrich Waldes. Samm- 
lung von kleiderverschlitssen. Prague: Waldes 
museum, 1916-1919. v. 1-4. illus., plates (part 
colored) . 4to. 

14. Collection of buttons and dress 

fastening devices . . . programme of the 



245 



/■>/v. Si 



nh 



;po£nCD iN Coo Paz Onw /1vr?: 



1^/, 



3 a. 



4--t) . 



museum. Report of opening, September 25, 
1918. Prague: Waldes museum, 1921. 26,[2]p. 
col. front., illus. 4to. 

15. Watt, Alexander. Notes from Paris; ex- 
hibition of buttons. (Apollo. London, 1937. 



4to. V. 25, p. 97-98.) 

A review of the exhibition of the Bacot collection 
of buttons held at the Musee Carnavalet in Paris in 
1936. Also reviewed by Franfoise Goineau in Beaux 
aits, le journal des arts, Paris, December 25, 1936, 
p. 1-2. 



HISTORY 



vT 



16. Allemagne, Henry Rene d'. Les acces- 
soires du costume et du mobilier depuis le 
treizieme jusqu'au milieu du dix-neuvieme 
siecle. Paris: J. Schemit, 1928. 3V. illus., 
plates. 4to. 

Good account of the richly jeweled, painted and 
enameled buttons used during the 18th century, espe- 
cially in France, with some historical background. 
See V. 1, p. 55-63 for text and v. 1, plates 7, 10, 
27, 44-49; v. 3, plates 287-289 for excellent 
illustrations. 

17. Ankenbrand, Frank. Notes on some early 

American military buttons. (Hobbies. Chi- 
cago, 1939. 4to. V. 44, no. 1, p. 113.) 

18. Ballooning souvenirs of the 18th cen- 
tury. (Antiques. New York, 1927. 410. v. 12, 
p. 290. illus.) 

19. Bird, Harrison R. The uniform collec- 
tion. (Fort Ticonderoga museum. Bulletin. 
Fort Ticonderoga, 1937. 8vo. v. 4, no. 4, 
p. 109. illus.) 

20. Les BouTONS d'habit, du Ve au XIXe 
siecle. ( [Paris, 19 ?] 4to. 
p. 60-64. illus.) 

Fragment from unidentified book or periodical 
published after 1897. 

21. Button finery in the mountains of Aus- 
tria. (Christian science monitor. Boston, 
June 15, 1938. p. 13.) 

22. Calver, William L. The American armv 
button of the War of the revolution. (New 
York historical society. Quarterly bulletin. 
New York, 1922-1930. 8vo. v. 5, p. 91-103; 

V. 13, p. 145-153- illus-) 

23. The British army button in the 

American revolution. (New York historical 
society. Quarterly bulletin. New York, 1923. 
8vo. v. 7, p. 10-23, 44-58- illus.) 

24. Distinctive buttons of the Loyalist 

corps in the American revolution. (New 
York historical society. Quarterly bulletin. 
New York, 1929. 8vo. v. 12, p. 135-147. illus.) 

25. Eagle buttons found at West 

Point. (New York historical society. Quar- 
terly bulletin. New York, 1926. 8vo. v. 10, p. 
92-93. illus.) 
26. Early British and American mili- 



tary buttons. (New York historical society. 
Quarterly bulletin. New York, 1918. 8vo. v. 
1, p. 115-116.) 

27. United States army buttons of the 

War of 1812 period. (New York historical 
society. Quarterly bulletin. New York, 1932. 
8vo. V. 16, p. 13-24. illus.) 

28. Washington inaugural buttons. 

(Ne^v York historical society. Quarterly bul- 
letin. New York, 1926. 8vo. v. 9, p. 124-126. 
illus.) 

29. Elderkin, Kate McKnight. Buttons and 
their use on Greek garments. (American 
journal of archaeology. Concord, N. H., 1928. 
8vo. V. 32, p. 333-345. illus.) 

30. Fallou, Louis. . . . Le bouton uniforme 

fran^ais de I'ancien regime a fin juillet 1914. 

Colombes (Seine) : "La Giberne," 1915. 

327p. 10 col. plates inch front, fo. 

A comprehensive and important work with excel- 
lent illustrations. 

31. Gardner, Asa Bird. Military buttons. 
(Magazine of American history. New York, 
1883. 4to. V. 9, p. 280-284. illus.) 

American revolution service buttons. 

32. Manchester, Herbert. The evolution of 
fastening devices from the bone pin to the 
Koh-i-noor Kover-zip. [New, enlarged ed.] 
Long Island city: Waldes Koh-i-noor, inc. 

[cop. 1938] 4op. front., illus. 8vo. J^A ^^'^ 

33. Parkvn, H. B. Later buttons of the brit- 
ish army. (Connoisseur. London, 1924. 410. 
V. 68, p. 17-23. illus.) 

34. Petrie, William M. Flinders. Buttons 
from Egypt. (Antiquary. London, 1896. v. 32, 

P- 134-137- illus-) 

35. The making of Egypt. London: 

Sheldon press, 1939. xv, i87p. plates, 2 fold, 
tabs. 410. 

36. RowAND, A. Some early English sea 
service buttons. (Connoisseur. London, 1927. 
4to. V. 79, p. 90-100. illus.) 

37. Rvley, a. Beresford. Old paste. Lon- 
don: Methuen [1913] x, 99p. front., plates. 
4to. 



246 









iU!^<^»' 






A fairly full synoptic review of this book repro- 
ducing one of the plates showing some Georgian 
buttons may be found in an article by Cecil Boyce 
in Connonseur, London, 1913, v. 37, p. 239-244. 

38. U. S. Quartermaster general's office. 
Uniform of the army of the United States, 
iUustrated, from 1774 to [1907]. [New York: 
G. H. Biiek and co., 1885-1907.] 2v. col. 
plates, fo. 

39. Webb, Wilfred Mark. Heritage of dress. 



being notes on the history and evolution of 
clothes. New and revised ed. London: Times 
book club, 1912. 299p. front., illus., plates. 
8vo. 

40. Wright, Richardson Little. Hawkers 
and walkers in early America . . . 2nd ed. 
Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1927. 3i7p. 
front., illus., plates, ports., facsims. 8vo. 

Scattered references, through index, dealing with 
early button trade. 



MANUFACTURE 



41. Ahlers, Lena Carolyn. Just a button. 

(Normal instructor— primary plans. Dans- 

ville, N. Y., 1926. fo. v. 35, no. 7. p. 28, 86. 

illus.) 

Story of two small boys going through a Water- 
bury button factory. 

42. Andrews, Edward D. The community 
industries of the Shakers. Albany: Univer- 
sity of the state of New York, 1933. 322p. 
illus. i2mo. (New York state museum. 
Handbook, 15.) 

Short note on button making, p. 14 1. 

43. Barnum, G. Button, button, who's got 
the button; strike at Muscatine. (Survey. 
New York, 1911. 4to. v. 26, p. 253-255.) 

44. Batten, S. Z. Muscatine strike problem. 
(Survey. New York, 1912. 410. v. 28, p. 390- 

399-) 

See also no. 79 below for additional material on 
the Muscatine strike. 

45. Bishop, James Leander. A history of 

American manufactures from 1608 to i860. 

3rd ed. Philadelphia: Young, 1868. 3V. 8vo. 

Valuable chronological account of American in- 
dustries from colonial times to the Civil war. In- 
cludes button manufacturers with detailed notes on 
the industry in Waterbury, Connecticut. 

46. Boileau, Etienne. Les metiers et cor- 
porations de la ville de Paris, i3eme siecle; 
le livre des metiers d':^. Boileau, public par 
Rene de Lespinasse et Francois Bonnardot. 
Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1879. (Histoire 
gencrale de Paris) . cliv, 42op. tables, facsims. 
fo. 

47. Brass buttons; the history of their devel- 
opment . . . (Copper and brass research 
association. Bulletin. New York, 1937. 410. 
no. 65, p. 6-7. illus.) 

48. Breeding buttons. (Harpers weekly. 

New York, 1911. v. 55, no. 2844, p. 21.) 

Account of establishment of federal biological sta- 
tion for propagation of fresh water clams at Fair- 
port, Iowa. 

49. Brooks, Olive. Vanity by the ton. (Shell 



progress. New York, 1939. fo. v. 9, no. 6, 
p. 10-12.) 

History of the Scovill Manufacturing Co., Water- 
bury, Conn, with illustrations of the Lafayette but- 
tons made by them in 1824. 

50. Buttons. (Modern plastics. New York, 
1939. 4to. V. 16, no. 8, p. 42. illus.) 

51. Buttons as a by-product of beer. (Sci- 
entific American supplement. New York, 
1917. fo. V. 84, p. 9.) 

From American bottler. 

Ernolith plastic buttons made from left-over yeast. 

52. Buttons from gypsum. (Chemical age. 
New York, 1922. 410. v. 30, p. 559-560.) 

53. Chase, H. What's in a button. (Modern 

plastics. New York, 1935. 410. v. 12, p. 36-38. 

illus.) 

Excellent, detailed description of ingredients and 
physical properties of plastic materials ; and processes 
of plastic button manufacture. 

54. Driscoll, G. L. Buttons and Bertha. 
(Child labor bulletin. New York, 1914. 8vo. 

V. 3, no. 3, part 2, p. 20-26.) 

55. Ever since 1812. (Modern plastics. New 
York, 1939. 4to. V. 16, no. 5, p. 23-27. illus.) 

Brief history of Waterbury Button Co. Describes 
equipment and processes used in plastic button 
manufacture. 

56. Farrar, F. p. From tagua to buttons. 
Pan-American union. Bulletin. Washington, 
1928. 410. V. 62, p. 801-809.) 

From West coast leader. 

Good account of the tagua palm nut; how grown, 
harvested, used in buttons. 

57. The Federal government's mussel farm. 
(Scientific American. New York, 1918. 410. 

V. 119, p. 316.) 

58. From ^vorking clothes buttons to modern 
novelty finishes. (Metal industry. New York, 
1938. 4to. p. 4-5. illus.) 

Short history of the Patent Button Works Co., 
Waterbury, Conn. 

59. Gonzalez, M. Ivory nuts for button 
manufacture. (American industries. New 
York, 1917. fo. v. 17, no. 6, p. 26.) 



247 



60. Haefner, Marie. Argonauts of the Mis- 
sissippi. (Iowa. State historical society. 
Palimpsest. Iowa City, 1932. 8vo. v. 8, no. 
12.) 

61. Ivory from trees made into buttons. 
(Dun's international review. New York, 
1930. 4to. V. 56, p. 34.) 

62. JosEPHSSON, Axel. Buttons. (In: U. S. 
Census office. 12th census, 1900. Census re- 
ports. Manufactures, part 3. Washington: 
Census office, 1902. tables. 4to. v. 9, p. 315- 

327-) 

Excellent, documented monograph on the develop- 
ment of the American button industry. This mono- 
graph was also reprinted as a separate: U. S. Census 
office. 12th census. Census bulletin, 112. Washing- 
ton: Census office, 1902. 15 p. tables. 4to. 

The information contained in this report may also 
be found, in part, in: Axel Josephsson, Fresh water 
pearl button industry; an important American in- 
dustry. (Scientific American supplement. New York, 
1908. V. 65, no. 1694, p. 385-386. illus.) ; and in: 
Willis H. Ropes, Button manufacturers. (Hobbies, 
New York, 1939. v. 43, no. 12, p. 107.) 

63. Keir, Malcolm. Manufacturing indus- 
tries in America. New York: Ronald press, 
1920. vii, 324p. i2mo. 

64. Krehbiel, H. How catalin buttons and 
buckles are manufactured. New Y'ork: Amer- 
ican catalin corporation [cop. 1936]. 32p. 
illus. 4to. 

65. Lancley, Michael. Malta's new indus- 
try; exhibition of buttons. (Great Britain 
and the east. London, 1936. fo. v. 47, p. 633.) 

66. Large uses of steel in small ways; but- 
tons. (Iron trade review. Cleveland, Ohio, 
1925. 4to. V. 77, p. 1462-1463. illus.) 

67. LocKHART, Grace. A button industry 
from ocean pearl. (Scientific American. New 
York, 1931. 4to. v. 145, p. 153-156. illus.) 

68. The Manufacture of gilt buttons. (Hob- 
bies. Chicago, 1940. 4to. v. 44, no. 12, p. 22.) 

Describes technique of gilding used in England in 
the early 19th century. 

69. Practical directions for making papier 
mache buttons. (Scientific American supple- 
ment. New York, 1907. fo. v. 63, no. 1629, 
p. 26099.) 

70. Recueil de planches de I'encyclopedie, 

par ordre de matieres. Paris: Panckouke, 

1783-1785. 4v. plates, fo. 

Three plates showing tools and shops of button 
makers in v. 1. 
See no. 71 below. 

71. Recueil de planches sur les sciences, les 
arts liberaux et les arts mechaniques, avec 



leur explication. Paris: Briasson, 1742-1752. 
iiv. plates., diagrs. fo. 

Six plates describing button making in v. 2. The 
first three of these were copies and used in no. 70 
above. 

72. Roberts, S. G. America's fresh water 
pearl button industry. (Scientific American. 
New York, 1921. 410. v. 4, p. 200-203.) 

73. Skeel, Roswell. Covered and celluloid 
button factories in New York City. (In: New 
York state. Factory investigating commission. 
4th report, 1915. Albany, 1915. 9V0. v. 2, p. 

339-359-) 

74. Starke, W. W. Insignificant button. 
(Sibley journal of engineering. Ithaca, N. Y., 
1925. 4to. V. 39, p. 245-246.) 

Methods in making ivory nut buttons. 

75. U. S. Bureau of the census. Biennial 
census of manufactures, 1937. Part 1. "Wash- 
ington: Gov't printing office, 1939. p. 1241- 
1244. 

76. U. S. Foreign and domestic commerce 
bureau. Foreign trade in buttons. Washing- 
ton: Gov't printing office, 1916. i84p. 8vo. 
(Special consular report, no. 75.) 

77. U. S. Tariff commission. Button in- 
dustry, tariff legislation, commercial and in- 
dustrial conditions in the United States and 
foreign countries, court and treasury deci- 
sions, statements from associations and lead- 
ing manufacturers [with bibliography]. 
Washington: Gov't printing office, 1918. 
i25p. 4to. (Tariff information series, no. 4.) 

78. Ure, Andrew. A dictionary of arts, man- 
ufactures and mines containing a clear ex- 
position of their principles and practice. 
New York: D. Appleton and co., 1868. 2v. 
illus., diagrs. 410. 

See V. 1, p. 288-297 for description of contem- 
porary technical methods. 

79. Ward, H. F. Muscatine situation. (Sur- 
vey. New York, 1912. 410. v. 28, p. 362-363.) 

See also nos. 43 and 44 above for other material 
on the Muscatine strike. 

80. White, Walter C. Check list of manu- 
facturers and retailers of military buttons, 
1860-1900. (Hobbies. Chicago, 1940, 410. v. 
45, no. 1, p. 18.) 

81. Wilcox, Richard. Manufacture of vege- 
table ivory buttons. (Machinery. New York, 
1914. v. 21, p. 108-111. illus., diagrs.) 

Detailed description of machinery and techniques. 
Carl C. Dauterman 
Harold Lancour 



248 



WORKS OF ART RECEIVED BY THE MUSEUM 

January i - December 31, 1939 



ACCESSORIES OF FURNISHING 

Embroidered table cover; Spain, 17th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Embroidered panel; France, 18th centiny. 

BEQUEST OF MISS ADELE KNEELAND, THROUGH 
MRS. PHILIP AINSWORTH MEANS 

Two napkins; France, early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

Bedspread; England, late 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CHARLES J. STEBBINS 

Embroidered altar frontal; Spain, 18th 
century. Embroidered hanging; Italy, 17th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. SAMUEL STIEFEL 

ALPHABETS AND INITIALS 

Ink rubbing of calligraphy; China. 18th 
century. Leaf from a book, Iran, 17th cen- 
tury. Two fragments of illuminated manu- 
scripts, Arabia, 18th century. Two sheets 
of a child's manuscript copybook; Italy, 
18th century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Trade card of Ed^vard Lycett, china deco- 
rator; New York, about 1882. 

GIVEN BY MRS. C. R. DUMBLE 

ARCHITECTURE 

Three fragments of car\ed stone pin- 
nacles; Rouen, France, 15th century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Four designs by Charles Salagnad for stair- 
hall at "Chateau-sur-Mer," Newport, 
Rhode Island; Paris, about 1872. 

GIVEN BY THE MISSES WETMORE 

CERAMICS 

Nine glazed pottery sherds; Fostat, 14th 
century. Two glazed pottery dishes; China, 
20th century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Glazed pottery tile; Mexico, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY CARL C. DAUTERMAN 

Porcelain plate made in France and deco- 
rated in New York by Edward Lycett; 
about 1880. Porcelain plate, jug and vase 



made in Ne^v York and decorated by 
Edward Lycett and Francis Lycett; 1890- 
1902. Pricked pattern for porcelain deco- 
ration, and trial proof of a pattern, by 
Edward Lycett; New York, 1880-1885. 

GIVEN BY MRS. C. R. DUMBLE 

Six glazed pottery tiles; Netherlands, i8th 
century. 

GIVEN BY A. W. M. ODE, JR. 

Pate-sur-pate porcelain medallion, by 
Taxile Maximilien Doat; Sevres, France, 

1882. 

GIVEN BY MRS. LAURENT OPPENHEIM 

Pottery vase, "Talavera ware"; Puebla, 
Mexico, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

COSTUME AND COSTUME 
ACCESSORIES 

Feather head-dress ornament; China, 
about 1900. Silver buckle; Iran, 19th cen- 
tury. Ornamental plaque; Iran, 20th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Carved walnut button; France, about 1880. 

ANONYMOUS GIFT 

Book of gaiment patterns and decoration; 
Japan, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY RO\V'LAND BURDON-MULLER 

Embroidered collar, embroidered under- 
sleeves, printed cotton bag; United States, 
mid-i9th century. Two painted silk fans; 
England, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY Miss GERTRUDE CROWNFIELD 

Nine buttons; France, late 19th century. 

GIVEN BY ELISHA DYER 

Twenty-two buttons; France, second half 
of the 18th century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF HERMAN A. FLSBERG 

Four embroidered articles of clothing; 
United States, mid- 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. FREDERIC SALTONSTALL GOULD 

Mandarin square, t^vo embroidered cases; 
China, 19th century. Embroidered fibre- 
cloth kerchief; Philippine Islands, 19th 
centuiv. Two fan leaves, France, i8th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 



249 



Button composed of snail shells moiuited 
on celluloid; United States, late 19th cen- 
tiny. 

GIVEN BY MRS. JAMES F. HORAN 

Five fans; China and France, 19th century. 
Scarf, handkerchief; France, 19th century. 
Two collars; Ireland, early 20th century. 

BEQUEST OF MISS ADELE KNEELAND, THROUGH 
MRS. PHILIP AINSWORTH MEANS 

Leather fan; Java, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS V. ISABELLE MILLER 

Lace cap cro\vn, collar, three lappets and 
two scarves; Italy, Flanders and France, 
18th and 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE NICHOLS FROM THE COL- 
LECTION OF HER MOTHER, MRS. J. P. MORGAN 

Man's coat, waistcoat and breeches; France, 
third quarter of i8th century. Embroid- 
ered fan; France, 18th century. Veil; 
United States, about 1830. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

Ten fan leaves; Japan, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. FREDDIE STAACK 

Ten articles of clothing; New York, mid- 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CHARLES J. STEBBINS 

Three lace handkerchiefs; Japan, 20th 
century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM I. WALTER 

Passementerie dress ornament; France, 
about 1890. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

ENAMEL 

Box; China, 1931. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 

Two printed Door Gods; China, Honan 
Province, 20th century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Two chiaioscuro prints; Bologna and 
Venice, Italy, 16th and 18th centuries. 

PURCHASED, THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM FUND 

Thirty-two colored prints of trades; Ger- 
many, about 1800. 

PURCHASED, THE GEORGE A. HEARN FUND 

Three color-prints by George Baxter, 1804- 
1867; England, mid-igth century. 

GIVEN BY MISS VIRGINIA MCNEILL 

Five etchings by Giovanni Battista Pira- 
nesi; Italy, mid-i8th century. 



GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. GEORGE PENDLE- 
TON 

Ten ^voodcut illustrations from Harper's 
IVeekly, after drawings by Winslow Ho- 
mer; New York, 1859-1875. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CORA E. WILSON 

FURNITURE 

Six designs for piano cases, by Durr Freed- 
ley; New York, 1916. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

GLYPTIC ARTS 

Five carved ivory ornaments; China, 
Honan Province, early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

Ink rubbing of a stone relief; China, 18th 
century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Drawing, Birds with Nest, by Daniel L. D. 
McMurray, student at Cooper Union; 
New Yoik, 1864. 

GIVEN BY Miss HELEN MCMURRAY 

JEWELRY 

Pendant, two charms; Iran, i9th-20th cen- 
turies. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

LACE 

Portion of lace commemorative of the 
transatlantic flight of Charles A. Lind- 
bergh; France, about 1927. 

GIVEN BY MRS. SAMUEL CABOT 

Lace l)order; Burano, Italy, late iglh 
centuiy. 

GIVEN BY MRS. TAD DORGAN 

Eleven patterns for lace, ten pieces of 
lace; France, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HENRY MORRIS FECHIMER 

Cutwork fragment, lace fragment; Italy, 
16th century. Book of lace samples; Italy, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Eighty-four bobbins for making lace; 
England, i8th-i9th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. C. H. JUDKINS 

Twenty-three pieces of lace; Italy and 
Sweden, 16th to 19th centuries. 

BEQUEST OF MISS ADELE KNEELAND, THROUGH 
MRS. PHILIP AINSWORTH MEANS 



250 



Eighty-three pieces of lace; Flanders, 
France, Greece and Italy, 17th to 19th 
centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE NICHOLS, FROM THE 
COLLECTION OF HER MOTHER, MRS. J. P. MORGAN 

Two pieces of lace; France, 20th centiuv. 

GIVEN BY Miss EDITH WETMORE 

LEATHERWORK 

Two pieces of embossed leather wall- 
hangings; France, about 1900. 

GIVEN BY \VILLIAM D. ALLEN 

LIGHTING 

Water-buffalo horn lantern; China, 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY 
Table cover with applique ornament; 
China, about 1930. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Two embroidery fragments; France, India, 
18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. SAMUEL CABOT 

Four portions of cotton embroidery; India, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS GERTRUDE CROWNFIELD 

Embroidered panel; England (?) , 18th 
century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF HERMAN A. ELSBERG 

Nine pieces of embroidery; Egypt, 9th- 
12th centuries. 

PURCHASED, THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM FUND 

Twenty-four pieces of embroidery; China, 
Eg)pt, Italy, Philippine Islands and Spain, 
9th to 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Three pieces of inscribed embroideries; 
Egypt, 902-944. 

GIVEN BY MRS. STAFFORD MCLEAN 

Fragment of embroidery; Peru, Paracas 
culture, 7th century. 

GIVEN BY GUILLERMO R. SCHMIDT-PIZARRO 

Embroidered textile; China, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. SAMUEL STIEFEL 

Strip of embroidery; England, about 1760. 

GIVEN BY MISS JANET WARING 

Embroidered band; Italy, 17th centurv. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

NUMISMATICS 

Copper cent; Netherlands, mid-igth cen- 



tury. Two brass seals; England, mid- 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MISS GERTRUDE CROWNFIELD 

Bronze pin: "Art War Relief," designed by 
Paul Manship; United States, 1917. 

GIVEN BY Miss MAUD M. MASON 

Medal issued by the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company to commemorate the 
one hundredth anniversary of its found- 
ing; designed by Hans Schuler; New York, 
1927- 

GIVEN BY GEORGE M. SHRIVER 

PAPER 

T^venty-four sheets of decorated papers, 
nineteen envelopes; China, Japan and 
Turkey, 20th century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Two sheets of lining paper; Varese, Italy, 
20th century, printed from wood-blocks 
of the late 18th century. 

GIVEN BY SIMON DE VAULCHIER 

TEXTILE ARTS 

Silk and metal plain compound t^vill; 
Spain, 17th century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM D. ALLEN 

Printed silk handkerchief commemorating 
the New York World's Fair 1939; United 
States, 1938. 

ANONYMOUS GIFT 

Printed textile; Egypt, 10th century. Six- 
teen printed textiles; India, i3th-i6th 
centuries. Two printed textiles; France, 
1800-1825. 

PURCHASED, AU PANIER FLEURI FUND 

Chintz covering for a chair seat; England, 
about 1830. 

GIVEN BY JOHN S. JARVIS BEACH 

Four books of textile patterns; three 
books of samples of printed silks; Japan, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY ROWLAND BURDON-MULLER 

Twenty-five pieces of printed textiles; 
France and United States, second half of 
19th century. Four pieces of dress fabrics; 
France, mid-igth century. 

GIVEN BY Miss GERTRUDE CROWNFIELD 

Panel of cotton brocaded with silk; Gua- 
temala, probably Chichicas, 1939. 

GIVEN BY CARL C. DAUTERMAN 

Woven portrait of Alexander I, designed 



251 



by M. Y. Malin; Russia, probably Moscow, 
1843. 

GIVEN BY MISS ADELAIDE MILTON DE GROOT 

Two pieces of Velours Gregoire, twenty- 
eight pieces of various textiles; France, 
1750-1825. Fragment of velvet; Genoa, 17th 
century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF HERMAN A. ELSBERG 

Thirteen pieces of printed cotton, in nine 
designs, made for the Philadelphia Cen- 
tennial Exhibition of 1876; made at the 
American Printing Company, Fall River, 
Massachusetts. 

GIVEN BY THE FALL RIVER HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Twenty-four pieces of textiles; Egypt, 6th- 
14th centuries. Two pieces of printed 
fabrics; France, late iSth-early 19th cen- 
turies. Three pieces of printed textiles; 
India, i4th-i6th centuries. 

PURCHASED, THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM FUND 

Two textile fragments; Egypt, 1021-1036. 
Printed textile; France, late 18th century. 

PURCHASED, GENERAL FUNDS 

Three paper stencils for textile decora- 
tion; Japan, about 1800. 

PURCHASED, THE CHARLES W. GOULD FUND 

Two textile fragments; Italy, 17th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Thirteen textile sample books; France 
and United States, 1937-1939. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM HARDY, INC. 

Roll of ribbed silk printed with a variety 
of sample patterns; Japan, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. STAFFORD MCLEAN 

Twelve mises en carte; France, 1750-1775. 

GIVEN BY MISS JOSEPHINE HOWELL 

Mercerized cotton, silk, hemp and metal 
compound satin, used at the Coronation 
of George W and Elizabeth of England; 
England, 1937. 

GIVEN BY Miss ALICE LOVERING 

Three textile fragments; Egypt, 934-1094. 

GIVEN BY MRS. STAFFORD MCLEAN 

Fragment of printed cotton; Jouy, France, 
about 1802. Modern reproduction of the 
same design. 

GIVEN BY HENRY OOTHOUT MILLIKEN 

Sample of blue wool fabric used for cur- 
tains in the house of William Oothout, 
218 Madison Avenue, New York; France, 
about 1880. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 



Four textile samjale books; Lyon, France, 
1848-1860. 

PURCHASED, TRUSTEES' APPROPRIATION 

Two pieces of velvet; China, late 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM I. WALTER 

Printed silk handkerchief; France, 1938. 
Printed silk handkerchief commemorating 
the New York World's Fair 1939; United 
States, 1939. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

WALL-PAPER 

Roll of rotogravure-printed wall-paper: 
"The Hunt," printed by the donor; Phila- 
delphia, 1938. 

GIVEN BY BECKER, SMITH AND PAGE 

T^vo fragments of wall-paper removed 
from walls in the donor's house in Ports- 
mouth, Rhode Island; United States, mid- 
19th century. 

(.IVEN BY MISS ALICE BRAYTON 

Fifty-seven pieces of unused ^vall-paper; 
United States, 1890-1900. 

GIVEN BY MISS ROBINA CLARK 

Two pieces of wall-paper removed from 
avails of the Manning House, Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire; France or United States, 
about i860. 

(.IVEN BY MISS MARGARET KENNETH CLINTON 

Three pieces of \\'all-paper; United States, 
1825-1840. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CAROLA R. GREEN 

Portion of an unused roll of ^s'all-paper; 
United States, about 1820. 

(;iVEN BY THE IMPERIAL PAPER AND COLOR 
CORPORATION 

Six pieces of wall-paper printed after 
designs by the donor; United States, 1937. 

GIVEN BY MISS TERESA KILHAM 

Three pieces of painted wall-paper; China, 
for export trade, early 19th century. 

PURCHASED, THE MCDOUGALL HAWKES FUND 

Length of unused u'all-paper of the design 
hung in the house of William Oothout, 
218 Madison Avenue, New York; France, 
about 1880. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

Twenty-three pieces of unused wall-paper 
of designs hung in Chateau-sur-Mer, New- 
port, Rhode Island; England, France and 
United States, about 1870-about 1900. 

GIVEN BY THE MISSES WETMORE 



252 



DONORS TO THE LIBRARY 



January i- December 31, 1939 



Dr. Phyllis Ackennan 

Edith Flack Ackley 

Addison Gallery of American 

Art 
William D. Allen 
American Art Association 

Anderson Galleries 
Frank W. Angel 
Anthracite Industries, 

Incorporated 
Miss Lucy M. Arms 
Albert Augustine 
John S. Jarvis Beach 
Mrs. John Hudson Bennett 
Berkshire Museum 
Spencer Bickerton 
Mrs. Katrine H. Bie 
Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Mrs. Adolphe Borie 
Dr. Wolfgang Born 
Museum Boymans 
Rowland Burdon-MuUer 
Burlington Finie Arts Club 
Mrs. Samuel Cabot 
Melbert B. Gary, Jr. 
Ciba Company 

Cooper Union Day Art School 
Cooper Union Library 
Mihran N. Costikyan 
Warren E. Cox 
Miss Gertrude Crownfield 
Allison Delarue 
Elisha Dyer 



John Elliott 

Fall River Historical Society 
Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 
William Hayes Fogg Art 

Museum 
French Pavilion, New York 

World's Fair, 1939 
Solomon R. Guggenheim 

Foundation 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 
Talbot F. Hamlin 
Calvin S. Hathaway 
William A. Hildebrand 
Dr. Hans Huth 
International Business 

Machines Corporation 
John Judkyn 
Miss Joanne Kennedy 
Frederick A. King* 
Prof. Bruno Kisch 
M. Knoedler and Company 
Kungliga Universitetets 

Bibliotek 
Miss Dorothy A. Lardner 
Miss Florence N. Levy 
H. E. Lightly 

Mrs. Frederic Ware Lincoln* 
Mrs. Stafford McLean 
Miss Virginia McNeill 
Miss Maud M. Mason 
David Maxfield 



Miss Ruth Merington 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Modern Age Books 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Muzeum Narodowe 
National Academy of Design 
Netherlands Participation 

Commission, New York 

World's Fair, 1939 
Mrs. Magnus L. Norstad 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
Parke-Bernet Galleries, 

Incorporated 
Percy R. Pyne, Jr. 
Mrs. Clarence Earl Richards 
Riverside Museum 
Mrs. Edward Robinson 
Franz Gordon Ruedi 
Charles E. Sampson 
George M. Shriver 
Harold Vincent Smith 
George Walter Vincent Smith 

Art Gallery 
Mrs. Peter A. Sondergaard 
Miss Ruth Lyle Sparks 
Mary Stuart Book Fund 
Miss Gertrude Townsend 
Trustees' Book Fund 
Wall-paper Manufacturers, 

Ltd. 
Miss Edith Wetmore 
Joseph E. Widener 
Zeiss Ikon A. G. 



VOLUNTEER WORKERS, 1939 



John S. Jarvis Beach 
Randolph Bullock 
Elisha Dyer 



John Judkyn 
Mrs. Sidney Lanier 
Miss Serbella Moores 



Jose B. Rios 

Robert Hamilton Rucker 



DONORS OF EOUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1939 



Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Cooper Union Library 
Elisha Dyer 
Louis Ginsburg 
Stephen V. Grancsay 

* Deceased 



Norvin Hewitt Green 
Robert Griffin 
M. Katayama 
Michael J. Kilmartin 
Harry S. Koopman 
Adolfo Loewi 



Mrs. Stafford McLean 
Newark Museum 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
Milton Samuels 
Miss Edith Wetmore 



253 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

BENEFACTORS 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen Mrs. A. Murray Young 

LIFE MEMBERS 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss Starling W. Childs Charles E. Sampson 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 

Mrs. John D. Rockefeller Miss Edith Wetmore Miss Maude Wetmore 



Mr. and Mrs. Elisha Dyer 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 



Mrs. Childs Prick 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 



Mrs. Eucius Wilmerding 



CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 



Anton Bailer 

Miss Isabel A. Ballanline 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Miss Susan Dvvight Bliss 

Ambrose C. Cramer 

Mrs. Henry Belin du Pont 

Miss Elorence S. Dustin 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Mrs. Harry Harkness Flagler* 

Mrs. Edwin Goidd 

Mrs. Frederic Saltonstall 

Gould 
Miss Marian Hague 



Charles Bain Hoyt 
Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 
Mrs. Walter Belknap James 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
William C. Lawson 
Mrs. Slallord McLean 
The Manhattan Storage & 

Warehouse Company 
Miss Harriet Marple 
Mrs. William R. Mercer 
Edward A. Miller 
Count Alexandre Orlowski 
Miss Kathcrine de Berkeley 
Parsons 



Pratt Institute, School of Fine 

and Applied Arts 
Miss Helen S. Stone 
Mrs. Herman Foster Stone 
Mrs. James ^Vard Thorne 
Miss Emily Tobias 
Nfrs. John B. Trevor 
Carl Otto von Kienbusch 
^Villiam Williams 
Mrs. Egerton Winthrop 
Mrs. .Albert S. Wright 
Mrs. A. Murray Young 



Dr. Phyllis Ackcrmau 
Mrs. William Feilon Barrett 
Mrs. Henry C. Bartol 
Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 
Mrs. Stephen Bonsai 
Mrs. Adolphe Borie 
Mrs. |. Nelson Borland 
Mrs. Ludlow Bull 
RoAvland Burdon-Muller 
Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler 
Miss Emily H. Chainicey 

* Deceased 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Miss Margaret Kenneth 

Clinton 
Mr. and Mrs. ncW'iii Clinton 

Cohen 
Mrs. Francis E. Corbett 
Mrs. Pollv de Stciguer 

Cnunmett 
Mrs. Carl A. de Cersdorff 
Mrs. William Adams Delano 
Baron Mainice N'oru/ de Vaux 
Miss Cart)line King Duer 



Henry F. du Pont 
Mrs. Frederick \V. Ells 
Miss Alice S. Erskine 
H. Russell Farjeon 
Henry Fontane 
Robert Talcott Francis 
Mrs. ^Villiam Grecnough 
Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 
Mrs. Edward S. Harkness 
Mis. Lathrop Colgate Harper 
Mrs. J. .\mory Haskell 



254 



William W. Heer 
George S. Hellman 
Miss Louise M. Iselin 
Miss Frances H. Ives 
Miss Mary RiUherfurd Jay 
Mrs. Warren Kinney 
Miss Dorothy A. Lardner 
Mrs. Frederic Ware Lincoln* 
Mrs. Harrie T. Lindeberg 
Mrs. Augustus P. Loring, Jr. 
Robert W. Macbeth 
Miss Nancy V. McClelland 
Robert T. McKee 
Roger W. MacLaughlin 

*Deceased 



Mrs. Henry Tobin Maury 

Joseph M. May 

Miss Marion E. Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Oothout 

Milliken 
Joseph Moreng 
Mrs. Alexis V. Moschcovvitz 
Ex Norton 
William M. Odom 
Mrs. William Church Osborn 
Mrs. John E. Parsons 
Mrs. Robert H. Patterson 
Miss Meta A. Peper 
Mrs. Robert Burnside Potter 
Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 



Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 
Mrs. Edward Robinson 
Mrs. Charles H. Russell 
Mrs. Willits Herbert Sawyer 
Miss Elizabeth Hirst 

Schoonover 
Miss Helen H. Tanzer 
Maximilian Toch 
Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 
Mrs. Coffin Van Rensselaer 
Walter M. Walters 
Monroe Wheeler 
Mrs. Francis de Ruyter 

Wissman 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 



Miss Susan Dwioht Bliss 



Mrs. Montgomery Hare 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following 
classes of membership: 



BENEFACrORS .... 

Life Members . . . 
Sustaining Members . 
Subscribing Members . 
Contributing Members 
Annual Members . . 



who contribute $1,000 or more 
who contribute $500 or more 
who contribute $100 annually 
who contribute $50 annually 
who contribute |io annually 
who contribute $3 annually 



Cheques should be drawn to Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 
care of The Friends of the Museum, Cooper Square and 7th Street, New York. 

Walter Maynard, Treasurer 
The Friends of the Museum 



255 



COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

SECOND AVENUE ELEVATED 8th Street (St. Mark's Place) Station 

THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED gth Street Station 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line— 8th Street Station 

L R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line— Astor Place Station 

INDEPENDENT SUBWAY Sixth Avenue and 4th Street Station 

HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES gth Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS "Wanamaker Terminal" route 

BROADWAY BUS EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 
MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 




'^7)>0&..^^63- 7 






VOL . I . NO . 7 



APRIL . 1941 



COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

T R U S TEES 

Gang Dunn, President 
J. P. Morgan 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 

OFFICERS 

Edwin S. Burdell, Director 
Robert Winthrop, Treasurer 
Edward L-. Rehm, Secretary 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

John R. Safford, Siiperintendent of Buildings 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

A D V ISO R Y COUNCIL 

Mrs. Stafford McLean, Chairman 
Elisha Dyer 
John D. Gordon 
Miss Marian Hague 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. Robert B. No yes 

STAFF 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 



Hobby horses ^vith their little riders dressed in figured silk, appear on the cover. They are 
a set of meuuki in shakudo, copper and gold, signed Haruunri, and made h\ Hirata 
Harunari in the early nineteenth century. k^'^U-^'T^"^ d^« 

Copyright, 1941, by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF COOPER UNION 

VOL . I . NO . 7 APRIL • 1941 



Two issues of the Chronicle are being published this season, instead 
of the single number of previous years, each devoted to a special 
phase of the collections which has recently been catalogued. The cur- 
rent issue presents a general survey of the remarkable assemblage of 
Japanese sword mountings bequeathed in 1936 by George Cameron 
Stone, and is the forerunner of a detailed catalogue which it is hoped 
may be published at a later date. The next issue of the Chronicle will 
deal with the history of Italian stage design from the Baroque period to 
the ascendancy of Romanticism, as it is indicated in a series of more 
than four hundred drawings acquired in great part in 1938. 

The program of special exhibitions has continued throughout the 
year, but is not discussed in the Chronicle as in other years, because it 
has been possible to accompany each exhibition with its own catalogue 
or printed introduction. As in earlier years, the appeal of the exhibi- 
tions has stimulated the general public and has also attracted consider- 
able attention from groups sharing the special interests represented in 
the various exhibits. 

At the beginning of the year, Miss Edith Wetmore, the last remain- 
ing member of the original Board which was appointed by the Trustees 
of Cooper Union to carry on the Museum's program after Miss Sarah 
Cooper Hewitt's death, ceased to be a member of the Advisory Council. 
Miss Wetmore' s absence will be a great loss to the Museum, for she had 
known and worked with it for more than twenty years, had been exceed- 
ingly generotis in her gifts to the Museum, had been an active and able 
member of its Board, and had succeeded in developing among many 
people an invaluable interest in the Museum and in other aspects of 
the "work of Cooper LTnion. 

259 



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JAPANESE SWORD MOUNTINGS 

in the bequest of 
George Cameron Stone 

An important field o£ decorative metalwork takes its place in the 
Cooper Union Museum's collections with the George Cameron Stone 
Bequest o£ Japanese Sword Mountings. The arts of decoration reach a 
pinnacle of achievement here in the manipulation of materials and the 
organization of the elements of decoration. 

The qualities of Japanese art — its technical perfection, its exquisite 
and sensitive design, its appeal to the imagination — have been appre- 
ciated in the Occident for over three-quarters of a century and have 
had extensive influence.^ Sword mountings are small objects, so that 
many examples can be conveniently studied and housed; each of these 
small objects mirrors a great national art. To artist, designer and stu- 
dent, the Museum can bring material ^vhich makes it possible for each 
to discover for himself fundamental principles he can in turn apply to 
his own work. 

The largest and most important mount is the sword guard, the tsuba. 
This, in essence, is a flat metal disk several inches across, with a tri- 
angular opening through the center for the blade; it protects the hand 
holding the sword. Half of the Stone collection, or about six hundred 
pieces, consists of tsuba, the greater number of iron, others of brass and 
alloys of precious metals. The size and shape vary according to local 
fashion and the fancy of the maker. The greatest range of decoration is 
encompassed, including every manner of working metal that the in- 
genuity of the Japanese craftsman could devise. 

Next to the guard the most common object is the handle for a small 
knife vv^hich fits into a pocket on the scabbard of the sword. The handle 
can be set onto various blades at will (just as can the hilt of the sword) 
and is known by the name of the knife, the kozuka. It presents for 
embellishment a flat rectangular face, about four inches lon^ and about 
one-half inch wide. More strictly limited in shape and size than the 
tsuba, it rarely permits openwork in its decoration. Kozuka both with 
and without blades can be studied in the Stone collection, includino- 
not only examples in metal, but handles in lacquer and in ^vood ^vhich 
were probably used by civilians such as doctors. 

1. For comments on this influence see Wicklioff, F. Roman art: some of its principles and their appli- 
cation to early Christianity. London, 1900. p. 55-56. 

261 




IQ36 tl 76 



Figure 2 (Full size) 



TSUBA (Top right) : Fire-dragon. Nara School, about 1800. 
MENUKi (Pair, center) : Tiger and leopard. Signed Mitsumasa, kakihan. Seventh master of 
f(^f\3C^ U 'r^'f'^.ff. ^ the Goto Hanzayemon, 1836-1904. 

_ y TSUBA (Bottom left) : Wind-blown chrysanthemums. Signed Slioami Kanenori. 

» --^ -■+•*-! A.b. Shoami School, about 1785. 4 



\<\^^''^' a'b 






Matching the kozuka, and fitting into a pocket on the opposite side 
of the s-word sheath, is an implement Avhich looks like a paper knife to 
our western eyes, the kdgai. Its use is uncertain, though originally it 
was probably a hair pin. It has a little turned-up end on the handle 
which was employed as an ear-spoon. When made in two halves it could 
serve as chopsticks, or when mounted in a small dagger for a lady, it 
might be hollow and contain a lip-rouge brush.- 

The hilt of the Nipponese sword bears a small metal cap or pommel 
and a matching base band or ferrule, ^^vhich are called respectively 
kashira and juchi, or as a set, fuchi-kashira. The manner in Avhich this 
pair of pieces is worked into an artistic unit by complementary designs 
is fascinating. Equally admirable is the genius of the artist in enriching 
the rounding surfaces of such small objects. 

The most purely jewel-like of the fittings are the mennki, small pairs 
of ornaments ^vhich find place on the s^vord-handle and have a function 
in improving the grip. They are often fashioned of solid gold (like the 
tiger and leopard illustrated in fig. 2) , being of fine scale and finished 
execution and presenting an asymmetry of design more often than 
duplicating each other. The oriental conception of dualism expressed 
in Asiatic religions and philosophy finds even here its concrete reflec- 
tion in the placing of the menuki on the hilt, in the mascidine and 
the feminine piece. 

There are other accessory pieces and moimtings, every type being 
represented, so that a student of the sword has the opportunity to exam- 
ine pieces not commonly found. The Cooper Union collection, because 
of its size — over fourteen hundred objects — and because of Mr. Stone's 
catholic appreciation born of his technical knowledge of metallurgy, 
has interesting examples from a great range of schools and provincial 
workshops. These are not limited to any one type of design or ^vork- 
manship and have been made over a period of four centuries. The 
pieces therefore afford an excellent idea of the extent of the field and 
of the growth of various lines within it, indicating a framework into 
which may be fitted a study of other examples. 

The earliest guards were made by the sword-smiths, who furnished 
the guard along with the blade. The making of the sword itself and 
everything connected with it was a matter of great moment, attended 
with religious ritual. The product ^vas revered and treasured; power- 
ful and beautiful, it represented the honor, the noble traditions, the 
spiritual and social standing of its possessor. The guard made by the 

2. E.g., -TiQ^r,-^-inQ7 

l<^^C'^->\oq q',c,>^ 263 




Figiue 3 (Full size) 

TSUBA (Top) : PcoiiN leaf and butterfly. Signed Biislnl no ju Nnbayuki, knkihcn 

Kinai School, about 1835. 

TSUBA (Bottom) : Sanfushi, a Sennin. Signed Natsuo, with a gold seal inlaid. 

Otsiiki School; Kano Natsuo, 1828-1898. 






s^vord-smith ^vas simple, of Avell-forged iron, and strictly functional. 
Designs in openwork ^vere a means of disposing the balance of weight 
of the weapon. In a s^vord guard like that illustrated in fig. 7, we can 
see ho'w hard steel, foroed as ^vere the swords for strens^th, and able to 
resist blows and fracture, was used for the fabric of early tsuba. A sur- 
face roughness was produced by the bloAvs of the hammer. Later, armor- 
makers and other craftsmen in metal devoted their efforts to making 
guards and small mounts such as the meniiki and kogai, of decorative 
and symbolic intent; eventually many schools developed with master 
artists given solely to the fabrication of sword fittings. As time went on 
and the use of the SAVord changed, softer iron was developed, ^vhich Avas 
■worked over and over on the anvil and forge until homogeneous.^ 
Smooth surfaces came to be desired and patinas were induced by vari- 
ous processes. The protective quality of a magnetic oxide of iron had 
been long utilized by the metabvorker (we use it in protective paints) 
and it no^v^ became a conscious element of color. A tsuba like the lower 
one of fig. 3 has a warm red-brown surface of luscious smoothness that 
epitomizes the cidmination of this development. By the nineteenth 
centm^y delicate chasing and inlaying reveal an incredible facility in 
the metalworker's art calculated to excite the admiration of the 
collector. 

Color is again the factor in the use of alloys. The Goto kozuka illus- 
trated in fig. 5 is of shakudd and was made by a member of the great 
Got5 line of masters who perfected the use of that gold alloy for mounts 
in the fifteenth century.^ Its deep black color is achieved by a chemical 
treatment and is a most effective foil for inlay or other combination 
with gold. In the Murakami Jochiku tsuba illustrated at the top of 
fig. 4, a foiuidation metal of silver alloy, shibuichi, is used; the quality 
of the metal is a great part of the effect of the design, a scene of Stn^uga 
harbor. It brings to us the pearly grey quality of the circumambient 
morning air, fresh and crystalline, and we see it touched to gold as 
the sun lights the sails of the boats, the trees on the shore, and the 
misty clouds about silver-cro^vned Fuji. 

If a standard of reference is desired for the range of processes of 
decorating metal either by a modification of its own surface or form, 
or by the application of one or more metals to a base metal, it may be 
found in the Stone Bequest. Carving may be in the roiuid or it may be 

3. Joly, H. L. Japanese sword-mounts : a descriptive catalogue of the collection of J. C. Ilawksliaw. 
London. 1910. p. xviii, xxii. 

4. Rucker, R. H. The Goda collection of Japanese sword fittings. New York. 1924. p. xxxvi. 

265 




Figure 4 (Full size) 

TSUBA (Top right) : Bay and village of Suruga. Signed Jochikii, kakihan. 

Murakami School, about 1755. 

TSUBA (Center left) : Hanging flower vase. Signed Busliu ju Kimihiro Isiikurii. 

Bushu School, about 1720. 

TSUBA (Bottom right) : Episode of Amaterasu O Mikami. Unsigned. 

Jakushi School, about 1700. 

- 4" 7*^7 tcj->(.-4-J-[^ 



ill relief, high, medium or low, or sunken in a scarped frame (a tech- 
nique familiar to us in Egyptian wall reliefs) .^ The careful elaboration 
of process is reflected in such terminology as: hon zogan, true inlay; 
nunome zogan, onlay on a surface roughened to hold the leaf metal; or, 
sumi zogan, dark inlay polished flat so that it gives the effect of an ink 
painting.*^ Perforating an object to provide a decorated form is familiar, 
but less so are the variations possible in ajome ^vork as indicated in our 
sword mountings.' An openwork design may actually be outlined in 
the base metal, or the motif may be completely in negative silhouette. 
Peculiarly Japanese is the use of perforation to provide delineation of 
shadoTV, a definition by outline in Avhich the inner details of form are 
blotted out. Designs may be made up of a mosaic, as it were, of small 
open^vork units as ^vell as of the forms of the motif itself. Fine thread- 
like perforations are exquisite line designs, which may combine with 
larger pierced areas to provide variation within a continuity of design 
by defining voids. (See illustration, fig. 3, of btitterfly and leaf.) 

In itself every piece can be studied from the point of view of tech- 
nique — the material employed, the processes and tools of the crafts- 
man. But inseparably bound -with the technique is the scheme of 
decoration and the motifs used which are often the starting point in 
our appreciation of an object. Subjects are legion; motifs are culled 
from every aspect of Japanese life and thought. The island empire in 
its civilization synthesizes the culture of a continent.^ The elements of 
the synthesis become patent in such a branch of the glyptic art as the 
sword mounts exemplify, and stress again the point that art presents 
germane and often unique evidence for all that men have thought and 
done and believed. A quotation from Weber's Ko-ji Ho-ten,^ which is 
here translated, may serve to indicate the "\vide range opened through a 
study of any field of Japanese art: 

It is almost always an allusion which the representations by Japanese 
artists disclose. . . . He who wishes to interpret Japanese art . . . should 
set himself to study not only the history of Japan and China, but also 
the various religions of these two countries, the religious symbolism 
and the popular superstitions, the customs, the manners and usages of 
their inhabitants, their literature, their geography, and finally a whole 
world in addition: Legend. 

5. £.(/.,- TlQ36 I jni. jr. 431. -1 9 S. •<)^&"<-r'VL -4-&i,-iS', -l*"^ 

6. E.g.. T:X9i (> 1 lOoC i . - r.?. -OJi;. KJ^t--*-- qft^. -1,1% -A^-^ 

7. E.cj., Tlia A .1 ISO , 1 6 1 , .i n S .,^14J:^ T<»'>C».^-TiX, - IC-»- , - iPO,— **•% 

8. This idea is beautifully presented in GroilsseT, ™ Lcs'mnhza'nons dc TUvicnt. Tome IV, Lc Japan. 
Paris. 1930. p. 2. 3. 

9. Weber. V.-F. "Ko-ji Ho-tcn" ; dictionnaire a I'usage des amateurs ct collcctionncurs d'objets d'art 
japonais ct cliinois. Paris, 1926. p. 8. 

267 









Figure 5 (Full size) 
SET OF KOZUKA AND MENUKi (Top) : Rokkascu, the six poetical geniuses of the ninth 

century. Signed Goto Masayasu, kakihan. Goto School, late eighteenth century. 

FUCHi-KASHiRA (Center) : Tea-ceremony utensils. Unsigned. Ishiguro School, about 1800. 

FUCHi-KASHiRA (Bottom) : An abstract design in guri-bon. Takahashi School 

of Higo Province, about 1785. 



1I!S^^3^^-?^ 






\0 



i4ai». 



Let us follow some of the allusions and symbols in the Cooper Union 
Museum pieces. In T 1936-4-96 (fig. 2) and T1936-4-36 (fig. 4) , legends 
of dragons and sun-goddesses come to life and people the prehistoric 
past of China and Japan, as Kalevala and Homer people the past of 
other lands with gods and heroes and doughty deeds. During 1940 was 
celebrated the 2600th anniversary of the founding of the Japanese 
Empire; according to legend the first of the imperial line was Jimmu- 
Tenno in 660 B.C. The great-grandmother of Jimmu-Tenno was 
Amaterasu-O-Mikami the "Heaven-Shiner," and on a tsuba in fig. 4 
we see the rays of her presence shining forth, as the stone closing the 
cave where she has been hiding is pushed away. To Amaterasu-O- 
Mikami is dedicated a temple at Ise, great Shinto shrine site. 

An important time in Japan's history was that of Toyotomi Hide- 
yoshi ^vho rose to triumph over the warring fetidal lords. ^*^ A guard 
shows a press of warriors, a scene during the Taiko Hideyoshi's expedi- 
tion to Korea in 1593-1598, indicated by Korean and Japanese banners. 
The tsuba illustrated in fig. 7 is signed: "Nobuiye made this for Kino- 
shita Kun," the latter the name which Hideyoshi took when he started 
his military career, and ^vhich was changed again on his accession to 
po^ver. The guard bears an incised design of the Taiko' s three-guard 
crest and the kiri paulonia, ^vith a poem on the reverse indicating his 
despotic disposition: "If you do not sing I will force you to, O Cuckoo." 

Centuries before Hideyoshi, literary history was made by the six 
great poets of the ninth century who appear on the set of fig. 5. Four 
are on the kozuka and one — to the left the lady Ono no Komachi — 
on each of the menuki. Ladies might devote themselves to music in the 
great medieval courts; the beauteous Kogo no Tsubone plays the koto, 
a sort of harp (pictured on the kogai in fig. 1) , while the courtier 
Minamoto Nakakuni on a dappled steed, listens and recognizes her 
touch (on the matching kozuka) . 

Buddhism, especially that of the Zen sect, influential with the mili- 
tary class since it emphasized simplicity and contemplation, came from 
China, as did the deities and figures of indigenous Chinese belief. 
Among the latter are the Sennin, immortal ascetics of popular super- 
stition. One of them, Sanfushi, sails on his umbrella, with hair and gar- 
ments blowing in the sea breeze, on the lower guard of fig. 3. The foxes' 
wedding depicted on the knife handle (fig. 7) , charms us with the 
skillful use of shakudo inlay for the forms of the foxes at night, guided 

10. Papinot, E. Dictionnaire d'histoire et dc geographic du Japan. Tokyo [1906]. 

269 












JU.4-C57 




Figure 6 (Full size) 

MENUKt (Pair, top) : Dragon-Hies. Signed Mitsu-nagn. Kwanjo, 1612-1653, 

founder of the Goto Hachirobei line. 

TSUBA (Center) : Rice sheaves. Kinai School, about 1700. 

KOZUKA (Bottom) : Cormorant fishing. Ishiguro School, about 1750. 



/1c, i'.->; 



?' 



by the lantern ^vhich gleams in copper; it recalls still prevalent beliefs 
in superhuman powers of the fox and in fox possession. 

Manifestations of national culture and customs come to view: in a 
fuclii-kashira illustrated, the tea ceremony is indicated by a tea pot and 
other lUensils; in T 1936-4- 14, the No drama by three figures from the 
episode of Yorimasa; in a tsiiba illustrated, the love of plum and cherry 
blossoms, the guard being in the shape of a hanging bamboo holder in 
which a spray of prunus blossom is arranged. Cormorant fishing arid 
rice culture are each the subject of many examples (fig. 6) . They recall 
the centuries-long national economy in which fish was the staple of an 
island people and kokii of rice the unit of income and taxes. Mention 
should be made of the sense of humor of the artists which so often dic- 
tates the handling of even religious subjects. 

"After a painting by" reads more than one inscription, and metal- 
^vork styles have been directly derived from painters of the Kano school. 
Limitless prospects and magic mountains appear to be inspired by 
canons of Chinese landscape painting.^^ Often the artist is stimulated 
not only by painting, but by textures and patterns in other fields to 
exploit the capacities of his hand and his material. Thus brocade fig- 
ures find an echo in such a piece as T 1936-4-941, or T 1936-4-3 18 ^vith 
a typical old design for the obi or sash. In turn textile designers turned 
to metal work, patterns being freely exchanged. Straw bags and baskets 
of bamboo and surfaces of leather are echoed in hammer and chisel 
techniques.^- 

Though powdered ornament is more proper to the field of textile 
and similar arts, the units for powderings employed by a designer might 
well be enriched by the study of units in both abstract and nature- 
derived designs in the s^vord-guards. In them the design is encom- 
passed ^vithin round or lobed outlines, or shapes inspired by the decora- 
tion, as that of a peach. ^^ The guri-bori pieces, so-called because the 
appearance suggests that of guri lacquer, have abstract designs of curv- 
ing lines cut into the metal in V section (illustration fig. 5) . The curv- 
ing incisions exhibit to best advantage the exceedingly precise -^vork- 
manship, ^vhich consists of brazing together a number of fine sheets 
in alternate layers of different metals, and then treating ^vith acid to 
bring out various colors. Technique and decorative motif are each 
conceived in terms of the other. 

11. £.g.,- .Ti9:;6-4-57 , -\<^»C-4-»-7i ^ , /• - 

12. E.g., T 1936 1 11, SS, 17S ,. ^ S£J^. • Q"^(.- f -(ffO"^ ^ -5'OS'j - i-S o ^ ->W> 

13. £.g., T1936 '1 567. |g»C -^.-g-f >. . 

271 




^fw ^^^rr^ 




Figure 7 (Full size) 

TSUBA (Top) : Kiri paulonia and three-gourd crest. On reverse a poem. Signed Kiiioshita 

kiiii no koiionii iii oji Kosliii jii Xobuiye. Miochin School; Nobuiye, 1486-1564. 

KOziKA (Bottom') : Foxes' wedding, at night. Signed Morisadn hori. Katsuki family, 

Morisada \", about 1780. 




\q^(.'^ 



->U^ AMd^rtT^- f^^' 



A sj)ider's web seen in the shadows of leaves, or swung into a patch 
ofc light by a little breeze, calls forth a participation from us when our 
inner eye completes the silken circumference and the mesh of filaments 
which we see actually only in part. In the same way the Japanese artist 
delights us by indicating an all-over pattern by patches enriching the 
surface. ^^ The design is presented but our power of visualization has 
been called into play while our eyes are unwearied. 

We are challenged to augment the range of designs derived from 
three-dimensional forms by those which four dimensions inspire. They 
suggest dynamic aspects, movement of forms occurring in time. Such 
are the turning of pairs of wheels which suggested the simple motif of 
T1936-4-391; the blowing of blossoms by the wind with the swirling 
ttmible of chrysanthemums indicated by the parallel arcs and the stem- 
less flowers (T 1936-4-548, illustrated in fig. 2) ; the whirling snow of 
T 1936-4- 107 with snowflake crystals and the spirals of little eddies re- 
solved into inlay patterns. 

Flowers and insects with their delicate forms appeal particularly to 
the Japanese artist and appear in countless variations which reveal a 
loving delight in natural objects. In fig. 3 butterfly and peony leaf are 
formalized and suggestive, and skillfully placed to carry the eye in an arc 
from the upper right, down and around to the lower left of the guard. 

"The art motives all have a rationale, either in actual reason — as 
^vhen the pine tree and bamboo, as evergreen, appropriately symbolize 
a long life, to which is added the plum-blossom for beauty, making a 
lucky triad; or in idea, such as that which constantly associated the lion 
and peony, because the former is the king of beasts, the latter the king 
of flowers; or else in history or legend, or in unalterable convention . . . 
The Japanese . . . decoration is organic." ^-^ 

Almost every one of the designs gives that sense of an opened ^vindow 
through which we may see a vista; the visual stimulus is a starting point 
for a train of conscious and unconscious associations. As in any form 
of oriental art, we learn to seek the inner meanings, to follow through 
the suggestions, and thus participate in the artist's creation and in 
oriental life. For the program of special exhibitions in the Museum 
galleries for the year 1941-1942, it is planned to include a showing of 
a large part of the Stone Bequest. The visitor may then have the oppor- 
tunity to discover for himself the greatness in these little objects of 
decorative metahvork. ^^^^^^^ ^ Sterling 

14. E.d., T 1936 '1 105 0. The same device can be seen in textiles, e.g.. 1937-69-4. 

15. Chamberlain, B. H. Things Japanese. 5th ed. London. 1905. p. 54. 

273 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1940^ 



Mrs. Alphaeus Albert 

Anonymous (2) 

The Associated Button Corporation 

Mrs. William Bamberger 

Mrs. Frank Bender 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Abram M. Blumberg 

John Burton Brimer 

The Brooks Costume Company 

Mrs. Harold Brown 

Mrs. George Cane 

Mrs. Maurice Cassalis 

The Catalin Corporation of America 

Miss Mabel Choate 

Mr. and Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Mrs. Charles Suydam Cutting 

Baroness Alma Dahlerup 

James Davis 

Harry de Pauer 

Miss Marion P. Dickie 

Mrs. Tad Dorgan 

Elisha Dyer 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Mrs. J.J. Fitzgerald 

Mrs. Hollis French 

The Friends of the Museum Fund 

Miss Virginia Gerson 

Mrs. Frederic Saltonstall Gould 

Mrs. Carola R. Green 

Jack V. Greenberg 

Miss Marian Hague 

William Hardy, Inc. 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Mrs. Edward E. Harkavy 

Samuel C. Harriman 

Miss Alice K. Harvey 



Mrs. Childe Hassam 
William Heimann 
Charles F. Hinternhoff 
Miss Ada C. Hudson 
Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 
Samuel L. Israel 
Johnson and Faulkner, Inc. 
Miss Beatrice Kates 
Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 
Mrs. Harry S. Koopman 
Miss Joan Koopman 
Mrs. Agnes M. Kremer 
Miss Estelle Lightbourne 
Mrs. Carl E. Lincoln 
Mayorkas Brothers 
Mrs. Stafford McLean 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. Robert Monks 
Syncellus L. Mount 
John F. Neukirchen 
Thomas A. Newman 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim 

in memory of Laurent Oppenheim 
Miss Katharine de Berkeley Parsons 
Miss B. L. Raetzer 
Mrs. Bentley F. Ramsdell 
Miss Elisa Akerly Richardson 
Mrs. Edward Robinson 
Paul W. Scherbner 

The Scovill Mantifacturing Company 
Mrs. Rollin Stickle 
Miss Helen S. Stone 
Stroheim and Romann 
Miss Grace Lincoln Temple 
J. H. Thorp and Co., Inc. 



1 The customary classified list of objects received during the year will be published in the next issue of 
the Chronicle. 



274 



Miss Edythe Tiffany 
Ernest F. Tyler 
Mrs. Ernest Gunther Vietor 
The Misses Wallace 
Miss Louise Walter 
Mrs. Robertson Ward 



Mrs. Thomas Dudley Webb 
Mrs. Clarence Webster 
Mrs. Hamilton Fish Webster 
Herbert Weissberger 
Miss Edith Wetmore 
Miss D. Lorraine Yerkes 



Mary Hearn Greims 
McDougall Hawkes 



PURCHASES 

in Memory of 

The Misses Hewitt 
Peter Cooper Hewitt 
Mrs. Richard Irvin 



DONORS TO THE LIBRARY, 1940 



Addison Gallery ol American Art 

A. Algara R. de Terreros 

William Dangaix Allen 

Koichi Asahina 

Myron H. Avery 

Dr. Rudolf Berliner 

Miss Therese Berry 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Miss Therese Bonney 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts 

British Library of Information 

Brooklyn Museum 

Dr. Edwin Sharp Burdell 

Enrique A. Cervantes 

Ciba Company 

Mrs. De Witt Clinton Cohen 

Miss Elizabeth Coit 

Consulate General of Ireland 

John J. Corell 

Country Life (American) 

Miss Pauline Cronon 

Carl C. Dauterman 

Miss Adelade Milton De Groot 

Harry De Pauer 

Elisha Dyer 



Eugene Ettenberg 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Justino Fernandez 

Miss Mary Fife 

Prof. S. L. Freeman 

Georg Jensen, Inc. 

George Walter Vincent Smith Gallery 

Miss Mary Gibson 

Miss Eleanor Hague 

Miss Marian Hague 

Miss Lea Halpern 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Miss Elizabeth Haynes 

Dr. Annemarie Henle 

Mrs. AVilliam Hindley 

Hispanic Society of America 

H. Maxson Holloway 

Miss Mary C. Howell 

Mrs. Lucy E. Hubbel 

Instituto de Investigaciones Esteticas 

International Business Machines Co., Inc. 

Japan Reference Library 

John Herron Art Museum 

D. C. Judson 



275 



Mrs. Gerald R. Kaufman Mrs. Nathaniel B. Potter 

Kende Galleries, Inc. Robert Hamilton Rucker 

Fiske Kimball Mrs. Angiolina Scheuermann 

Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai Shell Oil Company 

Miss Joan Koopman Mrs. Nelson Sprackling 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Clinton Landsberg Edward Stern & Co., Inc. 

Francis Lenygon Walter Rendell Storey 

Los Angeles County Museum Mary Stuart Book Fund 

Mrs. Stafford McLean Mijj Qr«cr jyiHiam A. Swallow 

Paul McPharlin Liv«coIm1<m»pU ^^^^^ Gertrude Townsend 

Mrs. Walter S. McPherson Trustees' Book Fund 

Malmo Museum U. S. National Bureau of Standards 

Henry Oothout Milliken University of Pittsburgh 

J. Clifford Milliken Daniel Berkeley Updike 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes William Walenta 

Oglethorpe University Wallpaper Manufacturers, Ltd. 

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. Herbert Weissberger 

Phillips Memorial Gallery Miss Edith Wetmore 

DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1940 

Anonymous Louis Ginsburg 

Elisha Dyer Mrs. Harry S. Koopman 

Rev. Joseph M. Egan Mrs. Stafford McLean 

Stephen G. C. Ensko Miss Edith Wetmore 

VOLUNTEER WORKERS, 1940 

Elisha Dyer Miss Serbella Moores 

John Judkyn Jose B. Rios 

Robert Hamilton Rucker 



276 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 



Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen 



Mrs. Robert Woods Bhss 
Starling W. Childs 



Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 
Charles E. Sampson 



Mrs. Stafford McLean 



BENEFACTORS 

Mrs. A. Miuray Young 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Miss Adelade Milton de Groot 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
Charles E. Sampson 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 

Miss Edith W^etmore 
Miss Maude Wetmore 

SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 



Anton Bailer 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 

Mrs. Henry Belin du Pont 

Miss Florence S. Dustin 

Mr. and Mrs. Elisha Dyer 

Mrs. Edwin Gould 

Mrs. Frederic Saltonstall Gould 

Miss Marian Hague 

Charles Bain Hoyt 

Mrs. Oliver Gould Jennings 

Mrs. Henry Langford 

Miss Harriet Marple 



Mrs. William R. Mercer 
Count Alexandre Orlowski 
Miss Katharine de Berkeley Parsons 
Miss Helen S. Stone 
Mrs. Herman Foster Stone 
Miss Emily Tobias 
Mrs. John B. Trevor 
Mrs. Ernest G. Victor 
Carl Otto von Kienbusch 
Mrs. Clarence Webster 
Miss Gertrude Whiting- 
Henry D. Williams 
Mrs. A. Murray Young 



LeRoy M. Backus 
Mrs. Stephen Bonsai 
Mrs. Adolphe Borie 
Rowland Burdon-Muller 
Mrs. Nicholas Murray Butler 
Miss Emily H. Chauncey 



Miss Margaret Kenneth Clinton 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 

Mrs. Edward B. Cole 

Mrs. Polly de Steiguer Crummett 

Baron Maurice Voruz de Vaux 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Mrs. Frederick W. Ells 

Miss Alice Sanders Erskine 

H. Russell Far j eon 



277 



Miss Heniiette J. Fuchs 
Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 
Mrs. Edward S. Harkness 
Mrs. Ladirop Colgate Harper 
William W. Heer 
Miss Frances H. Ives 
Frederic R. King 
Mrs. Warren E. Kinney 
Mrs. Agnes Kremer 
Wilmarth S. Lewis 
Mrs. Harriet T. Lindeberg 
Robert W. Macbeth* 
Roger W. MacLaughlin 
Mrs. Henry Tobin Maury 
Joseph M. May 
Miss Nancy V. McClelland 
Robert T. McKee 



Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. Douglas M. Moffat 
Ex Norton 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 
Mrs. Robert H. Patterson* 
John De Witt Peltz 
Miss Meta A. Peper 
Miss Clara A. Pfeiffer 
Mrs. James H. Post 
Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 
Mrs. Edward Robinson 
Joseph D. Rynars 
Dr. Otto Steinbrocker 
Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 
Walter M. Walters 
Malcolm Whitaker 



Deceased. 



Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Miss Marian Hague 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
Miss Edith Wetmore 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following 
classes of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute 1 1,000 or more 

Life Members who contribute I500 or more 

Sustaining Members .... who contribute $100 annually 

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278 



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CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 





STAGE design: \ SIKM 1. PROBABLY ROME, ABOUT 1 68o. SEE I'M.E 297. 



AUGUST . 1941 



, STAGE design: \ SIRM 1. 1 

VOL • I -^NO • 8 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

T RU S TEES 

Gano Dunn^ President 
J. P. Morgan 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 

OFFICERS 

Edwin S. Burdell^ Director 
Robert Winthrop^, Treasurer 
Edward L. Rehm, Secretary 



Albert S. M^right, Counsel 

John R. Safford, Superintendent of Buildings 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Mrs. Stafford McLean, Chairman 

Elisha Dyer 

John D. Gordan 

Miss Marian Hague 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

STAFF 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 



Copyright, 1941, by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 8 AUGUST • 1941 



"pnoR the first time since the Chronicle was begun, in 1935, it is 
-^ possible this year to issue two numbers. The earlier, published 
in April, gave an introduction to the George Cameron Stone 
Bequest of Japanese sword mountings, in the light of information 
assembled throtigh the devoted voliniteer assistance of Mr. Stone's 
friend, Mr. Robert Hamilton Rucker, with the collaboration of 
Messrs. Jose B. Rios, Randolph Bullock and Gusuke Kobayashi. 
The present number contains a detailed examination of the 
Musetim's rich collection of stage designs, which are now on dis- 
play, many for the first time. 

It is to be hoped that the information here presented, some of 
it in directions hitherto little explored, will appeal to the growing 
interest in stage design of earlier centuries and ^vill indicate to old 
and new friends alike the pre-eminence of the Museum's collections. 



283 




■"Srw't 



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'^/'H\ 









^1 



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^ ^ 



2 ^ 



^ 



THE STAGE DESIGNS 
OF THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 



THE NATURE OF STAGE DESIGNS AND OF THIS COLLECTION 



The Museum possesses about lour hun- 
dred and fifty stage designs produced by 
Italian or, in a much smaller number, by 
French and German artists between 1637 
and 1875, most of which are original draw- 
ings, while some are early reproductions. A 
few drawings and all the copies came to the 
Museimi at various times as gifts of mem- 
bers of the Hewitt family. Most of the other 
drawings were formerly in the collection of 
the curator of the Borghese Gallery in 
Rome, Giovanni Piancastelli (1845-1926) , 
and were acquired in 1901 and 1938. A great 
part of the collection consists of drawings 
by artists who worked in Rome, in Naples 
and farther south in Italy. It is especially 
fortunate that this j^edigree will throw light 
upon developments of stage design in Rome 
and Naples, which are deeply obscure. 1 

Mariani has opposed the attempt to de- 
fine local schools of Italian stage designs, 
and not without some foundation; for the 
activities of most of the great decorators 
were spread over wide areas of Europe.2 
The rule had exceptions, however, and 
drawings can sometimes for external or in- 
ternal reasons be attributed to a definite 
school even if the design is not limited in 
character to the qualities of a single centre 
of production. The modes of drawing prac- 
ticed during the eighteenth century, for ex- 
ample in the Bolognese school of quadra- 
turisti — perspective painters — or by the 



architects of Rome, are very different from 
each other and can be easily distinguished. 
A large jDioportion of stage designs can be 
attributed to a particular Italian school, 
though a given drawing might have been 
executed elsewhere in Europe by a designer 
trained in Italy. But when the artist added 
a scale with the measurements current in 
Rome, for example, the design was intended 
for execution there or in the neighborhood. 

It is not always possible to ascertain be- 
yond doubt that a sjaecific design was made 
for theatrical use. Scenic art was inti- 
mately connected with a fashionable kind of 
pictorial rejaresentation, that of perspec- 
tives, for more than a hundred years after 
1700, and repeatedly exerted such fascina- 
tion upon artists during the eighteenth cen- 
tury that manners of representation were 
influenced by it. For this reason, examples 
of free and applied art of this period are 
sometimes indistinguishable. 

The sequence from the first project of the 
stage designer to the actual setting was a 
long one. The individual drawings are in 
some instances more or less rough sketches 
for developing the artist's conceptions, or 
for the use of some one familiar with his 
work. Others, on the contrary, are ex- 
tremely elaborate and detailed, as though 
intended to prove the designer's ability, or 
to enable a layman to grasp the significance 
of the developed set. Some also originated 



1 Throughout the present article, only exceptional references are made to those books which are indispensable 
in dealing with the subject: Alessandro Ademollo, I teatri di Roma nel Seicento, Rome, 1888; Benedetto 
Croce, / tcalri di NapoU, Naples, 1891 (second edition, Bari, 1916) ; Giulio Ferrari, La scenografia, Milan, 
1902 ; Pompeo Cambiasi, La Scala, Milan and New York, 1906 ; Giulia de Dominicis, I teatri di Roma 
nell'eta di Pio VI, in Archivio delta R. Societd Romana di Storia patria, Rome, 1922, vol. A6, p. 49 ff ; Paul 
Zucker, Die Theaterdekoration des Barock ; Die Theaterdekoration des Klassizismus, both Berlin, 1925; 

"Corrado Ricci, La scenografia italiana, Milan, 1930; Valerio Ma.na.ni~^ Storia delta scenografia italiana, 
Florence, 1930 ; Roger-Armand Weigert, Jean I Berain, Paris, 1937; Allardyce Nicoll, The devetopnient of 
the Theatre, London, 1937; Alberto Cametti, // Teatro di Tordinone, poi di Apollo, Tivoli, 1938 ; Thieme- 
Becker, Kuenstlertexikon, Leipsic, 1907-1939, and George Freedley and John A. Reeves, A history of the 
Theatre, New York, 1941. I found Hans Tintelnot, Barocktheater und barocke Kunst, Berlin, 1939, useful 
only for its illustrations. 

I am much indebted to Professor Allardyce Nicoll for making easily accessible the opportunities offered by 
the Rockefeller Theatre Collection of Yale University. I have discussed the most important of my problems 
with Franz Rapp, at present at Yale, and owe much to him for the light that he has cast on the subject. 
Calvin S. Hathaway has helped so much with the preparation of the article that it has become half his work. 

2 Valerio Mariani, Storia delta scenografia italiana, Florence, 1930, p. 61 fif. 

285 




>,«-n| 




5 

ft ^ 

6 ^ 



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as a mere exercise or as models lor repro- 
duction in engra\ings. The influential 
Antonio Basoli in Bologna (1774-1848) 
made or had made under his supervision 
several versions of the same drawing, au- 
thenticating them at least in his later period 
by a stamp with his name.3 

Projects frequently present alternative 
suggestions, leaving the choice to whoever 
might be responsible for a final decision. 
They show often only one half, or a little 
more, of a symmetrical set (Fig. 7) . 

It is a reasonable critical principle to ac- 
cept ostensibly authentic signatures on 
draAvings, and unsuspicious attributions to 
obscure artists, since the drawings are in- 
vested Avith small commercial value or pride 
of ownership. There were many more stage 
designers than are recorded now, and the 
custom of lavishly and indiscriminately at- 
tributing stage designs of the eighteenth 
century to one of the famous members of 
the Bibiena family ought to be discon- 
tinued. As investigation of the history of 
stage design began but recently, astonish- 
ingly little precise information is at present 
available about most details during the 
period represented by the draAvings in the 
Museum. 

The individual stage design from 1700 to 
about 1830 may be considered more or less 
conservative in comparison Avith the de- 
velopment in representational or decorative 
arts. It is frequently safe to assume that 
a design is later in date than it looks Avhen 
judged from the standards of other art 
forms. 

Stage design is concerned ^sith the trans- 
formation of a part of the stage into an 
imaginary, make-believe locality. The en- 
closing sides do not need to be actually con- 
tinuous, but they should create the impres- 
sion of one continuous space and must con- 
ceal disturbing elements outside the sets. 
The entire period ^vith ^vhich ^ve have to 
deal knew the stage ^vith side-^vings and 
upper hangings, of basically the type still 
familiar today. 

The modern art of stage design began as 



a highly sophisticated product, imbued with 
the classical inclinations of Italian culture 
in the sixteenth century. The theatrical re- 
formers of that period aimed not at a sub- 
limation of the jDopular stage but at the 
revival of the antique drama. The results, 
however, were original: the creation of the 
art-form of the opera, a play with music, 
with much shoAV and ballet, and of the mod- 
ern stage. Already in the \ery first theatre 
erected by Andrea Palladio with the inten- 
tion of emulating the classical ones, the 
Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, the stage as- 
sumed an unclassical aspect, in 1584, when 
^'incenzo Scamozzi became the supervising 
architect. The back -^vall of the Roman stage 
Avas ordinarily a richly decorated archi- 
tectural structure Avhich was permanently 
shown, whether or not it fitted the indi- 
vidual play. 

Such indifference to realism Avas not in 
line with the stylistic principles of the ar- 
tistic theatre prevailing from the late six- 
teenth up to the nineteenth centuries, -which 
demanded a unified make-believe room. 
HoAvever, the decoration of the antique 
back ivall influenced that of the fore-part of 
the modern stage, of the proscenium, ^vhich 
became of great importance. The framing 
of the stage, it was felt, should agree with 
the character of the setting and ser\e as a 
transition to the decoration of the audi- 
torium. The proscenium arch ivas occasion- 
ally redecorated according to the specific 
conditions of certain performances.^ As the 
arch served also as a frame for the curtain 
when drawn, the draper)- motif earlv gained 
an important role in the decoration of the 
framing. Projects of stage designs often indi- 
cate its presence by ignoring those portions 
of the set ^vhich \vould be concealed l>v the 
proscenium arch (Fig. 5) . 

The designs with \vhich ^ve are concerned 
provide for a painted back-cloth at the back 
of the imaginary room. Up to the end of the 
seventeenth century the back-cloth ^vas in 
one piece, disposed at a \arying distance 
from the back wall of the stage, or actuallv 
against it. In the first years of the eighteenth 



3 1938-88-434 and -435 are such drawings in the Museum. 

4 The Museum possesses a project for the decoration of a proscenium, 1650-1675, (-108). A stage design 
with a Palace court and f^ods upon clouds (-114), Mantua, 1650-1660, shows several suggestions for the 
form of the proscenium (illustrated. Fig. 1). 



287 



century came the discovery that the effect 
of tlie painting could be strengtliened by a 
staggering of the units of the set, in which 
the backdrop miglit be divided into several 
portions. In this way a corner or a curved 
wall could be formed by the position of the 
sets; consequently the number of elements 
was considerably increased. A setting of a 
palace hall in the Teatro Tordinone in 
Rome in 1768 consisted of t\\'enty-nine 
pieces. 

Sometimes, especially in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, a drawing will 
clearly indicate the separation of various 
elements, which would be painted sepa- 
rately as side-wings and set pieces (Fig. 9). 
These drawings and those of isolated side- 
wings and set pieces will be most easily 
recognizable as stage designs.5 But many de- 
signs did not need to present such clarity 
and some may represent only a simple back- 
droja. As a matter of fact, in the late eigh- 
teenth century the backdrop assumed a still 
greater importance than it previously pos- 
sessed; ^vhen it immistakably defined the lo- 
cality, the design of the wings ^vas implicitly 
included in it. But it was not infrequently 
used \sath unmatching side-wings, a custom 
which led occasionally in the second quarter 
of the nineteenth century to a neutral deco- 
ration of the wings repeating that of the 
proscenium arch. 6 

Dining the period under discussion, inter- 
est in the theatre was so widespread that it 
could not be satisfied entirely by public the- 
atres, although in the larger cities several 
theatres would be in operation, and in the 
largest cities more than one opera house. 
Private theatres, more or less easily accessible 
at least to sections of the public, were much 
in vogue up to the late eighteenth century, 
not only in the palaces of the wealthy but 
in many houses barely able to afford them. 
Besides these, there were the theatres of 
the monasteries, prior to the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and those of educational foundations. 



Stages erected as permanent or temporary 
fittings in rooms of such buildings were 
more likely to conform to the proportions of 
those rooms, with the result that an aston- 
ishing number of stage designs of the late 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries pro- 
vide for a make-believe room of a greater 
height than width, although this proportion 
^vas directly opposite to that customary in 
the larger public theatres of the time. 

The settings of puppet theatres did not 
differ essentially from those of other the- 
atres. In some cities, especially in Rome 
with its very strict censorship, it was some- 
times necessary to substitute puppet per- 
formances for those with li\ing actors.^ 
Even life-size puppets were used. 

Funds for the public theatres were pro- 
vided by private individuals or associations, 
or by government agencies which ^vere often 
generous in this respect. EsjDecially during 
the second quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury the town governments in the Papal 
States were sufficiently affluent to subsidize 
theatrical performances.S Most theatres, par- 
ticularly during the latter half of our pe- 
riod, had their own stock of settings, but in 
many cases the theatrical companies also 
provided their own. 

It ranks among the most important rea- 
sons for the flowering of the European ap- 
plied arts in past centuries that, as a ride, 
invention was left to minds of creative 
po^ver and execution to competent hands. 
The painted execution of projects in actual 
sets was usually the work of the specialists, 
the quadraturisti, who were supposed cor- 
rectly and quickly to paint complicated per- 
spective representations. Scene-painting ^vas 
an especially difficult task of this profession 
on account of the distribution of one uni- 
fied construction among sets scattered in the 
space. For reasons of speed it was not often 
possible to use the schemes that the text- 
books recommended. Experience had largely 
to supply the mathematical construction, 



5 The Museum possesses one project for a separate section of a backdrop representing a Port, 1700-1725 
(-7431). Several drawings ranging from the late seventeenth century to about 1775 are concerned with side- 
wings; -9, -1044 to -1046, -7442, -3443, -466, -3652, -66. The last shows a Fountain and a tree intended 
to be cut out in silhouette, a custom still opposed in 1780. 

6 G. Morazzoni, La Scala attraverso I'ivimagine, Milan, 1928, pi. XX. 

"^ Women were rigorously excluded from the stage and the prohibition in Deuteronomy 22, v. 5 could be 

interpreted to prevent their replacement by men. 

s G. Pasolini-Zanelli, 11 teatro di Faenza, Faenza, 1888, p. 63. 



289 




FIGURE 4. CELESTIAL PALACE. ROME. ABOUT 1 7OO. SEE PACE 299. 



which ah\a\s had the drawback, of Hmita- 
tion to one predetermined standpoint for 
the beholder. But the lines of vision of the 
spectators in a theatre are widely protracted, 
and many see in distortion what is correct 
for a few. In this respect, also, experience 
supplied ajjpropriate compromises ^vith 
theory. 

Landscape settings like an open coinitry 
or a ^vood required a rather special knowl- 
edge not possessed by the usual painters of 
perspectives. A specialization in landscape 
settings must have been necessary from the 
beginning, although it did not permit the 
formation of a separate profession. It was 
rarelv possible for a theatrical painter to 
make a living from it, and usually this work 
was carried out by painters of landscape 
^\ho had otherwise no regular connection 
with stage design. The same condition pre- 
\ailed for figiue-painting in settings.'' 

Stage designing in Italy was in the main, 
up to the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, the task of those able to serve simul- 
taneously as chief engineer. The fame of the 
great scenic artists was in reality primarily 
connected with their engineering accom- 
plishments, especially in the seventeenth 
century, none of \vhose great stage designers 
can be supposed to have actually painted 
the scenes, or even to have cared much 
about their details. Giacomo Torelli (1604- 
1678) , one of the most famous theatrical 
engineers of his period, came to Paris \\hen 
Cardinal Mazarin wished to modernize the 
French stage, and stayed there until 1661.1*' 
He wrote in the libretto of La Finta Pazza 
hy Giulio Strozzi (which was his first work 
in Paris, staged in 1645) , that the engraver 
had misimderstood details of the sketches 
after ivhich he worked. Whatever the na- 
ture of the sketches by Torelli, they could 
not possibly be as clear and workmanlike as 
dra^vings related to his settings pro\e to 
have been. Certainly, sketches so imclear 
that Stefano della Bella misimderstood 



them, needed an intermediary drawing to 
be executed in large size, if they were to be 
of use to a scene painter. 

One may doubt that an artist like Jean 
I Berain (1640-1711) , "greater as decorator 
than as mechanist," as the Swedish Minister 
ill Paris, Cronstrom, calls him in 1703, 
would have reached an equal eminence as 
stage designer in Italy as he did in Paris. 
There he held from 1680 to his death the 
office of Dessinateur de la Chambre et du 
Cabinet du Roi, ^vhich entitled him to fur- 
nish the stage designs for the royal French 
institutions, with some hundred projects for 
the Academie Royale de Musique alone. 
I use the term "furnish" because the stand- 
ards of the period did not require that he 
invent e\'erything himself. Berain was essen- 
tially a decorator, and it is small wonder 
that his contemporaries u'ere struck by the 
decorative richness of his scenes. But it 
seems hazardous to attribute to him the 
mastery of landscape painting; he must have 
left to the specialists the detailed projecting 
of landscape settings, other than park 
scenes. It will be safe to attribute to Berain 
no more than the sketching of the general 
idea of such sets. That the invention is 
claimed for him in the captions of the en- 
graved reproductions is a business matter, 
and by no means implies that he actually 
executed an idea ^vhich had been entirely 
his. The necessity of intermediary work- 
manlike dra^vings is highly probable for 
Berain's landscape sets. 

The discussion in the last two paragraphs 
is pertinent to one of the nrost interesting 
groups of stage designs in the Museum. 
Miss Sarah Cooper Hewitt bought in Paris, 
and gave in 1930, a volume (now separated) 
of nineteenth-century binding, which con- 
tained twenty-one large "drawings," as I 
may call them for the moment. Twenty are 
stage designs representing nineteen scenes. 
The details of the technique of these "draw- 
ings" are not yet entirely clear. n It consisted 



9 Despite early theoretical objections, figures occasionally were painted on the sets, and even "acted." 

10 The bibliography in Thieme-Becker omits the important article on "Giacomo Torelli a Parigi" in 7^ 
Rassegiia Musicale, Turin, 1928, vol. 1, p. 573 ff., by Andre Tessier. 

11 Tessier deals with them, loc. cit., as drawings. Weigert has a somewhat obscure description of the 
technique, vol. 2, p. 8. Henry Bouchot's Catalogue de Dessins relalifs a I' histoire du Theatre . . . au 
departement des estampes de la Bihliotheque Nationale (offprint from Revue des Bibliotheques, 1895 ff. ) , 
mentions several ''contre-epreuves d' un dessin," p. 50 ff. Joseph Meder, Die Handzeichnung, second edition, 
Vienna, 1923, deals with counter-proofs on p. 538 ff. 



291 




m^^^. 







in making counter-proofs of black crayon 
drawings and in drawing over them when 
necessary, as would be the case after a few 
copies had been made. The crayon used 
may have been a greasy one and either the 
paper on which the original drawing was 
made or, more probably, the paper of the 
counter-proofs was impregnated with a so- 
lution which increased its absorptiveness.l2 
For the dra\ving-oyer Chinese ink ^vas ordi- 
narily used, applied in short strokes, and 
sometimes a grey pigment. 

These counter-proofs are apparently iden- 
tical in character with a great stock which 
is now dispersed into various collections, 
mostly public, of Paris and Versailles. It 
formed a part of the records of the adminis- 
tration of the royal theatres scattered dur- 
ing the Revolution; ajDparently the tech- 
nique was originated by the administration 
and was exclusively in use there. It fur- 
nished a convenient means of sujaplying 
duplicate copies of designs to the various 
divisions of personnel concerned with a 
performance. 

Berain could not have executed the actual 
drawings reproduced in these counter- 
proofs, for we are informed, again by the 
S^vedish Minister, of the procedures he used 
in making his theatrical designs and in sup- 
plying the denrands for copies up to as late 
as 1696. From this source we learn that 
Berain did not use this technique for him- 
self as a private person. Although some of 
the counter-proofs in the Museum are too 
feeble to allow in themselves for a judg- 
ment about the originals from which they 
are taken, it can be stated that the dra^vings 
^vere excellently drawn ^vith the clarity nec- 
essary for ^vorking drawings. Probably three 
different designers are recognizable as au- 
thors of originals, two as those of the dra^v- 
ing-over. Irrespective of the designs they 
represent, the drawings and counter-proofs 
belong in the same school and period — 
France, 1670-1710. It can only be guessed 
\vhy earlier designs were included: for their 
intrinsic value for the theatrical artists, but 
possibly also for revivals unknown at 



present. 

At least six of the counter-proofs in the 
Museum represent settings which have been 
published in engravings: The Inferno, de- 
vised in 1637 '^y tl^s architect Alfonso Parigi 
(died in 1656) , for Le Nozze degli Dei by 
Marc Antonio di Zanobi da Gagliano and 
companions, and engraved by Stefano della 
Bella;i3 Gladiatorial games, devised by G. 
Torelli, for Le Nozze di Peleo e Teti, exe- 
cuted by Francois Francar (about 1625- 
1672), and engraved after his drawings by 
Israel Silvestre; Hercules approaches Hades, 
devised in 1661 by Ferdinando Tacca (1619- 
1686) , for scene 2 of act III of Ercole in 
Tebe by Jacopo Melani, and engraved by 
Valerio Spada. Three reproduce designs of 
Berain used for the title engravings of 
libretti: a Valley luith a stream, devised in 
1683 for the Trebuchement de Phaeton 
by Jean-Baptiste Lully (Weigert 196) ; an 
Avenue in a park, devised in 1685 for scene 
5 of act IV of La Fureur de Roland by Lidly 
(W. 133) ; and a Rocky coast, devised in 
1686 for Acis et Galathee by Lully (W. 137) . 
Of the remaining designs one represents the 
Celestial garden ivith Venus, devised by 
Berain in 1700 for scene 4 of act II of 
Hesione by Andre Campra. Another was 
probably devised also by Berain: an Avenue 
of fountains leading to a rocky arch with a 
vieiu out to the sea, luith Poseidon approach- 
ing; 1680-1690. T^vo designs Avere probably 
devised by Torelli about 1650 and the third 
possibly by him somewhat later: an Inferno; 
Dancing Satyrs ivith torches in front of [the 
backdrop] a Grotto ivith the rising sun; the 
Grotto of the Winds. We shall deal ^vith the 
other designs in later paragraphs. 

Reproductions of stage sets, as they had 
actually appeared in the performances or 
had been intended to appear, ^\'ere in great 
demand. A good part of the greatly elabo- 
rated picture-like drawings, especially from 
about 1750 to 1850, may have originated to 
meet such demand. But the general interest 
allowed for the publication of printed re- 
productions of many settings. They were 
published in separate series or, up to the 



12 The paper dates about 1700. Nine sheets have a French-looking watermark, a tablet with a heart between 
the letters "P G." The others are marked with a crowned double-headed eagle similar to one which C. M. 
Briquet thought German or lower Rhenish ; J. Guiffrey and P. Marcel, Inventaire . . . des dessins dn . . . 
Louvre, Paris, 1908, vol. 2, p. 131, n. 49. It may as well be Flemish or Alsatian. 

13 Alexandre de Vesme, Le Peintre-Graveur Italien, Milan, 1906, p. 242, no. 923. 



293 



figlueeiuh ceiituiy, as illustraiions lor 
libretti or for commemorations oi; cere- 
monial occasions. 1^ The\ were engraved, or 
occasionally etched, until in the nineteenth 
century lithography provided a cheaper me- 
diimi. During the entire period original edi- 
tions were copied. It is of a special interest 
with respect to the counter-proofs that en- 
gravings after Torelli Avere republished 
after a considerable lapse of time, not for 
antiquarian interest but because they were 
still looked upon as being exemplary. 

Stage design has been criticized from time 
to time as being out of tune ^vith contem- 
poraneotis art, and essentially inferior. It is 
indeed very conservative, bound as it is b) 
so many practical and technical considera- 
tions. It is not an independent art, but one 
factor of a compound of several which com- 
bine in the effect of the performance; it is 
not intended for the static existence of a 
work of the pictorial arts. Upon paper a set- 
ting seems to be the most prominent part 
of a mise en scene, but upon the stage it 
loses its predominance. To enhance the 
AS'ork of the acting and the engineering per- 
sonnel was the great responsibility of the 
designer, especially during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries; to keep in line 
with the shifting tendencies of pictorial and 
architectural arts, even of theatrical art it- 
self, was much less urgent for him. It is er- 
roneous to deduce the style of stage design 
from that of contemporary free painting 
even if executed b\ the stage designer 
himself. 

Stage decoration constituted an autono- 
mous art form ^s'ith its own tradition ^\■hich 
was removed from that of pictorial art. The 
aitistic organization of a canvas or a sheet 



of paper involves a \ery dilferent problem 
from tlie creation of the locale of theatrical 
action. On this account, freely-cheaming 
architectural fantasies, so cherished in pic- 
torial art from the later seventeenth into 
the early nineteenth centuries, are not help- 
ful as an exact indication of the style of 
stage design. Into the first half of the nine- 
teenth century professional Italian stage 
design was, in general, very slo\v in changing 
its st)le. To be sure, artists ^vithout a per- 
manent connection with theatres made stage 
designs but they did not visibly influence 
the general development. The antagonism 
c\ident in a not too friendly note ivritten 
by Giuseppe \'aladier in Rome on a project 
of his (-137) , about 1825, was probably not 
personal, but typical. The famous architect 
ga\'e his advice to an undistinguished 
painter ^vhom apparently he could not di- 
rectly supervise: "As you are not tlie painter 
fit to hit the buil's eye, but only an im- 
knou'n hand, as I have a good inclination 
toward you, I send you these t^vo designs. 
If you ^vant a more grandiose set then make 
an opening in the wall in the form of a 
gallery . . ."13 That conditions were chang- 
ing in Rome, ho^vever, was evident Avhen 
the then famous painter Filippo Agricola 
(1776-1857) became supervisor of every- 
thing concerning scenery in the Teatro 
Apollo in 1838. 16 Here for the first time the 
situation of previous centuries ^vas re\eised. 
During the seventeenth century stage design 
had been joined ^vith theatrical engineering 
in a specialized, highly esteemed and lucra- 
ti\'e profession, in ^vhich tlie sho^vman's ap- 
proach to the designing of settings ^vas pre- 
dominant; Agricola was in no ^v^ay an engi- 
neer, nor even a theatrical painter. 



DEVELOPMENTS IN STAGE DESIGN AT THE CLOSE 
.OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



Stage design of the seventeenth centur\ 
was intended to impress by the realism of 



the scene. The most desirable contribution 
the decoration could make ^vas to suggest 



!■* The Museum nossesses // Pomo d' Oro h- Franceso Sbarra, with engravings of Matthaeus Kuesel after the 
sr.Jge designs of Ludovico Burnaccini (1636-1707). performed and published in Vienna in 1666, and the 
Nnrrazione deUe . . . feste . . . in Nahol't [in 1747\ Naples, 1749, with examples of the stage designs of 
Vincenzo Re (died 17621. resnectively bequeathed in 1930 and given in 1904 b" Miss S?rah Cooper Hewitt. 
!•'' I believe it sure that Valadier wrote here ". . . fate una sedita di archUettura a guisa dl una galleria . . ." 
The te'-minology seems strange, but the sense is clear. 

ISA "Hall in the castle of Walter" (-442), by Vincenzo Baldini (1809-1881), bea's the approval of a 
deputy, Ag'-icola, who was probably not identical with the painter. Baldini is recorded as working for the 
Apollo Theatre in 1848, 1851, and I860. 



29: 




FIGURE 7. AN ATRIUM FACING A GARDEN (ONLY HALF THE DESIGN PRESENTED) . 
PROBABLY BY A BOLOGNESE ARTIST, I725-175O. SEE PAGES 287, 3OI. 



action happening in infinite real space. The 
iavoied sciieme was a court, a square, a 
road, or a gorge, leading backward to per- 
spective miracles wrought upon the back- 
drop. For these generations the perspective 
representation of a far distance, ^vith the 
help of linear perspective construction, was 
invested with great aesthetic value, and was 
not felt to disrupt the relationship between 
actor and setting. Three counter-proofs with 
hitherto unknown designs of about 1670 
show this scheme with particular clarity: a 
Hall in the palace of Poseidon; Gorge with 
a stream, and a Grove with a view of a 
stream in a mountainous country, the first 
two surely Italian, the last probably Italian 
also. Although this generally simple and 
rigidly symmetrical scheme was scarcely in 
line with the contemporary principles of 
art, the recognized leaders of the Italian 
profession were slow in changing it. But 
proofs do exist that in 1675 taste had be- 
gun to get Aveary of too much rigidity. if 

The Museum possesses some Italian draw- 
ings shoAsdng the same growing tendency to- 
ward asymmetry of plan, and simultaneously 
toward a shortening of the make-believe 
room. One is probably Roman, about 1680, 
and represents a Street leading backward to 
a staircase in front of a terrace (illustrated 
on cover) . The others are Squares, numbers 
1 and 8 of a set, probably intended to be re- 
produced by engravings, and drawn by an 
Italian, M. A. L., in the late seventeenth 
century. Nothing precise is known at pres- 
ent about this transitional phase in Italy. 
French influence Avas proliably effective to- 
ward the close of the century, at least in 
parts of the country. 

The most interesting unknown designs 
among the counter-proofs are related with 
the parallel development in France. They 
represent Squares, the first with a fortress 
at the right, the second with a castle at the 
back. The third shoAvs a square in front of a 
villa, with implements of farming upon the 
side-wings. The fourth and the fifth are 
situated in villages in mountainous country 
(one is illustrated, Fig. 2), The first three 



designs originated probably between 1670 
and 1680, the others somewhat later, repre- 
senting a later phase of activity of the 
same artist. 

The elements of these compositions are 
not basically new inventions. Torelli seems 
to have introduced the nrotif of buildings 
with trees in front of them; Carlo Vigarani, 
the predecessor of Berain in his office, that 
of the creeping vine. The interpretation of 
the open country as a grandiose three-di- 
mensional space with many defining detail 
forms is taken from landscape painting as 
it had developed in Rome in the middle of 
the century, mostly through the activities 
of French artists. But the tendency to 
broaden and shorten the imaginary room, 
to make the plan more rectangular than 
trapezoidal, esjDecially evident in the three 
older designs, goes beyond anything known 
from the contemporaneous Italian stage. 
The matter-of-fact atmosphere of the design 
with the villa is decidedly un-Italian. It has 
happened more than once that artists have 
received the impetus to a new style in a 
new cultural environment, and the tendency 
to stress the width of the make-believe room 
instead of its depth cannot be termed spe- 
cifically French as it is not evident in the 
designs of Berain. None the less the designer 
was most probably a Frenchman Avho had 
experienced, besides an Italian, a Dutch 
influence. It seems more than a mere coin- 
cidence that such a French stage designer 
should be at hand, and the career of Jacques 
Rousseau (1630-1693) , recorded as a painter 
of perspectives and sets, Avould meet all the 
requirements. He was the pupil of a Dutch- 
man, worked some time in Italy, and after 
his return to Paris worked for a while un- 
der Vigarani. As a Protestant he had to 
leave France in 1681 but returned in 1688 
for a short stay. Even the existence of a 
later group of designs would be explained 
by his movements; but not enough of his 
art is known to make the identification 
more than a plausible hypothesis. 

It seems clear that Filippo Juvarra (1678- 
1 736) was influenced by similar French 



!■'■ A setting for scene 3 of act I of Germanico sul Reno in the San Salvatore Theatre in Venice in 1676 
shows that already it was permissible to place different numbers of wings on each side, and the composition 
of the backdrop was slightly unsymmetrical and included an angle view of a house ; published by A. Tessier 
in La Revue de I' art aticien et moderne, Paris, 1928, vol. 54, p. 229. 



297 



stage designs at the outset ot his career. i'^ 
The Miiseiun possesses two stage designs ot 
his, the earhest known. One represents in 
a free \\'ay tiie Forum in Rome (Fig. 3) , the 
other a Forum loith an obelisk cuid a tri- 
umphal, arch erected in honor of Pope 
Clement XI. A sarcophagus covered by a 
troph\ of Ttirkish arms is displayed \ery 
prominently upon a lower level. The repre- 
sentation enhances the glory of the Pope 
who reigned from 1700 to 1721, emphasizing 
the end of a menace from the Ttirkish Em- 
pire, \shich had been achieved in the Peace 
of Carlowitz in 1699. The name of the town 
sho^vn in the dedicatory inscription of the 
trimnphal arch begins \v'ith a P. Thus the 
decoration \vas probably intended for a play 
given in Palermo in honor of the new Pope, 
in 1700, ^vhen Juvarra was still li\ing in his 
nati\e Messina. The conception is grandiose, 
but it is not presented ^\'ith assurance. The 
drawing is inscribed, "di Don Felippo 
Giovara," which was possibly ^vritten con- 
temporaneously and surely during the 
eighteenth centuiy; there is no reason to 
doubt the truth of this attribution. The 
draAving was probably made after a sketcJi 
of Juvarra's and in the same teclniiriue he 
himself employed for his projects at the 
time, as represented by the other dra^ving 
dating from about 1700. Juvarra's creative 
genius empowered him to give the setting 
with the Forum, in Rome such death dis- 
posed richness and to imbue the other \\'\{h 
so expressive a language of forms: but one 
mav not credit him \vith inventing their 
schemes. Both probably derived from Frencli 
sources: such influence is almost certain in 
the Forum design, with its focal jioini 
shifted laterally, as Berain's Rocky coast was 
treated as early as 1686. The very resiriclcd 
depth of the Pope Clement Forum shows 
stich complete re\'ersal of the Italian scheme 
that outside influence is unquestional)lv 
present, probablv of the type shown in the 
earlier group of S(iuar('s. M. A. L. sliows 
similar dependence on foreign inspiration. 
T\vo important designs of tlic same pc 



riod, by a Roman architect, are an Atrium 
of a celestial palace, with alternative sug- 
gestions for its decoration; and a Grotto 
at the shore (Fig. 4) , with side-wings repre- 
senting rocks with falls probably of real 
water; a backdrop is shown lowered into 
place, with a celestial palace sin-moiuited 
by a god. The initial "M" in the escutcheon 
on the proscenium possibly refers to Queen 
Maria Casimira of Poland, who lived as an 
exile in Rome from 1699 to 1714. Ihese two 
designs probably \vere made for the same 
play, about 1700. Their designer, who seems 
to have influenced Juvarra after Juvarra's 
coming to Rome, may have been Girolamo 
Fontana, a nephew of Juvarra's teacher. 
Carlo Fontana. Girolamo, who is not well 
known, designed the good but poorly pub- 
lished sets for La caduta del regno dell' 
Amazon i, performed for the Spanish Am- 
bassador in Rome in 1690. It is not impos- 
sible that he was the first to represent dec- 
orative structtires in a fantastic scale, and 
only partly visible, with or without a plu- 
rality of the visual axes as they appear in 
the Celestial palace: if he was not the first 
then he ^vas one of the first. His was not a 
style visibly influenced by French practice, 
but was an intermediary phase of the Italian 
development. He united the wings of seven- 
teenth-century character ^vith a backdrop 
bearirrg a representation in the new style 
of the first years of the eighteenth century. 
The new style was not easily accepted as 
an entity, at least not in Rome. A second 
Roman architect, whose ^vork is represented 
in the Museinn by drawings of other sub- 
jects besides stage settings, devised about 
1700 a Gallery of arms, following strictly 
the scheme of the seventeenth centiny with 
one central vanishing |Doint. Probably by the 
same hand are a T'esfihule of a monastery 
(Fig. 5) and a Villa -with atrium, 1700-1725. 
The scheme of the Vcslihule is the same as 
in Juvarra's Forum in Rome, that of the 
J'illa similar to the one used by M. A. L. 
Possibly by the same hand is a somewhat 
later settin-i' of Park scenery having an 



IS Juvarra was r-ne of the g-eatest architects and 't.T?e designers of all time. The first to deal with his stage 
designs, dating them co'"''ectl •, was Renzo Lustig in Em*>or!urn, Bergamo, 1926, vol. 63, p. 247 fl. The next 
was the reformer of modern stage design, E. Gordon Craig, in Architectural Rerieir. London, 1926, vol. 60, 
p. 229 fif. Much material is published, but unsatisfactorily dealt with, by A. E. Brinckmann in vol. 1 of 
Filippo Juvarra. PiiMished hv the Comitato Per le onoranze a Filippo Juvarra. Turin, 1937. The baptismal 
record of Juvara is published there on p. 43. 



299 



unsymmetrical view upon the backdrop. 
Characteristic of all these designs is the 
representation of a sober architecture which 
was like that of actual buildings. Certain of 
the designs by Juvarra show this feature 
also, but probably only those aimed at pleas- 
ing Roman taste. 

What can be called the transitional style 
is represented by some other designs in the 
Museum. A semi-circidar Court, with half 
of a foiuitain shown at the right, by a 
Roman architect about 1730, follows a 
scheme devised by Juvarra for Teodosio il 
giovane in 1711. An unsymmetrical and 
obliquely set design shows a Square prob- 
ably in Rome (Fig. 6) , devised in Rome be- 
tween 1725 and 1750. A Palace hall, prob- 



ably a Roman design of 1725-1750, with 
five focal points, is influenced by another 
design devised by Juvarra in 1711. Andrea 
Pozzo in Rome, who had not felt induced 
in 1698 to refer to any of the ne^v features 
which were to become characteristic of the 
eighteenth century stage design, proved to 
be one of the restraining influences there 
and perhaps elsewhere.if A follower of his, 
P. (less probably C. P.) V., devised in Rome 
between 1720 and 1740 an Atrium facing a 
garden entirely in the style of Pozzo. A simi- 
lar Atrium in a monastery sho^vs the scheme 
transformed under the influence of the de- 
veloping rococo style. It was devised befiveen 
1730 and 1760, probably not in Rome. 



THE NEW STYLE OF STAGE DESIGN IN THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



The most characteristic feature of the new 
style of stage design is the predilection for 
a plurality of the visual axes. The room or 
combination of rooms is often switched 
about at an angle, being set obliquely with 
no front face at all. The invention of this 
scheme is customarily attributed to Ferdi- 
nando Galli Bibiena (1657-1743) , which 
may be a correct assertion but still lacks 
23roof. He, himself, claimed only to have a 
better method for the perspective construc- 
tion of the angle views, ^vhich surely ^vere 
no invention of his. 20 He did not omit the 
presentation of the methods of "the others 
in Rome, Bologna and Venice." Between 
1698 and 1711 the problem had become 
lugent in the important centers, and we 
know of one at least who attacked it in 
Rome, again Juvarra, who felt that the 
naturalistic setting of the seventeenth cen- 
tury should be replaced by a fantastic one. 
But in the early phase of the style, scenic 
architecture, although fantastic, is composed 
as if the basic conditions of real architec- 
ture applied to it. It is entirely fantastic 
because of the complicated richness of the 
plans and the overloading with decoration. 
There is always something enigmatical 
about the incompletely shown locality, 
which was intended to spur the imagination 



of the spectator into ^vider ranges. The pro- 
portion between the setting and the floor 
space \vas changed in favor of the setting, 
which became a more independent element 
in the performance. A naturalistic relation 
between the actor and his surroundings was 
not aimed at. The scenery was expected to 
appear as a continuous succession of inter- 
esting planes, ^vhich was aided by but not 
dependent on an oblique direction of the 
decoration. The actors no longer moved in 
an optically narron^ court at the beginning 
of an immense prospectus, but in a unified, 
unlimited space. These tendencies led to 
those "marvellous and imposing scenes vis- 
ible today in many theatres" as Francesco 
Saverio Quadrio called them in 1744.21 

This phase is represented in the Museum 
mainly by sketches, rather than by finished 
drau'ings. Angle views into Palace halls were 
devised j^robably by two Roman architects, 
about 1730. A backdrop with an Atrium 

("7474) "^v^s possibly devised by a Neapoli- 
tan somewhat later. But two elaborated and 
colored drawings, to be dated 1725-1750, 
show the style in its full splendor. An 
Atrium facing a garden, half-dodecagonal 
in plan, was probably devised by a Bolognese 

(Fig. 7) ; a Bosket in a park with a huge 
fountain, by one of the Italian designers 



19 Perspectiva pictorum et architectorum, Rome, 1693 and 1698. 

20 Architettura civrlis, Parma, 1711. 

21 Delia storia e delta ragione d'ogni poesia, Milan, 1743, vol. 3, p. 542. 



301 




FIGURE lO. PRISON COURT. BV LORENZO PAVIA; ABOUT I760. SEE PACE 303. 



iptn^rcHo^t^ r^ - / 3 



working in France (Fig. 8) .-- 

Ouadrio directed attention to the engrav- 
ings after projects by Giuseppe Bibiena 
(1696-1757) , whose scenes he believed ec]ual 
to those of his father Ferdinando, because 
made "in a high style and with grandeur." 
Between 1740 and 1743 five parts of the 
pul)lication had been issued in Augsburg 
and nine more ^vere announced, 1)ut prol)- 
ably never saw the light of day .-3 This pub- 
lication must have been the chief agency 
of the dissemination of the Bibiena style. 
Although the style itself was then the most 
modern in existence, it showed a curious 
conservatism in retaining obsolete decorative 
forms. 

Count Francesco Algarotti (1712-1764), a 
man of great influence in the international 
artistic life of his period, praised the style 
of Ferdinando Bibiena as late as 1762.2^ 
"The scenes seen from the angle make . . . 
the most beautiful effect and a grand least 
to the eyes ... as do the accidental points 
in scenes observed from the front, in vari- 
ous oljlique directions, resulting from the 
[purposely] complicated plan of the struc- 
tures." But he found the followers of 
Bibiena too arbitrary in overcharging their 
all-too-fanciful motifs with details. "Archi- 
tectural labyrinths" were created "from 
which reality vanished . . . structures which 
they are unable either to make consistent 
or to reduce to an architectural plan." He 
objected to the contradiction of the actors 
with the perspective construction, in oppo- 
sition to designers who thought the emo- 
tional value of the world of fancy beyond 
such criticisms raised by rationality. Alga- 
rotti blamed "a certain arbitrary perspec- 
tive" in use, l:)ut he did not oppose the in- 
troduction of more than two accidental 
points as did in the same year another 
dilettante. Count Enea Arnaldi.25 Two years 

22 1911-28-106, from the collection of Leon Decloux. 

23 The Museum possesses some of the original engravings. 

24 Opere. Cremona, 1779, vol. 3, p. 302 ff. Webster defines an accidental point as the vanishing point of a 
group of lines that are parallel neither to the direct radial nor to the horizontal line of a perspective 
construction. 

25 Idea di iin teatro, Vicenza, 1762, p. 60. 

2B Opere, Livorno, 1765, vol. 6, p. 99; letter written in 1760. 

2" The drawing 1940-21-5 repeats a Royal allium as engraved after Giuseppe Bibiena, with a different cast- 
ing of the shadows. Evidently someone solved this problem to show his ability. 

28 Fasano is recorded as a designer for the Roval Tapestry Factory in Naples about 1760. Scelzo applied in 
1777 for the office Vincenzo Re once held at the San Carlo, Theatre in Naples. He was qualified "as being 
of mediocre ability because experienced more in the execution of sets than in devising." 



earlier Algarotti had used e\en stronger 
words against the style of the settings of 
the day, terming the structures and the ef- 
fects of the perspective and of the light 
"sheer madness. ""tJ 

All existing indications point to the exe- 
cution of stage settings, up to the second 
half of the eighteenth century, u'ith very 
few colors, in restricted range and in a grey 
or brown tonality. It Avas stated in Naples 
in 1762 of Giovanni Maria Bibiena, a son 
of Ferdinando, that he, being competent 
merely in so far as he used designs of his 
forefathers, shared their deficiency: "that he 
employs only one color everywhere, a 
chiaroscuro." Artificial lighting being what 
little it coidd be and performances often 
being given by daylight, the setting had it- 
self to represent the desired effect. The com- 
plicated structures made a correct distri- 
bution of light and shadow a difficult 
problem.-" 

As the records tell the story one must ex- 
pect the widest spread of the Bibiena style 
between 1740 and 1770, with its fantastic 
phase in the later years. In general, the 
drawings in the Museum corroborate this. 
A follower of the Bibiena devised between 
1740 and 1760 a Palace interior and a Square 
ill a toum, both restrainedly fantastic. ,*\n 
Upper gallery of a prison court, of 1750- 
1760, is a variation of an engraving after 
Giuseppe Bibiena. In Giuseppe's stvle were 
devised between 1750 and 1775, in Naples, 
a Prison vestibule by Michaelangelo Fasano 
(Fig. 9) , and a Palace court and a Staircase 
ill a palace by Domenico Scelzo. 2S Broadly 
Bibienesqtie are a J'estibule in a mansion. 
1740-1750, and two Prison courts, devised 
about 1760 respectivelv by the Bolognese 
Lorenzo Pavia (1741-1764; Fig. 10) and 
by the unrecorded Antonio Donelli. .Addi- 
tional drawings, by unknown designers 



303 





X-' 



.X- 



o 



k i\ 



:i>^^ 



h-' 



'd> 



""x. 






&^\, 



'Hi- 






S'O'. 



•Hi 



.^JE3MiMLi:if2 



i: 



is, 









mh'' ' 
IJIjilF^/ii-q 



^ 



Hi 



Jp:^^ 



^ /^ FIGURE 11. LIBRARY HALL. ITALY, 175O-1775. SEE PAGE 305. 



^^^^^zI^^^J 



working between 1750 and 1775, are a Pal- 
ace hall (-5) , one more Prison court (-27), 
and, as pendants, a Library hall (Fig. 11) 
and a Kitchen in a farmer's house, a Cor- 
ridor in a fortress and a Palace vestibule. 
The principles of the style were given a 
distinctive expression in a Hall of armor, 



probably a Roman design, in an Atrium 
facing a garden, with a colonnade with stairs 
bet\veen structures of three stories, probably 
a South Italian design, and in a "Ghaleria 
Regia," a living-room in a palace, all to be 
dated between 1750 and 1775. 



VARIATIONS IN THE STYLE 



There ^vere local interpretations of the 
style, especially where it was not accepted 
to the exclusion of others. The Museum 
possesses eight sheets with drawings form- 
ing an earlier and a later groiqa, belonging 
evidently to a series that a stage-painter 
made for himself between 1750 and 1780, 
probably after the designs of someone else. 
They represent Palace halls, including a 
Sepulchral hall (Fig. 12) , Ports, a Street 
leading to a castle. The compositions partly 
follow schemes of the seventeenth centiny, 
partly the modern ones. But the fantastic 
architectuie is not in the Bibiena style, nor 
is the occasional rococo decoration. The 
designs are probably South Italian, possibly 
Sicilian. 

The connection ^^'ith the early traditions 
had not entirely been severed at this pe- 
riod, as is demonstrated by other draivings. 
An Atrium facing a garden (-32) is an 
obliquely-shown variation of the Pozzo 
scheme, devised between 1750 and 1775. A 
Square in a town, probably by a Roman 
designer of the same period, is conceived 
Avith the same tendency to naturalistic casu- 
alness as is expressed in projects of Jiuarra 
and of the neglected John Devoto of Lon- 
don, in the 1720's. Possibly this tradition 
was of another level of stage design than 
that used for grand opera. A Palace atriu7n 
^vhich probably belonged to the same play 
as the Square and was devised by the same 
artist, proves how advanced this style ^vas. 
The scheme of composition uniting a large- 
scale foreground architecture with small 
scale in the middle distance and in the back- 
ground was at this time still imusual, but 
it was employed as early as 1760 by Ber- 
nardino Galliari (1707-1794) , whose family 
formed a second dynasty of stage designers. 



An Assembly hall, with part of the street 
on which it is situated, was devised in 1766 
by P. P., probably the Bolognese Pio Pan- 
fili (1723-1812) . This is a very rare speci- 
men of the representation of two different 
localities in the attempt to preserve the con- 
temporaneous dramatic law of the unity of 
place. 

The critics as represented by Algarotti 
and by his disciple Francesco Milizia (1725- 
1798) did not object to the basic principles 
of the Bibienesque style. 29 They did, as 
classicists, object to particularities of its con- 
temporary interpretation, but they knew of 
no other existing style of stage design to 
recommend in its place. They wanted, in- 
stead of exuberant architectural dreams, 
noble forms repeating those of antiquity, 
and a naturalistic scale, to accord with con- 
temporaneous aesthetic standards. Algarotti 
thought that sets should be composed like 
pictures ivith contrasting effects of light and 
shado^v, and embodying more of such casual- 
ness as Nature shows. We know that at the 
time of Algarotti's writing the style of the 
Galliari conformed already with his ideal. 
Bernardino contrasted a dark foreground 
with a light background, and had an early 
predilection for a large expanse of sky. 
Giovanni Antonio (1718-1783) reduced the 
scale of the architecture to a proportion 
suited to the size of the actors.30 He and the 
third brother, Fabrizio (1709-1790) , wished 
the painted light to make a casual and un- 
stable effect, and endeavored to represent 
the wandering sun, to take away from the 
static quality of the scene. None of them 
feared the use of strong colors. That was in 
North Italy, in Turin and in Milan. In 
Naples also in 1763, as we have observed, 
the coloristic monotony of the Bibiena 



29JMilizia's Del Teatro was published anonymously first in Rome in 1771, to be suppressed. The next 

edition came out in Venice in 1773 ; in this edition, see p. 63 ff. 

30 The Museum possesses what is probably a design of his, a Forum, 1770-1780. 



305 



school was repugnant. Central Italy seems 
to have been the most conservative in stage 
design. 

Baldassare Orsini (1732-1810) , who as the 
head of the Academy ol Design in Perugia 
projected and partly executed settings for 
the \'erzaro Theatre there in 1779, ex- 
plained and defended his principles in an 
illustrated book he published anonymously 
in 1785.31 It is illuminating that at so late 
a date a painter of academic standing, ^vho 
was not a professional stage designer or 
painter, still saw in Ferdinando Bibiena the 
discoverer of sound principles. Orsini de- 
clared that the requisites for making good 
sets were to be found in command of the 
art of design and of proportion, "the es- 
sence of beauty;" in elevated concepts and 
ideas, in rich fantasy, in conformity with 
the nature of the subject matter, and in ex- 
cellent coloring. He urged strict observation 
of the laws of perspective, especially of 
aerial perspective. Although he was in favor 
of a more colorful tonality, he still believed 
in a unified, harmonized coloring. He 
wanted the actors in their costumes to 
dominate the scene, and he held the opinion 
that the eyes of spectators are in need of 



places where they may find some rest. Thus 
he advised the adaptation of the coloring 
to Nature, which for his artistic generation 
abhorred "the segregation of parts . . . 
which lavishly sho^vs us how to work for 
softness and smoothness." He propagated 
refined and quiet effects and the idealization 
of reality, but in consistency with the char- 
acter of the subject matter. He liked the ex- 
pression of the somewhat raorl)id mood so 
dear to many of his contemporaries, for 
which even a grey tonality was not sufficient. 
His ideal was the smoky tone of the pictures 
of the Frenchman Charles Louis Clerisseau 
(1722-1820; worked in Rome until 1767). 
Clearly inspiration for the effects of settings 
was sought in this period in the very op- 
posite direction from Piranesi's pictures- 
queness. As a matter of fact, Giovanni Bat- 
tista Piranesi (1720-1778) , who was the 
greatest of the disciples of the Bibiena, but 
is still unrecorded as a stage designer, seems 
to have gained no influence upon stage de- 
sign during his lifetime. The actual want, 
even where unfelt, was for help in getting 
a\\'ay from the traditions of stage design as 
an independent art-form, to assimilate them 
to contemporaneous painting. 



A NEW STYLE, AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF ITS 
PREDECESSOR, STARTING ABOUT 1770 



The first to compose settings as much as 
possible like paintings seems to have been 
Francesco Fontanesi (1751-1795) • He Avas 
much interested in the pictorial appearance 
of the surface of objects, sometimes more 
than he Avas in the perspective and archi- 
tectural effects. He used strong and pure 
colors. Pietro Gonzaga (1751-1831) was 
credited in the early nineteenth century 
with the "happy revolution" of using in 
sets, for the first time, pure and vivacious 
colors.32 That was obviously wrong, but it 
may be that he had succeeded in impressing 
upon a great part of the members of the 
profession in Italy the necessity of a more 
vivacious coloring, before he left in 1790 to 
live in Russia. 



The second half of the eighteenth centiuy 
was revolutionary in most fields of human 
activity, but not in the arts. Stage design 
experienced no cataclysm as it had at the 
beginning of the century; instead, it de- 
veloped smoothly into the styles of the nine- 
teenth century with several currents com- 
peting for domination. The sets of Orsini 
and others painted by "the excellent painter 
of landscape Francesco de Capo of Rome" 
were in use in Perugia from 1781 until 1813. 
Then they were replaced, not because their 
style appeared old-fashioned, but because 
u'ith the passage of time they finally had 
become rather shabby. 33 

The drawings in the Museum inchide 
many adaptations of Bil)ienesque schemes, 



31 Le scene del nuovo teatro del Verzaro di Perugia, Perugia, 1785. 

32 Cf. Ferrari, loc. cit., p. 160 ft. 

33 Ser. Siepi, Descrizione . , . di Perugia, Perugia [1822] vol. 1, p. 157. 



307 






,X^ 



"• I 







1 






>i^lito:r'^f&^ 



c-^ 



-7 



.1 ' /■' / 



// 



■Si 




to meet the new requirements. A pointed in- 
stance of such adaptation is furnished by 
a Palace court, about 1770; it bears the au- 
thentic signature "Bibiena," probably re- 
ferring to Antonio GalU (1700-1774) or 
Carlo Galli (1728-1788) . In two obliquely 
shown Adjoining palace rooms and in an 
Atrium another designer, 23rot)ably Bolog- 
nese, endeavored about 1775 to modernize 
old schemes by new detail forms, as did 
most successfully the designers of colored 
drawings of a Fantastic square in Rome, 
1770-1785, of a Palace atrium with three 
long perspectives, about 1780, and of an 
Atrium facing a garden, probably Rome, 
1775-1800. In the same category belong 
among others a probably North Italian 
backdrop with a Villa, a Palace atrium, 
both 1770-1780, two very different Sepulchral 
halls, 1775-1800, and a probably South 
Italian Palace hall, 1790-1810; a set of three 
Anterooms of palatial structures, about 
1780; a Prison court, and, with fashionable 
"Gothic" architectural motifs, a Toivn in 
mountainous terrain, these two by the same 
designer, dating between 1775 and 1800; and 
a set of eight Palace halls and Atria. To the 
same set belong a Treasure house, in the 
direct elevation used in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and a Choir with the sepulchral monu- 
ment of a general, a variation of a design 
of Juvarra for scene 3 of act III of Con- 
stantino Pio, 1710. 

It is not surprising that certain designers 
looked to the past for help. Some drew upon 
Piranesi's early style uniting grandiosity of 
plan with discretion in decoration, and on 
his manner of topographical representation. 
In this group belong a Ruined toiuer of a 
fortification by an artist who also devised a 
Prison hall, both 1775-1800, and a Riiined 
antique temple. A note written during the 
later nineteenth century upon the back of 
the elaborate and consequently undisturbed 
mounting, and obviously transmitting au- 
thentic information, reads: "Original scene 
by Francesco Chieratini \sic'.'\ painted in the 
Argentino Theatre in the year 1780" (Fig. 
13). Chiarottini is recorded as a Nortli 
Italian stage designer painting in Rome in 
1786 and 1788.34 The painters for the Ar- 

34 De Dominicis, loc. cit., p. 123. 

35 1931-65-1, given by Miss Eleanor G. Hewitt. 



gentino Theatre in Rome are otherwise un- 
recorded for the year 1780. A North Italian 
Forum, 1780-1810, represents this same Pira- 
nesian phase, even with scattered strongly 
contrasting effects of light and shadows.35 

But many designs devised between 1775 
and 1800 clearly represent one or another 
phase of the developing classical style, uni- 
fied by a characteristic grace and discretion. 
The former proud magnificence is checked 
in many ^vays. Most typical of the general 
tendency is the recurrence of places of de- 
cay and sadness. Ruins, about 1780, by a 
North Italian designer "R . . . a," possibly 
identical with Giuseppe Raina of Milan 
^v'ho died in 1795, and a Medieval church 
in ruins, are composed like contemporaneous 
pictures. Ruins of antique thermce and 
Sepulchral galleries, probably produced in 
Bologna about 1780, have more the nature 
of general perspective representations. One 
of the new features of the sets of Fontanesi 
^vas the tendency toward a connection of 
the locality with its surroundings, to make 
visible the fact of its being only a part of 
the open country. A fantastic Gothic palace, 
1775-1800, and a Villa, 1780-1790, were con- 
ceived by follo^vers of his. The reduction of 
the scale of the architecture, by Giovanni 
Antonio Galliari, became one of the general 
characteristics of the new style, together 
with an endeavor to lighten its effect. The 
main lines of the composition were then 
preferably disposed like radii around an 
axis centered any^vhere outside the middle 
of, but still inside, the make-believe room. 
This scheme was adopted by the designer of 
a Seaport, 1780-1810. 

It was well in line with the tendency of 
classicistic stage design to conserve as much 
as possible of the former schemes, as hap- 
pened here ^vith the angle views and the 
oblique direction. This general conservatism 
explains doubts about the dating of certain 
designs. In this category belong the Mu- 
seum's drawings of a Street with antique, 
mediasval and modern structures, and two 
designs, Portions of a park, a Garden terrace 
of a villa, which I believe were devised 
betAveen 1775 and 1800. Where the details 
conform strictly to the system of the classi- 



309 




I 



I5 



/ 



^ 



cisdc style in general, there is less reason lor 
inicertainty over dating. No one could be 
hesitant about the date-range of 1775-1800 
lor designs like the Ruined unlique build- 
ings, or the Forum with the temple of Vic- 
tory which the \'enetian Giuseppe Borsato 
(1771-1849) devised probably in Rome 
about 1800. llie contemporaneous Halls 
irith inscribed tablets h\ "M . . . o T . . . a" 



bear the imprint ol the early stage oi ihe 
last, austere phase of classicism \vhich pre- 
ceded, accompanied and survived the Em- 
pire style. To this stage belong further a 
Vestibule (-227) shown at a slight angle, 
1800-1825, the Interior of an oriental tem- 
ple, 1815, by Karl Joseph Koebel (1796- 
1856) ,30 and the Atrium of a niausolcuiii. 



VACILLATIONS OF STYLE, 1775-180O 



The \\'ork of those ^vho were young dur- 
ing the last decades of the eighteenth cen- 
tury sho^vs vacillations of style. An anony- 
mous North Italian designer devised about 
'775 ^ Vestibule of a church in a style 
largely late baroque; about 1780, Terraces 
surrounding a villa and Fortification and 
mortuary monument at the shore in the 
manner of pictures; and between 1780 and 
1790, a Palace in the classicistic style of 
Galliari. This is also the style of a Gothic 
castle of the late eighteenth century by 
Pasquale Canna (Fig. 19) ,37 who devised 
an obliquely shown Palace hall in the first 
decade of the nineteenth century in ^vhat 
would be called after French terminology 
the Directoire style. Felice Giani (about 
1760-1823) Avas during his lifetime a painter 
of international fame, ^vhich perhaps will 
be restored to him as the public becomes 
acquainted with the several hundred draw- 
ings by him which belong to the Museum. 
Among his teachers had been Antonio 
Bibiena, and he followed in general the 
Bibienesque style in a Palace portico, about 
1780. Pompeii destroyed, a backdrop, of the 
end of the century, and a Prison interior 
about 1800 (Fig. 14) , are typically classicis- 
tic, the first representing the early, the lat- 
ter the late phases of the style. 

Giuseppe ^'aladier (1762-1839) , who be- 
came in the nineteenth century the leading 
aichitect in Rome, was a prodigy a^varded 
in 1775 the gold medal of the Art Academy 



in Rome.3S The Museum possesses more 
than a thousand of his drawings or sheets 
from his dra^ving books Avhich reveal the 
untiring pains he took to find the right so- 
lution for a problem, and the richness of 
his fantasy. Sixty are unmistakablv stage 
designs. Others may also be stage designs, 
or may merely indicate the influence of 
stage decoration on pictorial composition 
of the period. Such interrelation developed 
in several genres of subject during the last 
decades of the eighteenth century, notablv 
in the representation of mysterious oriental 
and Egyptian rites; and sevei-al of Valadier's 
early drawings partake of this nature (-133, 
-128) . Other drawings show that A'aladier 
approached the designing of sets predomi- 
nantly as an architect. There is an Atrium 
of a villa, 1775-1785, whose scheme is basi- 
cally the same as that of the Roman archi- 
tect about half a century earlier (cf. p. 299), 
but executed in the forms of classicism. The 
principal intentions of Valadier as a classi- 
cist \ye\e a simple disposition and a clear 
aiticulation of the architecture, be its style 
fantastically or genuinely classical. In the 
first, less truly classical, group belong dra^v- 
ings concerned with the Precinct of a pal- 
ace, 1775-1790, and with a Sepulchral pre- 
cinct including what may be the tomb of 
Alexander the Great, 1780-1790. The fore- 
ground in the latter setting has the shape 
of a curved colonnade. Fontanesi seems to 
have invented this essentially classicistic 



36 He was a German architect from Mainz and is recorded in Italy from 1817 to his death. 

^"^ Pasquale Canna is recorded as active at the Farnese Theatre in Parma in 1789, at the Scaia from 

1801 to 1816, and, by the captions of two reproductions in the collection of Mr. George Chaffee in New 

York, at the San Carlo Theatre in Naples in 1829 and 1831. A Cemetery (1901-39-219), about 1790, was 

possibly devised by Canna as a stage design. 

3s Gaspare Servi, Nolizie intorno alia vita del cav. Giuseppe Valadier. Bologna, 1840. D. Silvagni, La 

corte e la societa Komana nei secoli decimoottavo e decimonono. Rome, 1863, vol. 2, passim. Most of the 

books necessary to deal exhaustively with the great stock of Roman drawings of the period of Valadier 

owned by the Museum have not been found in the United States. 



311 







^ 



motif of the curved structure in the fore- 
ground, ^vhich evidently still interested 
Valadier during a somewhat later period of 
his (-159) . With genuine classicistic details 
\vere devised: the Compound of a palace, 
1775-1790, a Bedroom in a palace, about 
1790; also an Interior of a tent at night and 
a Mausoleum in a great hall, both repre- 
senting the austere phase of classicism, of 



the end of the century. But Rome, during 
the youth of Valadier, was still pre-emi- 
nently baroque, and an appreciable part of 
his early work is indeed baroque in style. 
The Atrium of a villa, about 1785, conforms 
to the moderate Bibienesque style of the 
time, as does the Tent, of 1780-1790, and the 
interior of an indoor Arena, about 1790. 



N E W APPROACHES IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 



The subject-matter of the sets during the 
eighteenth century had in the main become 
standardized. Different palace rooms, courts, 
prisons, atria of villas, grandiose squares, 
ports, and shores occur time and again. 
There ^vas no demand for differentiation, 
for example, bet\veen the court of a king of 
antiquity, of mediaeval Italy, or of the con- 
temporaneous Orient; it was regarded sim- 
ply as the court of a king. The types, not 
the special cases, mattered in the theatres 
of greater pretensions; realism was confined 
to the more popular theatres. The Museum 
possesses one example of the more popular 
stage designs; a Neapolitan Peasant's house, 
a backdrop, 1750-1800 (Fig. 15) . 

Unity of style of the settings, lacking in 
the designs, may have been supplied to 
some degree by the coloring. The more the 
eighteenth century came of age the greater 
^\'as the emphasis laid upon aerial, or color 
perspective, as a complement to linear, so 
that by about 1830 Ifnear perspective was 
used only in its more obvious and even more 
primitive forms. In this year color perspec- 
tive was estimated by the painter Paolo 
Landriani (1755-1839) , who is reputed to 
be the founder of the great Milanese stage- 
designing school of the nineteenth century, 
as surpassing by far that of prior phases-Sf" 
The coloristic refinement, however, had its 



limitation. The smoke of oil lamps, though 
less than that of candles, was too dense to 
allow for delicate effects. The general de- 
velopment also led back to a single pre- 
vailing tonality, although traces of the style 
of bright coloring were not entirely lost. 
Goethe, who understood as much of colors 
as of the theatre, and was ^vell informed of 
what happened in Italy, declared in the 
same year, 1830, that a brown tint is the 
most propitious background for the actors.40 
The beginning of the nineteenth century 
sa.^v a new epoch in stage design. It did not 
mean the end of the various styles of the 
late eighteenth century, it did not compel 
the restriction to one of them — the attempt 
^vould have got the answer: 'Sve are too 
cultivated for that restriction" — but it suc- 
ceeded in the synthesis of a ne^v style, and 
it changed decidedly the approach to the 
old problem of the conformity of sets and 
subject-matter. Hence the details of every 
decoration began to be arranged in consis- 
tency with the state of knoivledge about 
the theme represented, and the design to be 
pitched in agreement with the mood of the 
action. This correlation became for the first 
time really close in the atelier of the Scala 
Theatre in Milan, with the activities of 
Giovanni Perego (1783-1817) and Ales- 
sandro Sanquirico (1780-1840) ,41 and with 



39 Cf. Ferrari, p. 171 ff. 

40 Conversation with Johann P. Eckermann, February 17 ; in the translation, Goethe's Conversations tvith 
Johann P. Eckermann, by S. M. Fuller, Boston, 1852, p. 340 fF. 

41 Both are represented in the Museum through copies by Romolo Liverani (about 1809-1872), one of the 
pupils of Sanquirico who acquired great fame in Italy. Perego's style is seen in at least one drawing, an 
Atrium of an Egyptian temple, Sanquirico's in at least twenty-five designs, including several which evidently 
have not been published. Four designs were devised for the ballet Otello by Salvatore Vigano, 1818, six 
for the ballet Genghis Khan by P. Brambilla, 1828, a Picture gallery and a Hall for Adelaide e Commingio 
by Valentino Fioravanti, 1828. A Hall in an orental palace was devised for an opera L'ltaliana in Algeri, 
either by L. Mosca, 1808, or more probably by Gioachino Antonio Rossini, 1815. A Village and a Ruined 
palace atrium were intended for acts I and IV respectively of a ballet L'Ombra d' un vivo. The plays for 
which two Palace halls and a Gothic room were devised cannot be identified at the present time. 



313 



the approval, at least, oi: Landriani. He 
taught that "'grandiosity or stressed beauty" 
ot sets were wrong when inappropriate to 
the play .4- He wished for the representation 
of such architecture as could actually be 
constructed. 

The leaders of the new style phase were 
Antonio Basoli and Sanquirico. Both, being 
of a jjrodigious productivity, became espe- 
cially influential through publications of 
their projects. Basoli, being more of a the- 
orist, as a professor of the Art Academy in 
Bologna, included stage designs imconnected 
^v'ith a definite performance; and his first 
publication, the Raccolta di Prospettive of 
1810, contained perspectives not properly 
stage designs. 43 

The earliest stage design in the Museimi 
Ijelonging to the new/ phase is connected 
with a ceremony held probably in Milan 
in honor of the French general Desaix de 
\'eygoux, \vho fell at Marengo in 1800, 
shortly after his death. Its main characteris- 
tics are the representation of a imiformly 
set-out forest seen from under a rocky arch, 
^vhich is only partly visible. An incomplete 
arch in the foregroimd is one of the most 
common motifs of the new phase, which 
aimed at keeping the e)e in movement in an 
endea\or to round out missing elements. 
In the designing of an interior the motif 
found its expression in the absence of the 
supports of vaidts at one side. The plans 
could be entirely fantastic and undecipher- 
able, but the spectator was given the feeling 
of having mastered them through his own 
effort. The forest is of a type rare in stage 
design; ])ut the designer's attempt to repre- 
sent mass by endless repetition of identical 
details is a typical trick of the style. Basoli 's 
art, as represented in the Museum, is largely 



based on this procediae. The new style 
depended also on a knowledge of the means 
by which Piranesi had gained his effects, 
and of the essential qualities of massive 
Roman architecture. In 1830 such knowl- 
edge was useful in representing Egyptian, 
oriental, and even mecli;E\al arcihtecture.4-l 
The second instance in which Landriani, in 
1830, foiuid contemporaneous stage design 
superior to earlier styles consisted in "the 
magnificent style of the architectme and 
the beautiful and awe-inspiring composi- 
tion." He would have been the last to deny 
that much of the latter was derived from 
the use of some of the baroque schemes of 
composition, such as angle views, oblique 
direction, choice of accidental points. The 
pomposity of the style becomes especially 
evident in such designs as Basoli's Mine of 
1813 and the probably contemporaneous 
Interior of a farmer's house. A precise dating 
of the execution of the drawings is difficult. 
Sanquirico was more versatile than 
Basoli. He Avas realistic and sober, where 
appropriate, and displayed a scholarly 
knowledge of the systems of the various 
architectural styles. The full repertoire, in- 
cluding a quota of revivals, staged each sea- 
son at the Scala forced upon him the neces- 
sity of varying his style to avoid boredom. 
He drew on all resources, which his work 
shoAvs; Fontanesi must have been one of 
his cherished masters. Sanquirico's broad 
influence upon other designers is indicated 
in the Museum by a Square in a medicevol 
toivn (-200) , about 1820, and by designs by 
Romolo Liverani, twehe of which are 
original .45 Eckermann described Sanquirico, 
in 1830, as the head of a large workshop, 
producing sets for other theatres besides the 
Scala. 40 He made the projects and siq^er- 



42 P. Landriani, Osservazioni su't difetli prodotti nei teatri, Milan, 1815, p. 27. 

43 The Museum owns drawings of Basoli repeating with slight alterations two of these designs: The Antique 
bath and a Prison. Related is an Interior of an Egyptian temple at night which seems not to have been 
published in 1810. 

44 Other stage designs by Basoli in the Museum's possession are: Interior of an oriental temple. Oriental 
palace hall. Narrow valley with antique monuments, and, later in date, Atrium of an Egyptian temple. 

45 Liverani combined his copies with original drawings, in albums, leaving us in an uncertainty at times 
difficult to clear away. I believe the following to be originals of his: Interior of the municipal theatre in 
Faenza ivith the setting of the Hall of the Valegiani, 1835; Atrium of a prison. 1830-1840; Venice; three 
settings for La Straniera, by Vincenzo Bellini; Prison hall; Rooms in a monastery and Wine cellars in 
antique temples: all of about 1840. A Square with a palace and a Ruined villa used as a peasant dwelling 
are somewhat later. 

46 Letter addressed to Goethe from Milan on May 28, 1830. It is inserted in his Gespraeche mit Goethe, but 
omitted in the English translations that I have seen. 



315 



vised their execution by other artists, some 
of \vhom received an annual salary. 

The Bolognese variation of the style is 
most amply represented in the Museum by 
some fifty drawings of an otherwise un- 
recorded Toselli.47 They show him begin- 
ning in the classical style of the early nine- 
teenth century (Fig. 16) , then ^vorking in 
the new style, to end with a kind of neo- 
Renaissance of the early mid-century. Thus 
he could have been born about 1780. His 
designs are distinguished by simplicity and 
clarity of "the awe-inspiring composition" 
and by impressive distinction between the 
structural and the decorative parts of archi- 
tecture. Classicism was at the base of his art, 
in the range of which were also more re- 
alistic designs. A portion of his designs was 
probably intended for a puppet theatre, 
"the little theatre Poggi (-400) ." Similar in 
style to the second phase of Toselli's de- 
velopment, and of a similar quality, are 
interiors of a Gothic church and of a fan- 
tastic Sepulchral structure by the eqtially 
unrecorded M. Turchi, 1820-1830. 

The delight which the style took in in- 
complete arches could easily lead to pain- 
ful obscurity of plan if their fronts were 
lacking. Even Toselli was not always able 
to avoid this pitfall; but a Forum (-204) , 
1800-1825, possibly by a designer of the 
Galliari school, sho^vs what excesses of this 
nature were tolerated. 

The new style has some representation in 
a neo-classical variation in the later de- 
signs of Valadier. Ruins at the shore, Fora, 
an Atrium are the most characteristic in a 
neo-classical variation of 1810 to 1820; a 
Sepulchral precinct is the least individual. 
During the same period, Valadier was inter- 
ested in such theatrical themes as a Palace 
set on terraces and a Fantastic town. Most 
of the drawings mentioned provide for dif- 
ferent levels connected by prominent stairs. 
The motif of stairs occurs also in many of 
Toselli's designs, as does the Mausoleum 
in a hall, but it is not possible at present to 



establish the relationship of the two artists. 
The style induced Valadier to approach at 
least in sketches the most complicated prob- 
lems of angle views. But in general he fol- 
lowed his own road, though not without 
later evidences of the influence of the new 
style. Designs of "Noble and royal apart- 
ments," with a style again reminiscent of 
Toselli but having much more of reality, 
and a strange "Temple dedicated to all 
gods" might date fiom his late years. 

Valadier, earlier than others, became con- 
scious of the fact that the imaginary locality 
of the play was constructed with the help 
of wings and backdrop, and that this fact 
should be recognized by the design. He be- 
came particularly interested in the design 
of the wings, and in its agreement with 
their purpose. The first proof of this ten- 
dency is a design with a view from the in- 
terior of a building onto a Ruined forum, 
probably designed at the beginning of the 
century. There are designs for wings with 
Houses, with a Two-storied loggia, 1810- 
1839, ^ncl with the corridor in a Prison, 
1820-1839. Of the same period are drawings 
related to a setting with a road in a park 
leading toward a fountain. Many of the 
later designs belong in this category, even 
if their direction is oblique; examples from 
the period 1820-1839 'ire various Halls of 
mansions in neo-classical, neo-Renaissance, 
and Gothic styles, a neo-Renaissance Crypt, 
and Gothic Churches (Fig. 17) . But his in- 
terest was not limited to the subject-matter 
so far discussed. Two strictly symmetrical 
designs of an Archway in a Papal palace 
leading toward a court, of about 1820, and 
that of a polygonal Hall, about 1835, repre- 
sent essentially Roman contemporaneous 
architecture. The designs of a subterranean 
Prison, 1820-1839 (Fig. 17, upper right) , 
show his own independent synthesis of the 
different phases of style, as does a magnifi- 
cent design of Fortress ivalls. Toiun vieius, 
1820-1839, tend towards a casual realistic 
impression. 



47 He calls himself Bolognese (-348). On the reverse of -350 is a fragment of a petition of his, referring to 
the exhibition of his panorama of St. Petersburg, evidently in Bologna. Most of his drawings represent Fora, 
Atria, Sepulchral halls, and Palace courts. But there are also Halls in antique style; Square in a mediaeval 
town; Staircases in a jantastic structure; these are to be dated 1825-1840. Drawings of an Egyptian prison, 
a Port, and a Street in a Russian town may be slightly earlier ; those of Temples and Peasants' rooms 
slightly later. 



317 




r.^-^^- 




FIGURE 18. RUINS OF <)1 ll S I Kl'dHKlS. in KM AMllF AIDlkANi; AHOU 1 1 HgiJ. SKL I'ACE 319. 









'-n-^^4 




FIGURE ig. CASTLE. 1(1 l'AS(n ALE CANNA; LATE 1 8TH CEM URY. SEE PAGE 31I. 



The drawings show that Valadier found 
followers in liis architect's approach to 
stage design. A sheet with twenty architec- 
luial settmgs, a Palace leatiUuie and a 
Polygonal hall were devised in this spirit, 
probably by Roman designers abotit 1830. 
A probably North Italian contemporaneous 
design, presenting a polygonal hall in tyjDi- 
cally Bibienesque terms, makes the diller- 
ence of the approach striking. The Museum 
owns a stock of diawings which were made 
by a Roman architect who evidently worked 
in close co-operation with Giuseppe Vala- 
dier, but was also influenced by Giani; pos- 
sibly he was the son, Luigi Valadier. In- 
cluded with these are three stage designs 
remarkable through the impressive repre- 
sentation of the spatial quality of rooms, 
and through delicate coloring. They are a 
Burying place in a court of a monastery, a 
Crypt luitli sepulchral monuments, of about 
1820, and a somewhat later Consecration of 
the temple of Vesta by Numa. Spaciousness 
is also the characteristic of two designs of 
Giani, a Gothic Loggia and a neo-Renais- 
sance Palace atrium, both iSio-iSas.-^S 

Eighteen drawings covering roughly the 
period from 1820 to 1850 seem to belong in 
one oeuvre, although there is room for 
doubt on this score. There are hints that 
Antonio Sarti (1797-1880) , the leading 
architect in Rome after Valadier's death, 
was the designer. Several phases of style are 
rejaresented. The first is neo-classical, re- 
minding of Valadier, and is represented by 
Palace halls. Vestibules and a Square in a 
mediceval toiun. Then Milanese influence 
seems to have become active, as hinted at 
by a Group of temples, about 1830, and, as 
far as the coloring is concerned, by a Sepul- 
chral hall, 1820-1835, which is attributed 
to one Ferrari, meaning probably the other- 
wise imrecorded L. Ferrari working in 1830 
and 1831 for the Apollo Theatre in Rome. 
Palace halls and Courts in neo-Renaissance 
style follow again the general lead of Vala- 



dier, while a Gothic church and a Gothic 
loggia on a square, a Cave with an exotic 
building, a Street in ancient Egypt, and a 
Panlaslic hall, 1830-1850, are more like 
Milanese designs. -I'J A Sepulchral hall of an 
order of knights and an Assembly hall prob- 
ably devised for the same play, about 1850, 
are probably the ripest and most indepen- 
dent of this artist's designs. In particular 
the first shows what magnificent fruits the 
old independent traditions of stage design 
were still able to bear, as do a probably 
Bolognese Entrance to a fortress, about 
1830, a central Italian Court of a Gothic 
palace in a mountain toiun, 1825-1840, and 
a hall of a Gothic castle in ruins, possibly 
by a German artist working in Italy, about 
1840. 

But it was the period when the old tradi- 
tions had lost their vigor. The problems 
under^vent a basic change throtigh the in- 
troduction of gas lighting, which required 
that the pictorial qualities of the setting be 
stressed, involving a closer application of 
the principles of contemporaneous easel 
painting. The main goal became a naturalis- 
tic illusion; designs composed like pictures 
were prevalent. They are best represented 
in the Museum by The village by Domenico 
Ferri (1797-1869) , about 1830,^0 by two con- 
temporaneous designs of Ruins of old struc- 
tures by the unrecorded Emanuele Alderani 
(Fig. 18) , by Cloisters at night by Gaetano 
Malagodi, Rome, 1869,51 and by mediaeval 
Interiors and a Street by Luigi Ricci (1823- 
1896) , probably executed in Ravenna about 
1870. Seven drawings of an unknown stage 
designer (1850-1875) , who preserved some 
recollections of older schemes, are especially 
characteristic of the phase as they are drawn 
upon colored satin papers and are mainly 
concerned with the distribution of the 
masses of shadow and light. 

More than three hundred of the draw- 
ings are now on display in the Museum, and 
the remainder are conveniently mounted 



48 The scheme of the Atrium may be derived from the impression Giani received in 1811 of the atrium of 
the palace of the See in Bologna (1901-39-2195). 

49 A design for La muette de Portici by D.-F.-E. Auber (finished 1828) and one with the caption "Fieramosca 
tells the story of . . . Fucelsa to Ginevra," probably by Pietro Narducci, a painter who exhibited in Milan 
between 1809 and 1841, represent their average level. 

°o Copied probably by Romolo Liverani. 

51 Malagodi is recorded as working for the Apollo Theatre in Rome in 1866, 1868, 1870 and 1875, and as 

living in Bologna in 1902. 



3'9 



and available for use. While the present ar- 
ticle has been concerned with special prob- 
lems involved in the material, the scope of 
the collection is so large that it cannot fail 
to satisfy broader interests. It is particularly 
fortunate that such a body of material 
shoidd be found in the city in which Ameri- 



can theatrical interests are concentrated, 
and we venture to suppose that it would be 
difficult to find elsewhere in this country 
an equally varied and interesting stock of 
original stage designs. 

RUDOLF BERLINER 



WORKS OF ART RECEIVED BY THE MUSEUM 

January i -December 31, 1940 



ACCESSORIES OF FURNISHING 

Bobbin lace pillow-case; France, early 
20th century. 

GIVEN BY ELISHA DYER 

Brocaded silk pillow-cover; France, 18th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

ARCHITECTURAL DECORATION 

Forty portions of painted decoration by 
Pierre-Victor Galland (1822-1892) from 
the house of William H. Vanderbilt at 
Fifth Avenue and Fifty-first Street, New 
York; about 1881. 

GIVEN BY ERNEST F. TYLER 

BEADWORK 

Six pieces of beadwork; Italy, 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HOLLIS FRENCH 

CERAMICS 

Transfer-printed pottery tile; Liverpool, 
England, about 1780. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Steel knife with transfer-printed pottery 
handle; France, about 1870. 

GIVEN BY' MRS. ROBERT MONKS 

Four lustre pottery plates; Hispano- 
Moresque, 15th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. LAURENT OPPENHEIM IN 
MEMORY OF LAURENT OPPENHEIM 

Glazed pottery tile; Spain, 16th century. 

GIVEN BY HERBERT WEISSBERGER 

COSTUME AND COSTUME 

ACCESSORIES 

Two parasol handles and one comb, of 
carved tortoise-shell; France (?) , late 19th 
century 

GIVEN BY MISS SUSAN DWIGHT BLISS 

Nine pieces of embroidered costume ac- 
cessories; France, mid-i9th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE CANE 

Collection of seventy-six items of infants' 



costume and costume accessories; Egypt, 
China, Europe and United States, 3rd 
century B.C 20th century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DE WITT CLINTON 
COHEN IN MEMORY OF THE MISSES HEWITT 

Wool shawl; India, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CHARLES SUYDAM CUTTING 

Silk machine-made lace shawl; United 
States, about 1830. 

GIVEN BY MRS. FREDERIC SALTONSTALL GOULD 

Wool and cotton sarape; Mexico, about 

1870. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Six fans; China and France, mid-igth 
century. 

GIVEN BY SAMUEL L. ISRAEL 

Two pairs of women's slippers; Fran'ce, 
1770-1790. 

GIVEN BY MISS ESTELLE LIGHTBOURNE 

Two lace collars; Brussels and France, 
about 1850. 

GIVEN BY MRS. STAFFORD MC LEAN 

Child's bib, cap; Switzerland, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY HENRY OOTHOUT MILLIKEN 

Eleven articles of costume accessories; 
England, France and United States, 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

Silk tapestry purse with fittings; Japan, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. EDWARD ROBINSON 

Coin jaurse; France, about 1900. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ERNEST GUNTHER VIETOR 

In addition to the Costume Accessories 
listed above. Buttons have been received 
by purchase and from the following 
donors: 

ANONYMOUS, MRS. ALPHAEUS ALBERT, THE 
ASSOCIATED BUTTON CORPORATION, MRS. WIL- 
LIAM BAMBERGER, MRS. FRANK BENDER, ABRAM 
M. BLUMBERG, BROOKS COSTUME COMPANY, 



320 



INC., THE CATALIN CORPORATION OF AMERICA, 
MRS. DE WITT CLINTON COHEN, BARONESS ALMA 
DAHLERUP, MISS MARION P. DICKIE, MRS. TAD 
DORGAN, ELISHA DYER, MRS. HENRY MORRIS 
FECHIMER, MRS. J. J. FITZGERALD, MISS VIR- 
GINIA GERSON, MRS. CAROLA R. GREEN, JACK V. 
GREENBERG, MRS. EDWARD E. HARKAVY, WILLIAM 
HEIMANN, CHARLES F. HINTERNHOFF, MISS ADA 
C. HUDSON, MRS. HARRY S. KOOPMAN, MRS. CARL 
E. LINCOLN, SYNCELLUS L. MOUNT, MRS. ROBERT 
B. NOYES, PLASTIC WARE, INC., MISS B. L. 
RAETZER, MISS ELISA AKERLY RICHARDSON, THE 
SCOVILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY, MISS 
HELEN S. STONE, MISS GRACE LINCOLN TEMPLE, 
MISS EDYTHE TIFFANY, MRS. ROBERTSON WARD, 
MRS. THOMAS DUDLEY \VEBB, MISS EDITH 
WETMORE 

EMBROIDERY 

Embroidery panel; France, i8th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MABEL CHOATE 

Embroidered hanging; probably Spain, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Three pieces of embroidery; Algiers, 
Greece and Turkey, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MAYORKAS BROTHERS 

Four designs for embroidery; France, 
about 1815. Five patterns for embroidery; 
United States, mid- 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 

Twelve etchings, twelve lithographs, by 
Childe Hassam (1859-1935) ; United 
States, 1916-1934. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CHILDE HASSAM 

Fifty-four colored lithographed costume 
plates; Italy, 1820-1830. 

GIVEN BY MRS. AGNES KREMER 

Joseph tells his dreams to Jacob. Copy in 
reverse of engraving by Lucas van Leyden 
(1494-1533); Bartsch 19. 

GIVEN BY MRS. STAFFORD MCLEAN 

Two illustrations from Harper's Weekly, 
1875. 

PURCHASED 

GLASS 

Wine-glass with initial of Napoleon III; 
France, mid-igth century. 

GIVEN BY HENRY OOTHOUT MILLIKEN 

GLYPTIC ARTS 

Eleven pipes and pij^e bowls; England, 
mid- 19th century. 

GIVEN BY SAMUEL C. HARRIMAN 



GOLD AND SILVERSMITH'S WORK 

Silver plate; Mexico, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. STAFFORD MCLEAN 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

Sixteen drawings for book illustration, by 
Melchior Fuessli, 1677-1737. Nine hun- 
dred seventy-one drawings for jewelry; 
Italy, 1750-1875. Seventy-one designs for 
painted wall decoration; Austria, 1830- 
1850. Forty-six architectural and decora- 
tive designs; England, France and Italy, 
i8th-igth centuries. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MARY HEARN GREIMS 

HARDWARE 

Wood model for cast door-knob; New 
York, 1880-1900. 

GIVEN BY PAUL W. SCHERBNER 

LACE 

Lace border; Valenciennes, aboiu 1830. 
Machine-net collar; Brussels, about i860. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

NUMISMATICS 

Two silver half-dollars commemorating 
the Tercentenary of Rhode Island; 1936. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

PAPER ARTICLES 

Box covered ^vith embossed paper; France, 
about i860. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

Three Valentines; United States, 1866- 
1870. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HAMILTON FISH WEBSTER 

Box lined with printed paper; United 
States, mid- 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS GRACE LINCOLN TEMPLE 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Stereopticon photograph of the Great 
Eastern; United States, about 1868. 

GIVEN BY JOHN F. NEUKIRCHEN 

TEXTILE ARTS 

Printed cotton: Les quatre parties dii 
monde; Jouy, France, about 1788. 

GIVEN BY MISS MABEL CHOATE 

Two sample books containing printed 
linens; Austria, 1938. 

GIVEN BY HARRY DE PAUER 

Printed cotton; France, about 1818. 

GIVEN BY MRS. FREDERIC SALTONSTALL GOULD 

Three fragments of silk plain compound 
cloth; Baghdad, about 1100. Silk plain 
compound weft twill; Spain, 12th century. 
Portion of wool double-cloth coverlet; 
Pennsylvania, late 18th century. 



321 



PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MARY HEARN GREIMS 

Fragment of plain compound weft silk 
twill; Achmin, Egypt, 6th-7th century. 
Three pieces of printed cotton, one piece 
of silk plain cloth; France and England, 
i8th and 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Eight textile samples; France, 1939. Four 
sample books containing samples of dress 
fabrics; France, 1939-1940. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM HARDY, INC. 

Printed cotton: William Penn's Treaty 
with the Indians; England, about 1800. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Nine pieces of printed cotton; Alsace, 
mid-i9th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. EDWARD E. HARKAVY 

Satin; Egypt, about 1939. 

GIVEN BY MISS ALICE K. HARVEY 

Four textiles; India, England and United 
States, 18th and 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM A. HUTCHESON 

Three water-color designs for woven ma- 
terial; England, mid-i9th century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. RICHARD IRVIN 

Three lengths of textiles printed after 
designs by Stanley H. Coventry; United 
States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY JOHNSON AND FAULKNER, INC. 

Thirty textile fragments; China, 18th and 
19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MISS BEATRICE KATES 

Printed handkerchief; Paris, 1938. 

GIVEN BY Miss JOAN KOOPMAN 

Two pieces of silk fancy satin; France, 
about 1880. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

Resist-printed linen; United States, early 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. BENTLEY F. RAMSDELL 

Three lengths of textiles printed and 
painted after designs by Stanley H. Cov- 
entry; United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY STROHEIM AND ROMANN 

Three pieces of satin; France, about 1870. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CLARENCE WEBSTER 

Four textile fragments; France, Italy and 
Turkey, 18th and 19th centuries. Com- 
pound satin strip; Japan, 19th century. 
Brocaded satin; France, 1750-1775. T^vo 



printed silk handkerchiefs; France and 
United States, 1939, 1938. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDITH WETMORE 

TOYS AND GAMES 

Doll's tea set and dish; France, 1850-1875. 
Doll; France, late 19th century. Twenty- 
five articles of doll's clothing; France, late 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

WALL-PAPER 

Roll of wall-jaaper; Philadelphia, about 

1 880. 

ANONYMOUS 

Thirty-two pieces of \vall-paper from the 
American Hotel, Hancock, New York; 
England and United States, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY JOHN BURTON BRIMER 

Piece of wall-paper; France, about 1787. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HAROLD BROWN 

Two pieces of wall-paper from a house at 
Hamburg, Connecticut. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MAURICE CASSALIS 

T\\'o sheets of wall-paper reproducing 
the design of a paper used in the print- 
ing of the last issue of The Daily Citizen 
in Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 2, 1863; 
United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY JAMES DAVIS 

Four pieces of wall-paper; France and 
United States, 1938-1939. 

CIVEN BY ELISHA DYER 

Embossed, painted and gilded leather 
wall-hanging from "Stonover," Lenox, 
Massachusetts; Japan, 1875-1885. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Wall-paper; Crystal Shells, designed by 
Alice Erskine. 

GIVEN BY KATZENBACH AND WARREN, INC. 

Five pieces of wall-paper; France and 
LInited States, 1860-1925. 

GIVEN BY THOMAS A. NEWMAN 

Six pieces of wall-paper; England and 
France, 1780-1860. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROLLIN STICKLE 

Six pieces of wall-paper; United States, 
1900-1905. 

GIVEN BY Miss LOUISE WALTER 

Thirty-six wall-papers; France, 19th cen- 
tury and United States, 1930-1940. 

GIVEN BY MISS D. LORRAINE YERKES 



322 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

is served by these lines of transportation 

SECOND AVENUE ELEVATED 8th Street (St. Mark's Place) Station 
THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED 9th Street Station 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line — 8th Street Station 

L R. T. SUBWAY Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 

INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street— AVashington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS Wanamaker Terminal, Route 5 

BROADWAY BUS LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS, Route 4 

MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS Routes 1 and 2 

EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS 

Christopher Street Ferry route. 13: Seventh Avenue route, 9 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




r^z/ 



/.y J,/.).h /A'/y^''' '' 



LA PASSEMENTIERE. COLORED LITHOGRAPH BY FREDERIC BOUCHOT. 
FROM HIS "COSTUMES DE DIVERSES MARCHANDES." 183O? 



VOL . I . NO . 9 



SEPTEMBER • 1942 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Gano Dunn, President 
J. P. Morgan 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 

OFFICERS 

Edwin S. Burdell, Director 
Edward L. Rehm, Secretary 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

John R. Safford, Superintendent of Buildings 



MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker^, Chairman 
*Mrs. Werner Abegg 
*Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 

Elisha Dyer 

John D. Gordan 

Miss Marian Hague 

Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

STAFF 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 

Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 

* As of July 1, 1942. 

Copyright, 1942, by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL . I . NO • 9 SEPTEMBER • 1942 



THE Museum, continuing its policy of bringing to the attention of a 
wider public the great variety and richness of research material 
freely available at Cooper Union for the use of designers, collectors, 
students and the general public, presented an exhibition of galloons, 
tassels, gimps and fringes arranged entirely from objects in this collec- 
tion — a collection whose value has long been known and admired by 
specialists. Although this is the first actual showing in a special exhibi- 
tion of this material, as early as 1899, three years after the opening of 
the Museum, the Misses Hewitt, with their usual foresight, included 
examples of these crafts among their gifts. The richness of their later 
gifts enhanced the importance of this collection which has been further 
built up through the generosity of many donors including Mrs. C. B. 
Alexander, The Au Panier Fleuri Fund, Vitall Ben^uiat, Mr. and Mrs. 
DeWitt Clinton Cohen, Miss Diana del Monte, Georges A. Glaenzer, 
Miss Marian Hague, George A. Hearn, Mrs. Abram S. Hewitt, J. Pier- 
pont Morgan, John G. Neeser, Miss Helen S. and Bromley S. Stone, 
John Wanamaker, Mrs. Hamilton Fish Webster and I. Weinberg. 

The choice of this phase of the decorative arts for display and discus- 
sion was in part dictated by the current revival of the use of these trim- 
mings for costume design; and in part by the fact that craftsmen for 
many centuries working in a great variety of materials have chosen these 
decorative motifs for use on such a diversity of objects that a com- 
prehensive display of galloons, tassels, gimps and fringes demanded 
the display of a representative wealth of objects from the Museum's 
collections. 

327 



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TRIMMINGS IN THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTION: 
FRINGES, TASSELS, GIMPS AND GALLOONS 

Enthusiasts of the non-representational arts, in their zeal for finding 
new means of expression, have overlooked a traditional form of con- 
siderable vitality and beauty. Although not creations of brush and oil 
pigments, tassels and fringes give evidence of great concern with ques- 
tions of form and color, and the movement with which they are ani- 
mated brings them still closer to another insufficiently appreciated art 
form — the design of fireworks. Like this colorful and at times robustly 
noisy spectacle, such trimmings as tassels and fringes are uncritically 
taken for granted, and have not become the subject matter of extended 
literary attention. It is the purpose of the present article to make avail- 
able a few notes on the less technical aspects of the craft. 

Because of the fact that fringes, tassels, gimps and galloons serve a 
purpose, as well as being ornamental, it is not surprising to learn of 
their widespread use by textile-producing people. From the early pe- 
riods of history, such pictorial representations as are borne by seals from 
ancient Babylonia show garments edged ^vith fringes and tassels. Here, 
as in Assyria, tunics were fringed at the bottom and shawls were draped 
so that the fringes, running diagonally, had a decorative effect. Students 
of the Bible will be familiar with the quotation from Numbers 15:37, 
"Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them 
fringes in the borders of their garments — and that they put upon the 
fringe of each border a cord of blue." And again, from Deuteronomy 
22:12 'Thou shalt make thee fringes upon the four borders of thy 
vesture ..." 

In the Museum collection, the earliest piece from the western hemi- 
sphere is a narrow band woven in Peru in the Chimu period (11th- 
14th century) and used for trimming a poncho. It is in interlocking 
tapestry weave in a design showing a conventionalized bird head and 
is edged with a twisted, looped fringe. Far earlier, however, is an Egyp- 
tian example, also a narrow band of slit tapestry Avhich has been applied 
to linen as a trimming thus serving as a galloon. It ^vas probably made 
in the fifth century by the Copts, as the Egyptians who became Chris- 
tians were called. 

329 










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The Cooper Union Museum collection provides a rich and fertile 
field for the student of trimmings which is augmented by the Museum 
libraries offering the standard works and rare books and the Encyclo- 
pedic Pictorial Reference Library with its many illustrations of 
trimmings. 

ORIGIN AND FUNCTION 

The orio^in of fringe is not hard to discover and must be as old as 
cloth, for fringe seems inherent in the nature of weaving. Cloth, to be 
useful, should be finished off somehow at the ends so that it will not 
ravel, so that it will have added strength against wear and added weight 
to hold it in place and, besides, so that it will please the decorative sense 
of the weaver. A very simple way is to let the warp threads extend 
beyond the cloth, thus forming a fringe. Rugs^ are often finished in this 
way; and so were the embroidered towels made by the Pennsylvania- 
Germans, examples of which have recently come to the Museum. In 
these instances the threads hang parallel, but in others, groups of 
threads are either bound or knotted together with the result that we 
have a tasselled fringe worked on the object. From this it was only a 
step to making fringe, or tassels, as separate things to be applied to the 
object to be decorated. This, too, was done by the makers of Pennsyl- 
vania towels (see fig. 5). As time went on more and more attention was 
paid to the decorative elements until now we classify such things as 
"trimmings," nearly forgetting their purposeful origin. 

Fringe with a woven heading varies in its manufacture in accordance 
with the pattern and type of weaving selected. It may be a simple plain 
cloth weave, or it may be a very complicated one involving several ma- 
terials and several weaves. By way of speaking very simply, one could 
say that the heading is woven on warps, and that the fringe skirt is 
formed by the wefts which, having crossed the warps, are carried out 
beyond them as far as the desired length of fringe, where they are taken 
around a temporary warp which is later removed. This result can be 
obtained by threading a part of the loom. 

Within definite technical limits fringes show great variety. Most of 
those in the Museum have plain woven headings, although a few are 

1 Victoria and Albert museum, South Kensington. Dept. of textiles, Notes on carpet- 
knotting and iveaving, London, H. M. Stationery off., 1920, p. 24. 




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fancy, but the variety comes in the proportional relations between the 
parts, in the use of contrasting colors, and in the treatment of the 
fringed portion. This is sometimes allowed to hang straight in single 
strands, and sometimes crinkled; again it is looped and hangs plain, or 
is looped and twisted, w^hile the edge may be straight, scalloped or 
pointed. Often there is a section of knotting between the heading and 
the fringe. 

Knots and tassels are commonly found at the ends of ropes and cords: 
the knot to prevent ravelling and the tassel to give weight and hold it in 
line as the plumb does the plumb-line. In the Middle Ages, when 
girdles were knotted around the waists of both men and women, there 
was much opportunity for the decorative cord and tassel. But knotting 
did not belong entirely to the Middle Ages for in all ages people have 
been interested and some have achieved great success in making beauti- 
fully decorative knots. The Chinese are noted for their intricately 
knotted and tasselled cords; the Arabs developed a handsome and 
elaborate style of knotting known as macrame; and from India come 
jeweled necklaces which are made to fasten with cords and tassels 
instead of metal clasps. 

Gimps and galloons do not grow out of weaving in quite the same 
way but are bands applied largely for the sake of decoration, although 
with some intent of strengthening the place where wear or strain will 
come or of hiding a seam or of providing harmonious transition from 
one material to another. Such schemes are met with in other materials 
also, for in certain kinds of metalwork seams are covered up, strength- 
ened, and ornamented with decorative castings. Because there is much 
confusion in the terms, it might be well to say that, for convenience, we 
are using the term galloon to mean a solidly woven band made to trim 
a textile^ and gimp as a plaited or braided one, a technique related to 
passementerie and lace rather than to weaving. The weaving of galloons 
presents no specialized problem and the making of gimps, when con- 
sidered to be braided trimming, involves the usual techniques of braid- 
ing or plaiting; but in some cases where a braided guipure or cord is 
used in connection with a woven background, the method is difficult 

2 A definition that might be interpreted to indude ribbons, but ribbons are not included 
in this discussion. 

333 




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FIGURE 4. PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN IN A BALL GOWN. ENGRAVED BY L. SURUGUE, IN I746, 



AFTER A PAINTING BY CHARLES COYPEL. 



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FIGURE 5. A PENNSYLVANIA-GERMAN DOOR TOWEL DECORATED WITH FRINGE 
AND EMBROIDERED IN CROSS-STITCH: SIGNED "M H" AND DATED "1837". 







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and can be solved only by a complicated apparatus in the hands of a 
skillful operator. 

Such trimming forms we think of as being confined to fabrics since 
they are used especially in connection with costume and textiles for 
walls and furniture. But this is not entirely true for they are also repre- 
sented in other materials, as is well shown by the Museum's collection. 
For instance, a panel of carved and painted wood shows trophies tied 
with a tasselled ribbon and a wall-paper shows a curtain trimmed with 
lace and fringe, looped back with tassels. Many drawings made by 
artists of the eighteenth century show projects for trimmed textiles to 
be used with furniture and vehicles. Among these the very elaborate 
sedan chairs (see fig. ii) and state carriages make a special appeal as 
showing the pinnacle reached in transportation at that time. 

Indeed wherever fabrics have been used for man's comfort, whether 
on garments, or furniture, on walls, or in transportation, fringes, tassels, 
gimps and galloons have been used to beautify them. The wise designer 
knows that they are not something extra — to be added just for the 
enrichment of an already finished fabric — but something that, rightly 
used, increases the merit of the piece itself by the introduction of new 
line or color or texture effects, or by harmonizing the textile with the 
object on which it is used. 

TRIMMINGS SINCE THE RENAISSANCE 

From the time of the Renaissance, contemporary paintings and en- 
gravings offer a splendid opportunity for the study of costumes and 
household furnishings. Here we may see, in everyday use, trimming 
similar to examples in the Museum's collection. At Cooper Union may 
be seen a number of narrow galloons, the designs of which often remind 
us of the laces and embroideries; they were equally inspired by the six- 
teenth- and seventeenth-century pattern books published in Italy, Ger- 
many and France. 

Of the same period are the fascinating and varied little tassels found 
on the cutwork and laces of the Italian Renaissance. The Museum has 
a number of them, the oldest being on a fragment of linen embroidered 
in double running stitch with two little birds, and several letters of 
the alphabet, all motifs of the pattern-book type. Later in the seven- 

337 




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teenth century, more elaborate lace tassels were made to be worn 
with the "falling collars" which became popular after the starched 
and wired "standing collars" of Queen Elizabeth's day had been laid 
aside. This type of collar was fastened by a lace cord run through but- 
tonholes in the neckband and at each end of the cord was a tassel. They 
are often seen (for they were allowed to hang below the collar, their 
beauty giving them the right to be considered part of the collar) in the 
portraits painted by Dutch masters of the seventeenth century and in 
the very earliest of American portraits. 

Other interesting tassels — more costly perhaps but no more attractive 
— are those we designate as ecclesiastical. Made for the Church and the 
men in its service, they are the richest, most elaborate tassels in the 
Museum and are made of silk (then, as now, a fibre difficult to obtain), 
and of precious metal intricately worked over a core, or framework. 

The process of making these tassels is little known today and inter- 
esting enough, we believe, to warrant mention. To start, one makes a 
flat model of the exact size and shape desired for the finished tassel.^ 
Then a cylinder having a diameter equal to that of the smallest part 
of the tassel is made — often of cardboard — and sewed together. Around 
this core long strips of cloth of varying widths and lengths are wrapped 
until the desired diameters have been obtained at the proper places. 
The difficulty comes in determining the necessary widths and lengths 
of these wrappings in order to obtain the required dimensions. At this 
point a framework with a stepped outline has been made and in order 
to do away with the angles it is necessary that strong thread be bound 
around it in a criss-cross pattern. After this a cloth covering is made to 
fit over the whole and is put on. (Seamstresses will recognize the diffi- 
culty of making a smooth-fitting cover for such a shape.) 

Now the framework being ready, threads, or cords, of silk or metal or 
both, are fastened at the top and worked by some such methods as twist- 
ing and braiding and knotting until they form a decorative covering 
taking the exact shape of the framework. Bocher^ gives directions for 
this part of the work. Sometimes the strands are plain and again certain 
ones are very ornamental and show great labor (as the tassel in fig. 7). 

Of course later generations found short cuts, such as the use of a core 

3 Emmanuel Bocher, Les glands des XVIe & XVIIe siecles. (Manuel des travaux a V aiguille, 
Paris, E. Rahir, 1911-19. V. III.) 

339 



of cloth stuffed to the desired size, or of wood turned on a lathe, but 
these seem to have stood the tests of time less well than the earlier and 
more carefully made tassels. 

In costume we find some very interesting uses of the trimmings now 
under discussion and their use in clothing should not be overlooked 
even though at present we use such trimmings less for costume than for 
upholstery. Galloons were of special importance, and gimps to a certain 
extent. In fact, in the portraits of the period we rarely see a costume 
that is not rich in trimmings of this type. Heavy silks, brocades, damasks 
and velvets were used and to trim them, bands of gold and silver were 
woven in many interesting designs. Here should be mentioned the type 
known as livery galloons. These narrow bands are ornamented with the 
arms or insignia of the house or individual by whose liveried servants 
they were to be worn. For instance, there is one in which appears the 
red hat of a Cardinal, with its cord and tassels (see fig. 8). This is a 
type of hat in secular use during the Middle Ages and taken over as an 
ecclesiastical symbol of rank and authority and, like the tassel on the 
mortar-board in acadeinic circles, it has been retained to the pres- 
ent day. 

There is, in the Museum, a fragment — no^v frail and worn — of 
white galloon with a pattern of flowers in deep red velvet, tangible evi- 
dence of one bit of the furnishings of a Genoese Renaissance palace. 
Then lovely, dainty bands in pastel shades bring thoughts of French 
chateaux as the ^vider bands of shining silk ornamented with classic 
motifs remind us of the Empire styles of France and their adaptation 
to the American home some^vhat later. An unusual piece comes from 
France, about 1820, and is a band of printed velvet showing the head of 
a woman in a Avhite medallion on a black ground, A recent gift has 
brought to the Museum four small pieces of Russian galloon in gold 
and silver and silk made in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 

Because gimps are so often ornamented with little rosettes and loops 
or twistings arranged to form flowers or leaves, and because ornaments 
are so often made up of braided or twisted parts, the gimps and orna- 
ments are to be discussed together. They have a more three-dimensional 
quality than galloons, a suggestion of relief, and an interest of texture. 
Some are very delicate in the shades of reduced intensity fashionable in 
the later eighteenth century; others are in bright color schemes. A num- 

340 




lg. 



FIGURE 9. OM: of a SET OF ELEVEN BOOKS SHOWING SAiMTLFS OF GALLOONS AND 
GS OF TH.E NINETEENTH CENTURY. 



\/r>-,^Jl^A , OTHER TRIMMIN 




I 



FIGURE 10. THREE SPANISH TASSELS MADE OF BRIGHT COLORED 
SILKS ENRICHED WITH GOLDEN THREADS. 




'nrcm<A^h Jl 



wa-o'x 



}e>6~i~-^^ 




^0 



^M-i 




FIGURE 11. PROJF.CT FOR SEDAN CHAIRS, DRAWN IN LONDON ABOUT 1775, SIGNED "W H S' 



\Q(rrr<&^ ^9(5 - <S 



ber have little silk tassels rather widely spaced on braids of silk-covered 
cords. Flat metal strips are used sometimes as a base around which to 
wrap silk threads in forming flowers and sometimes chenille and bits of 
ribbon are employed. 

Silk fringes with metal threads as used in Italy and Spain in the seven- 
teenth and following centuries, in Greece, and in the United States are 
included in the Museum's collection. To select three of outstanding 
interest: there is the silk fringe with enrichment worked over it in gold 
thread (as is often found on tassels), there is one with fringe tied into a 
pattern by metal threads and there is one piece of gold fringe, made in 
the last century, ^vhich is looped and cut in points. Some of the most 
attractive fringes are those decorated with tassels or balls. One espe- 
cially comes to mind, a rich and gay piece from eighteenth-century 
Spain with a heading of red and yellow silk and a fringe bearing very 
full red silk tassels. Those have now fluffed out and the silken ends have 
the quality of fine old velvet. Another is a rose colored cord tied in a 
lattice pattern with yellow and blue silk ball ornaments at the crossings. 
Some are heavy with tassels, others are restrained and have only a few, 
for they express the taste of their own day. Such pieces may be con- 
sidered useful both as a guide to current production and a key to knowl- 
edge of earlier procedure. 

Elizabeth Haynes 



343 



WORKS OF ART RECEIVED BY THE MUSEUM, 1941 



ACCESSORIES OF FURNISHING 

Printed cotton bedspread; England, about 
1820. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARY T. COCKCROFT 

Embi'oidered mat; England, about 1880. 
Chair seat, cushion; United States, 1880- 
1890. 

GIVEN BY MRS. AGNES KREMER 

Pieced bedspread in pattern of "The Gar- 
den Path"; United States, about 1850. 

GIVEN BY MISS KATHERINE OLCOTT 

Embroidered mat; China, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
I'ATTERSON 

Silk table cover; France, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY ARTHUR W. POPPER 

Four sets of wall-hangings; Spain, 16th- 
17th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GRAFTON H. PYNE 

Embroidered velvet wall-hanging; North 
Africa, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY GORDON WHYTE 

ALPHABETS AND INITIALS 

Ten chromolithographed trade cards; 
United States, 1870-1880. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN E. 
ALEXANDRE 

ARCHITECTURAL METAL WORK 

Study for wrought iron railing, by Samuel 
Yellin (1885-1940) ; Philadelphia, about 
1930- 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. RICHARD IRVIN 

CERAMICS 

Seven designs for tiles, after motifs by 
William Morris (1834-1896) ; England, 
20th century. 

GIVEN BY ROBERT W. FRIEDEL 

Panel of seventy-two tiles; Delft, late 17th 
century. 

GIVEN BY WILLIAM RANDOLPH HEARST 

Red Stoneware tankard with gilded 
mountings; Meissen, about 1715. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN INNES 
KANE 

Glazed pottery oil jar; Iran, 19th century. 
Lustre plaque; Spain, 16th century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
I'ATTERSON 



COSTUME 

Two men's coats, woman's skirt; China, 
19th century. Wool shawl; France, 19th 
century. Kimono; Japan, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY Miss MARY T. COCKCROFT 

Silk robe for ecclesiastical figurine; France, 
early 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DEWITT CLINTON COHEN 

Two silk bodices; France, 1780, 1880. 
Shawl; Spain, mid- 19th century. Three 
embroidered baby's dresses; United States, 
iTiid-i9th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HENRY MORRIS FECHIMER 

Embroidered silk waistcoat; France, about 
1775- 

GIVEN BY MRS. RIDGELY HUNT 

T^vo embroidered skirts; China, i8th-early 
19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
PATTERSON 

COSTUME ACCESSORIES 

One hundred forty-seven buttons; United 
States, i9th-20th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ALPHAEUS ALBERT 

Embroidered veil; Turkey, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. JOHN ANDERSON 

Hemp girdle; Morocco, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARY T. COCKCROFT 

Nine items of infants' costume accessories; 
France, England, Netherlands and Switzer- 
land, 17th- 19th centuries. Eight items of 
dolls' costume accessories; France and 
United States, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DEWITT CLINTON COHEN 

Squaie of four commemorative handker- 
chiefs; United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY COUNT HENRY HARRISON FLORENCE 
DE FRISE 

Infant's cap; United States, early 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HENRY SEELEY EMERSON 

Twelve commemorative handkerchiefs; 
England, 1936; United States, 1939. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HENRY MORRIS FECHIMER 

Brass button; United States, early 20th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MISS BERTHA A. GREEN 

Two sets of four buttons, three pairs of 
looped frog fasteiiers; China, 19th century. 
Two studs, six buttons; Japan, 19th cen- 



344 



tuiy. Commemorative handkerchief; 
England, 1941. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Embroidered collar; Spain, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Eight embroidered handkerchiefs; France 
and Switzerland, 1860-1900. Three peas- 
ant headdresses; Austria and Switzerland, 
early 19th century. Six embroidered cap 
crowns, collar, costume ornament; Austria, 
early 19th century. Gilt brass coronet; 
Switzerland, 19th century. Three buttons; 
United States, about 1900. 

GIVEN BY MRS. RIDGELY HUNT 

Five pairs of gloves; England, France, 
Italy and Spain, 17th and 19th centuries. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN INNES 
KANE 

Woman's cap, child's cap; India, 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY KIRKOR MINASSIAN 

Pincushion; United States, mid-igth cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS SERBELLA MOORES 

Nineteen buttons; Ireland and United 
States, 1870-1880. 

GIVEN BY MISS FRANCES MORRIS 

Two collar and cuff sets with buttons, one 
collar with button; United States, about 
1880. 

GIVEN BY SYNCELLUS L. MOUNT 

Three commemorative handkerchiefs; 
France and United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES 

Embroidered bag; China, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
PATTERSON 

Two handkerchiefs; United States, 1849- 
1880. 

GIVEN BY GEORGE GATES RADDIN, JR. 

Dress yoke; United States, about 1890. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM A. SILLMAN 

Collar, cuffs and vestee; Venice, about 
1897. 

GIVEN BY MISS ELIZABETH UNDER\VOOD 

Two buttons; Ireland, about 1870. 

GIVEN BY MRS. N. PARKER VAN BUSKIRK 

ENAMEL 

Campaign buttons; United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY HENRY OOTHOUT MILLIKEN 



ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 

Engraved "Reward of Merit"; United 
States, about 1840. 

ANONYMOUS GIFT 

Chromolithograph: "The Castle Geyser, 
Upper Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National 
Park," after water-color by Thomas 
Moran (1837-1926) ; Boston, 1874. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF LOUIS P. EHRICH 

Eighty-six prints; England and France, 
iSth-igth centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM GREENOUGH 

One hundred sixty prints; England, 
France, Italy and the Netherlands; 18th 
and 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY HENRY OOTHOUT MILLIKEN 

Thirty-six prints; England and United 
States, 20th century. Two hundred ninety- 
si.x color prints; Japan, i8th-i9th cen- 
turies. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
PATTERSON 

GLASS 

Seven pieces of glass; Venice, about 1928. 
Glass dish by Maurice Heaton; United 
States, 1930-1935. 

GIVEN BY ELISHA DYER 

Two drinking glasses; United States, 
about 1880. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF THE MISSES HEWITT 

T'svo glass vases; Venice, 20th century in 
the style of the 4th century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
PATTERSON 

GLYPTIC ARTS 

Bambino from a creche group; Italy, 18th 
century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. RICHARD IRVIN 

GOLD AND SILVERSMITHS' WORK 

Child's rattle; France, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DEWITT CLINTON COHEN 

Two rings; Egypt, early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY ELISHA DYER 

Silver filigree card case, bouquet holder, 
mosaic brooch and earrings; Italy and 
United States, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. A. MURRAY YOUNG 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

Water-color drawing, interior of the Li- 



345 



brary of Congress; United States, about 
1900. 

GIVEN BY SPENCER BICKERTON 

Elevations of the walls of a room de- 
signed by Louis Adrien Masreliez (1748- 
1810) , drawn by Edvin Olsson Oilers; 
Stockholm, 1926. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT WOODS BLISS 

Twenty-four drawings by Howard Russell 
Butler, N. A. (1856-1934) . 

GIVEN BY MRS. HOWARD RUSSELL BUTLER 

Twenty-seven drawings of theatrical cos- 
tumes; Italy, 17th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

LACE 

Two fragments of needlepoint lace; Ven- 
ice, 17th- 1 8th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HENRY MORRIS FECHIMER 

Two pieces of bobbin lace; Switzerland, 
mid-igth century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Strip of bobbin lace; Honiton, England, 
late 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. C. H. JUDKINS 

Three pieces of bobbin lace; France, 
about 1840. 

GIVEN BY MISS FLORENCE N. LEVY 

Fragment of bobbin lace; France, about 
1850. t 

GIVEN BY BARONESS WILHELMINE VON GODIN 

LEATHERWORK 

Eleven pieces of painted leather for wall- 
hangings; France, about 1700. 

GIVEN BY JULIAN E. GARNSEY 

LIGHTING 

Eighty-one lighting devices; England and 
United States, 18th- 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. J. INSLEY BLAIR 

METALWORK 

Seven daggers and swords; India and 
Japan, 17th- 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MISS SUSAN DWIGHT BLISS 

Tole egg-server; France, early 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM A. HUTCHESON 

Lock plate; Italy, 18th century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF JACQUES SELIGMANN 



NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY 

Nine embroidered panels; Pennsylvania, 
1813-1847. Sampler; Pennsylvania, 1827. 

GIVEN BY MRS. J. INSLEY BLAIR 

Four samples of machine embroidery; 
United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY CALTABIANO EMBROIDERIES 

Two hundred sixty-three samplers of 
embroidery; Denmark, England, France, 
Germany, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, 
Norway, Spain, United States, i7th-2oth 
■^- centuries. 

BEQUEST OF MRS. HENRY E. COE 

Embroidered square; Armenia, 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HENRY MORRIS FECHIMER 

Silk embroidery; Spain, late 14th century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MARY HEARN 
GREIMS 

Seven strips of embroidery; France and 
Italy, mid-i9th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Four samples of machine embroidery; 
United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY S. L. KLEIN 

Painted silk gift cloth; Japan, 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS FLORENCE N. LEVY 

Steel bodkin; United States, early 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MISS SERBELLA MOORES 

Twenty-five embroideries; China and 
Japan, 18th- 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
PATTERSON 

Four samples of machine embroidery; 
United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY MADAME SABO 

Three samples of machine embroidery; 
United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY STERLING PLEATING AND STITCHING 
COMPANY, INC. 

Three samples of machine embroidery; 
United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY F. WILKES 

NETTING 

Fragment of lace; Slovakia, 18th century. 

ANONYMOUS GIFT 

NUMISMATICS 

Terra-cotta medallion, head of Benjamin 



346 



Franklin, by Jean-Baptiste Nini (1717- 
1786) ; France, late 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. J. INSLEY BLAIR 

PAINTING 

Two oil sketches by Howard Russell But- 
ler, N. A. (1856-1934). 

GIVEN BY MRS. HOWARD RUSSELL BUTLER 

Theorem painting; United States, about 
1830. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF GEORGE A. HEARN 

Landscape painting, China, 19th century. 
Three leaves of illuminated manuscript; 
India, 17th century. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
PATTERSON 

PAPER ARTICLES 
Three Valentines; England, 1836-1850. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF THE MISSES HEWITT 

RUGS AND CARPETS 

Prayer rug; Turkey, early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MONTGOMERY HARE 

Five rug fragments; United States, second 
half of 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM A. HUTCHESON 

SPORTS AND GAMES 

Doll with clothing; United States, about 
1850. 

GIVEN BY MRS. \VILLIAM A. HUTCHESON 

Two uncut sheets of j^laying cards, Ger- 
many, 18th century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN INNES 
KANE 

Doll's chest of drawers; England, about 
1810. Model of a grocery store; United 
States, about 1870. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CHARLES MCKIM NORTON 

TEXTILE ARTS 

Painted textile; China, 18th century. Two 
fragments of sha^vls; India, 19th century. 

ANONYMOUS GIFT 

Forty-five textile samples; Denmark, Nor- 
way and Samoa, 20th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS ELIZABETH ASCHEHOUG 

Portion of printed cotton; England, early 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARY T. COCKCROFT 

Two shuttles; England, 18th century and 



United States, 19th century. Picture 
printed on silk; England, early 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DE\VITT CLINTON COHEN 

Ten textile fragments; Italy and Arabia, 
i7th-i8th centuries. Three drawings of 
textiles; France, about 1930. Four textile 
sample books; France, 1916-1930. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF HERMAN A. ELSBERG 

Seven ribbons; France, Germany and Italy, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. HENRY MORRIS FECHIMER 

Four lengths of textiles designed after 
Mexican sources; United States, 1940. 

GIVEN BY GALEY AND LORD, INC. 

Printed textile; France, late 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CAROLA R. GREEN 

Seven printed textiles; France, Spain and 
United States, i8th-i9th centuries. Silk 
velvet from the Palace of Compiegne; 
France, about 1850. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF THE MISSES HEWITT 

Printed linen; United States, about 1940. 

GIVEN BY HOWARD AND SCHAFFER, INC. 

Two pieces of velvet; France, about 1890. 
Tapestry jDanel; S^veden, 20th century. 
Passementerie; France, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. RIDGELY HUNT 

Fourteen textile fragments; France, Italy 
and United States, i7th-i9th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM A. HUTCHESON 

Two pieces of brocade; France, late 18th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. C. H. JUDKINS 

Two lengths of brocade; France, mid-i8th 
century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN INNES 
KANE 

Seven ribbon book-marks; Coventry, Eng- 
land, 1870-1880. 

PURCHASED 

Four textiles; United States, 1880-1890. 

GIVEN BY MRS. AGNES KREMER 

Ninety-nine samples of fancy cotton 
weaves for bedspreads, designed by the 
donor; Lewiston, Maine, 1936-1940. Al- 
bum of samples of yarns used for weaving. 

GIVEN BY HUGH K. MILLIKEN 

Silk textile, gift cloth; Japan, 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY THE ESTATE OF MRS. ROBERT H. 
PATTERSON 



347 



Six textiles; France, 19th century. Textile, 
India, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY ARTHUR W. POPPER 

Five pieces of velvet; Spain, 17th century. 
Two pieces of fancy compound satin; 
Spain, late 17th century. Five pieces of silk 
and metal brocade; Spain, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GRAFTON H. PYNE 

Fragment of printed cotton; United States, 
1825-1850. 

GIVEN BY GEORGE GATES RADDIN, JR. 

Twenty-one woodblocks for textile-print- 
ing; United States, 1825-1850. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF JACQUES SELIGMANN 

Seventeen fragments of printed cotton; 
United States, mid-i9th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CORA E. WILSON 

WALL-PAPER 

Scenic wall-paper in thirty widths, re- 
printed by Desfosse and Karth from 
iDlocks cut about 1850; "Chinese Chippen- 
dale," France, 1920-1925. 

GIVEN BY Miss SUSAN DWIGHT BLISS 

Border, lining paper; Germany, early 19th 
century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. J. G. K. DUER 

Five pieces of imitation "Japanese leath- 
er," United States, about 1880. 

GIVEN BY JOHN WARD DUNSMORE 

Forty-seven pieces of wall-paper designed 
by William Morris (1834-1896) ; England, 
late 19th century. 

GIVEN BY ROBERT W. FRIEDEL 

Twenty-six pieces of lining paper; Ger- 
many, 18th century 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MARY HEARN GREIMS 



Two bandboxes; United States, 1820-1830. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF THE MISSES HEWITT 

Two bandboxes, two wall-papers; United 
States, early 19th century. Portion of wall- 
paper with frieze, from the house of 
Horace Loomis in Burlington, Vermont; 
France, early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM A. HUTCHESON 

Roll of wall-paper copied from French 
paper hung in the Sheldon-Marvin-Lord 
House at Old Lyme, Connecticut in the 
late 18th century; France, 20th century. 

GIVEN BY Miss KATHERINE LUDINGTON 

Six pieces of wall-paper from a house in 
North Colebrook, Connecticut; England, 
France and United States, i9th-20th cen- 
turies. 

GIVEN BY MRS. THOMAS MOLLOY 

Six pieces of wall-paper; United States, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY WILMER MOORE 

Unused portion of a roll of wall-paper 
from the Pierrepont House at 1 Pierrepont 
Place, Brooklyn; France, 1825-1830. 

GIVEN BY SETH LOW PIERREPONT 

Piece of wall-paper, wall-paper sample 
book; United States, 1910-1940. 

GIVEN BY ANDREW F. SCHMITT 

Four papers designed by the donor after 
\vall-papers in the Museum's collection, 
nine silk-screen-printed papers designed 
by the donor; United States, 1940-1941. 

GIVEN BY SEYMOUR 

Eighteen wall-papers; England, France 
and United States, i9th-2oth centuries. 

GIVEN BY MISS D. LORRAINE YERKES 



348 



DONORS TO THE LIBRARY, 1941 



Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Mrs. Harry W. Andrews 

The Armor and Arms Club 

Miss Elisabeth Aschehoug 

Baker Furniture Factories, Inc. 

Dr. Rudolf Berliner 

Miss Theresa Berry 

Spencer Bickerton 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Mrs. Adolphe Borie 

Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 

John Carter 

Miss Appolonia H. Cassidy 

Mrs. Clarence C. Chapman 

Mrs. John Claflin 

Miss M. G. Clark 

Miss Jennie M. Clow 

Miss Mary T. Cockcroft 

Arthur Davies 

Ed^vard Morris Davis III 

Allison Delarue 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Elisha Dyer 

Mrs. D. I. Elder 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Robert W. Friedel 



Julian E. Garnsey 

Mrs. Robert W. Goelet 

John D. Gordan 

Mrs. Norvin Hewitt Green 

Calvin S. Hathaway 

Miss Elizabeth Haynes 

Mrs. Ridgely Hunt 

Mrs. F. Nevill Jackson 

Ernst Jonson 

Japan Reference Library 

William E. Katzenbach 

James M. Kingsley, Jr. 

Kokusai Bimka Shinkokai 

Miss Dorothy Lardner 

Mrs. George B. McClellan 

Mack, Jenny and Tyler 

Mrs. Stafford McLean 

Mrs. Walter Scott McPherson 

Dr. A. Hamilton Mason 

Mrs. T. W. Mather 

Miss Elinor Merrell 

Secretaria de Hacienda y Credito 

Publico, Mexico, D. F. 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Hugh K. Milliken 
Kirkor Minassian 
Mrs. Robert Monks 



Miss Serbella Moores 
Alfred Montecorboli 
The Museum of Costume Art 
Nancy McClelland, Inc. 
Estate of Mrs. Robert H. 

Patterson 
The Pierpont Morgan Library 
George Gates Raddin, Jr. 
Claude M. Roberts 
Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 
Mrs. Elizabeth M. Roth 
Robert Hamilton Rucker 
Rudolf Ruzicka 
Paul Scherbner, Jr. 
Miss Felicia M. Sterling 
Ministerio de Educacion 

Nacional, Madrid, Spain 
Mrs. James Ward Thorne 
Miss Gertrude Townsend 
Textile Museum of the District 

of Columbia 
Mrs. Adele Coulin Weibel 
Mrs. Giles Whiting 
Mrs. Eleanor C. A. Winslow 
Mrs. Cora E. Wilson 
Alan L. Wolfe 
Mrs. Ida P. Yates 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1941 



Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 



M. D. C. Crawford 
Division of Social Philosophy 

of The Cooper Union 
Julian E. Garnsey 



John D. Gordan 

Mrs. F. Raymond Holland 

Dr. Henry R. Rado 



Ellisha Dyer 

Miss Marian Hague 

Miss Serbella Moores 



VOLUNTEER WORKERS, 1941 



Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
Brryman Ridges 



Jose B. Rios 

Robert Hamilton Rucker 

Miss Eunice J. Tully 



349 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 



BENEFACTORS 



Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen* 



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350 



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351 



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CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




SILK FABRIC FROM SPAIN^ POSSIBLY WOVEN AT GRANADA^ HISPANO-MORESQUE 



FIFTEENTH CENTURY 



VOL • I • NO • 10 



DECEMBER • 1943 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Gang Dunn, President 
*J. P. Morgan 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 
Irving S. Olds 

OFFICERS 

Edwin S. Burdell, Director 
Edward L. Rehm, Secretary 
Elizabeth J. Carbon, Assistant Secretary 
Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

John R. Safford, Superintendevt of Buildings 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY C OU N C I L 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker, CJiainnan 

Mrs. Werner Abegg 

Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 
**Ellsha Dyer 
**}oHN D. Gordan 

Miss Marian Hague 

Henry Oothout Milliken 
*Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

STAFF 

Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator 

** Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 

* Deceased. 
** In the Armed Services. 

Copyright, 1943, by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL • I • NO • 10 DECEMBER • 1943 



THE publication of the Clironlcle this year was not a task to be 
taken lightly. To the Musetim, as indeed to all institutions, the 
^var has brought varied problems: members of the staff have joined 
the armed forces, and, with the evacuation of a part of the collec- 
tions and the stibsequent rearrangement of the rest, the burden on 
those remaining has increased tremendously. Then, in addition, 
there has been the difficulty of securing needed materials. 

The importance of the Museum's textiles and the appreciation 
Avhich the Chronicles of other years have been accorded may justify 
the time and effort devoted to the preparation of the present issue. 
The Cooper Union Museum is happy in calling the attention of 
students and research ^vorkers to the ^vealth of Hispano-Islamic 
material among the medieval textiles of its large collection. It is 
hoped that the discussion ^vhich follo^vs may in some degree con- 
tribute to the further study of Hispano-Islamic textiles, a field 
vitally iinportant in the history of "\veaving. 

Since the last issue of the Chronicle, the Cooper Union Musetmi 
has stiffered the loss of a loyal and gracious friend. The Cotmcil 
and staff learned wAxh sorrow of the death, on October 12, 1942, of 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes, a member of the Advisory Council since 
1938, whose many gifts constitute a precious memorial to her. Her 
wise counsel and assistance, her untiring support of The Friends 
of the Museum and all the Museum's activities were an inspiration 
to all who came to kno^v her. 



355 




FIGURE 1. SILK FABRIC. SAID TO HAVE COME FROM THE MONASTERY OF SANTA MARIA DE L'ESTANY, 
CATALONIA. SPAIN? TENTH TO ELEVENTH CENTURY. 12%" X 20% . 



C^^.^Z^'I 



Icjo^i. ~ I- ^;iz. 



THE HISPANO-ISLAMIC TEXTILES IN THE 
COOPER UNION COLLECTION 

The collection of Hispano-Islamic textiles at Cooper Union offers a rich 
source of inspiration for students of the decorative arts. At the hands of the 
medieval Islamic artists the arts of decoration reached a perfection that has 
only rarely been parallelled in other phases of artistic development. This is 
to be attributed in large part to the fact that the teachings of Islam dis- 
cotiraged the use of the human form in art and consequently placed the 
emphasis on ornament rather than figural representation. That such prohi- 
bitions were not always strictly observed is more than once illustrated in 
this collection. 

When the Arabs first emerged from the desert under the leadership of 
their prophet, Muhammad, they had no artistic heritage. Their contribution 
to Muhammadan culture consisted only of the Arabic language and the 
Koran; but it is these two features that formed the basis for the unity of the 
great medieval Muhammadan empire. At first, in the countries which the 
Arabs conquered, the older forms of art continued. The Arabs hired native 
craftsmen to work for them or imported artists and ^vorkmen from other 
parts of their newly conquered realm. Gradually, out of all of these influences, 
a truly Islamic style evolved. In each period and in each section of the Islamic 
world, however, certain distinctive characteristics are to be recognized. The 
Hispano-Islamic textiles in the Museum's collection are important both as 
documents of the development of the ornamental style of Western Islam and 
as examples of the development of the textile industry in Spain under Arab 
domination. 

This museum is partictdarly fortunate to have in its collection examples 
illustrating almost every phase of the de\'elopment of Hispano-Islamic textile 
manufacture. Through the great generosity of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, the 
Museum acquired in 1901 the entire collection of Spanish textiles of that 
illustrious Spanish archaeologist, Miguel y Badia. To these have been added 
numerous gifts; and purchases made possible by the Friends of the Museum 
have further increased the Cooper Union collection so that today it ranks 
among the most outstanding in the Avorld. 

It is my hope, in the following pages, to establish a Spanish provenance 
for a nimiber of textiles, that have hitherto been variously attributed to 
Spain, Sicily, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia and Byzantium. In the other fields 
of Islamic art, archaeology has helped in the documentation of objects. 
Inscriptions bearing names of makers and places of manufacture have made 
it possible to establish with comparative certainty the provenance of many 

357 



pieces, and by comparison with such documented objects it has been possible 
to determine the date and provenance of large groups of material. This has 
not been true in the case of textiles. Pieces with inscriptions, other than mere 
formulas, are rare except, of course, the tiraz.^ These, however, because of 
their special character, shed little light on the manufacture of pattern-woven 
fabrics. Only one example with an inscription that suggests Spanish origin 
has come to light; this is the much discussed "Veil of Hisham II," Caliph of 
Cordova (a.d. 976-1013), in the Royal Academy of History at Madrid.- Two 
pieces have been found in Spain with inscriptions that refer to Baghdad!^ 
A number of fabrics have been found in tombs, or reliquaries, or accom- 
panying documents that serve as a clue to date if not to place of manufacture. 

Further evidence for a Spanish group may be found through stylistic 
analysis, which must be made first by a comparison with other fabrics, espe- 
cially those which have some form of documentation; and secondly, and of 
equal importance, a comparison must be made with well-documented objects 
in other media, as for example, ivories and ceramics. A type of evidence too 
little used, unfortunately, is that of technical analysis. Technical studies 
have been conducted with considerable success by Dr. Lamm^ for Near 
Eastern fabrics and Nancy Reath and Eleanor Sachs^ for Persian textiles. 
Similar studies for other groups of fabrics ^vould be invaluable. Finally, we 
have written source material from which Ave may draw. Medieval historians 
and geographers wrote glowingly of the textile manufacture of Baghdad, yet 
there is only the tiraz that can be placed with certainty as being of Baghdad 
manufacture. The tendency has been to assume that the best medieval fabrics 
came from Mesopotamia, Persia, or Byzantium. That Spain, too, was an im- 
portant weaving center in medieval times, however, is well supported by 
medieval sources. 

There is no evidence that weaving as a fine art existed in Spain before the 
Arab conquest (711 a.d.), at which time sericulture and the art of silk weav- 
ing were introduced. The evidence seems to indicate that the first looms were 
set up in Cordova in the palace tiraz factory. We read in al-Baydn-al Mughrib 
of Ibn Adhari that: " 'Abd al-Rahman innovated the tiraz factories and 

1 See: A. Giohmann, "Tiraz," Encycl. Islam (Leyden, 1934) , IV, 785-93: "The word is borrowed 
from the Persian, and originally means 'embroidery'; it then comes to mean a robe adorned with 
elaborate embroidery, especially one ornamented ^vith embroidered bands with writing on them, 
worn by a ruler or person of high rank; finally it means the workshop in which such materials 
or robes are made." 

2 Pedro Mg. de Artiiiano, Catdlogo de la Exposicion de Tejidos Espanoles Anteriores a la Intro- 
duccion del Jacquard (Madrid, 1917), Plate I, no. 43. 

3 A. F. Kendrick and R. Guest, "A Silk Fabric Woven at Baghdad," Burlington Magazine, XLIX 
(1926), pp. 261-267; and H. A. Elsberg and R. Guest, "Another Silk Woven at Baghdad, Burlington 
Magazine, LXIV (1934), pp. 270-272. 

4 Carl Johan Lamm, Cotton in Medieval Textiles of the Near East (Paris, 1937). 

5 Nancy A. Reath and Eleanor B. Sachs, Persian Textiles (New Haven, 1937). 



expanded their manufacture . . . and stamped coinage in Cordova."^' That 
the tiraz of Hisham II, mentioned above, may well be the product of one of 
these looms is suggested in a statement by Makkari, in which he remarks that 
during the rule of al-Mansur: "Hisham the Mu'aiyad was not left with any 
more insignia of the Caliphate other than the prayer in his name on the 
minbars, and the inscription of his name on the coinage, and the tiraz 
strips."" 

That the industry soon spread throughout Andalusia is made clear by 
the numerous references to silk manufacture in other cities. Ibn Hawkal 
remarks that: "In Andalus there is more than one tiraz factory, the prod- 
ucts of which go to Egypt and sometimes are taken to the utniost limits of 
Khorasan and elsewhere." '^ Cordova, Almeria, Bastah, Finyanah, Seville and 
Malaga are mentioned most often as centers of textile manufacture, though 
many other towns also receive mention. By far the most important center 
was Almeria. The literature abounds with descriptions of the quantities and 
varieties of textiles manufactured there. Makkari, in writing of Almeria, 
reports: 

It has also a factory for the making of precious cloaks of figured silk. . . . There was a manufacture 
of brocade there which no other coimtry could surpass, and an arsenal. ... A certain person said: 
"In Almeria there were eight himdred looms for weaving tirazi garments of silk and for precious 
cloaks, and splendid brocade a thousand looms, and the same number for scarlet, and for Jurjani 
garments, Isfahan! stuffs, 'AttabI, and marvelous veils. . . ."9 

Of Malaga, also, Makkari informs us that: "In it are woven the cloaks of 
figured silk, the prices of which run into thousands."^** And quoting Ibn 
Sa'id (d. 1274) he tells us that: ". . . Almeria, Murchia and Malaga are par- 
ticularly famous for their golden figured silks, the beautiful fabric of which 
is a source of admiration to the people of the East when they see a piece 
of it."ii 

It is with these considerations in mind that in the following study, a group 
of textiles, almost all having been found in Spain and all exhibiting certain 
common characteristics both technically and stylistically, are brought together 
and here presented as Hispano-Islamic. 

Two fabrics (figs, i and 2) in the Museum's collection that have generally 
been regarded as Byzantine or Persian must be considered in this discussion 

6 Ibn Adhari, Al-Bayan al-Mughrib, ed. R. Dozy (Leyden, 1849-51), II, p. 93. 

Note: This reference, as well as the other Arab sources quoted here, was found in the chapter on 
Spain in the extensive collection of sources for the history of Islamic textiles by Dr. R. B. 
Sergeant to be published in Ars Islamica. I wish to express my thanks to Dr. Sergeant for permit- 
ting me to use his manuscript before publication. 

7 al-Makkari, Analectes sur I'histoire et la litterature des Arabes en Espague, ed. R. Dozy and 
others (Leyden, 1855-61), II, p. 258. 

8 Ibn Hawkal, Opus Geographinim, ed. J. H. Kramers (2d ed.; Leyden, 1938-39), p. 110. 

9 Makkari, op. cit., II, p. 148. 

10 Ibid., II, p. 148 and I, p. 95. 
nibid.,l,p. 123. 

359 




FIGURE 2. SILK FABRIC. SAID TO HAVE COME FROM THE TOMB OF ST. BERNARD CALVO, BISHOP OF MCH, 
CATALONIA (1233-1243). SPAIN? ELEVENTH TO TWELFTH CENTURY. 20%" X 221/4". 



$ci<--^''i^(yiMJi— I ' 



f^OZ -l^ 32^^ 



of Spanish textiles. Our knowledge of medieval textiles is still too meager to 
make it possible to attribute these fabrics to a particular center with any 
degree of certainty. The rich trade carried on between the Sassanian Empire 
and Byzantium, and thence to Europe, resulted in a tremendous influence of 
Sassanian art not only in Byzantiimi, but in all of the other countries of 
Europe. Because of the relatively few fabrics preserved from this early medi- 
e\al period it is difficult to determine just what is to be regarded as purely 
Sassanian and what may have been produced in Byzantium or some other 
center. 

That the Museum's two fabrics (figs, i and 2), both of which Avere found in 
Spain, may have been produced in some Spanish weaving center is strongly 
stiggested by a comparison with a little known fabric in the collection of the 
Episcopal Museum at Vich (fig. 3). Of tremendous significance is the presence 
of an Arabic inscription (too fragmentary to read) that fills the bands out- 
lining the ogival compartments, establishing beyond qtiestion the fact that 
this fabric ^vas made by an Islamic weaver. Unfortunately, the fabric is 
extreinely fragmentary and the design not complete. In another photograph 
of the same piece in the photograph collection of the Hispanic Society of 
America, however, a number of additional fragments not included in the ac- 
companying figure are shown. By a comparison of this more complete photo- 
graph with the almost identical grifiin on the fabric in the Rijks Museum, 
Amsterdam (fig. 4), it was possible to reconstruct the complete pattern. The 
fragments show the wings of the griffins to have curved far up above the level 
of the heads as in the Amsterdam fabric, filling the whole ogive. Other frag- 
ments show the necks of the griffins to have been formed of the same zigzag 
pattern as that in the Amsterdam piece and the left paws to be raised to just 
in front of the faces. Further evidence of the almost identical character of 
these two is displayed in the form and disposition of the "patches" on the 
haunches, the jointed effect of the limbs, and even the similar position of 
the paws. They could only have been made in the same workshop. The 
Amsterdam fabric is in the typical Spanish colors: black on a red ground 
with patches in red; the outlines of the drawing are in yellow, and the band 
beneath the figure is green. It was not possible to obtain any other descrip- 
tion of the colors of the Vich piece than a penned note on the back of the 
photograph, which described it as being in shades of grey. In the light of our 
knowledge of medieval textiles, this seems quite impossible. From the draw- 
ing of the griffins in the Amsterdam and Vich fabrics and the drawing of the 
animals in the Museum's fabric (fig. 1) there appears to be a strong relation- 
ship among the group. 

The eagle fabric (fig. 2) furnishes another clue to a possible Spanish origin 
for these fabrics. This fabric is said to have come from the tomb of St. 

361 











< > 

,7; 3 
o 



Bernard Calvo, Bishop of Vich (1233-1243).^- Because of the heraldic sig- 
nificance of the double-headed eagle in Byzantium and because such double- 
headed eagles are frequently displayed on undoubted Byzantine textiles, this 
fabric has generally been attributed to a Byzantine workshop. There is 
ample evidence, both in textiles and in other media, that this subject was 
equally popular as a Spanish decorative motive. An excellent example of the 
double-headed eagle on a Spanish fabric is preserved in the collection of the 
Musee Historique des Tissus, Lyon.^^ Another is preserved in the Schloss 
Museum, Berlin. ^^ It is notable that in each of the Spanish examples the 
eagle is portrayed clutching prey in its claws. Eagles holding prey are like^vise 
found on two stone sculptures in Spain. The first ^'' of these is from the tenth 
century site of Medina az-Zahra; the second^*^ is on a fountain in the 
Alhambra and can be dated in the fourteenth century. At the same time, it 
is to be noted that eagles, though frequently represented in Byzantine art, 
are seldom shown with prey. This motive is not found in any known Byzan- 
tine textile. On the other hand, eagles clutching prey — most frequently a 
gazelle-like creature — can be traced in an unbroken line in Persian art back 
through Sassanian, Parthian, and Achaemanean art to prehistoric times, 
where this motive is found on painted pottery from Susa 11.^'^ 

If we study the animals in the eagle's claws in the Museum's fabric, we 
are struck by the similarity in drawing to that of the Vich and Amsterdam 
griffins. The similarity is especially marked in the treatment of the necks, the 
jointed effect of the limbs, and the treatment of the feet. The evidence, th-en, 
supports the assumption that this fabric, found in a Spanish tomb, might 
have been made in Spain but inspired by the same, i.e., Persian, prototypes 
that inspired the similar Byzantine motives. 

The Vich fabric proves conclusively that fabrics of this type ^vere actually 
made by Islamic weavers, though whether in Persia or Spain cannot be so 
easily shown. Perhaps the strongest support to a claim for Spanish origin is 
that in this group, there are a number of textiles all exhibiting certain com- 
mon characteristics: in color, in the manner of drawino-, and in certain de- 
corative details, all of which have been found in Spain. There is abundant 
literary evidence to further support this claim. We have seen that Almeria 

12 It is known that Bernard Calvo accompanied Don Jaime on an expedition in conquest of 
Valencia, at which time he is said to ha^e brought back many rich fabrics. Cf. J. F. T.. "La 
Colleccion Pasco, in Adquisiciones del Museo de Barcelona," Antiari de I'liistitut d'Etudis 
Catalans (1913-14), no. 5, part 2, pp. 892-3. 

13 Henri d'Hennezal, Decoration and Designs of Silken Masterpieces, Ancient and Modern (New 
York, n.d.) Plate 21, upper left. 

14 E. Ktihnel, Maurische Kunst (Berlin, 1924), Plate 145. 

15 O. von Falke, Decorative Sillis (3rd ed. New York, 1936), fig. 144. 

"i^G Ibid., fig. 145; Cf. Mocario Golferichs, El Islam, La Alhambra (Barcelona, 1929), p. 88. 
n A Siin-ey of Persian Art, ed. Arthur Upham Pope, (New York, 1938), IV, Plate 4a. 




FIGURE 5. THE "LION-STRANCLER" FABRIC SAID TO HAVE COME FROM THE TOMB OF ST. BERNARD CALVO, 
BISHOP OF VICH, CATALONIA (1233-1243). SPAIN, HISPANO-ISLAMIC, TWELFTH TO THIRTEENTH 
CENTURY. 19%" X 201,4". 



(^jyr-dSjZ^^^ ^^d 



(fox-('Jl:io 



was famous for both figured textiles and textiles with patterns of circles. 
There is evidence, too, that these fabrics were exported both to the Christian 
countries of Europe and to the East. There is ample evidence in every phase 
of the decorative arts of medieval Spain of the extent of Persian influence. 



At the hands of the Arab weavers in Spain, a characteristically Spanish- 
Islamic style began to evolve in the twelfth century out of the Persian and 
Byzantine influences, which dominated the early period. This style is rep- 
resented by a rather large group of textiles, of which examples are to be 
found in a number of collections in both Europe and America. Three out- 
standing examples from this group are in the Cooper Union collection (figs. 
5, 6 and 7). Although this group had generally been conceded to be of 
Spanish-Islamic workmanship, the entire problem was thrown into consider- 
able confusion when, in 1934, there appeared an article by Mr. Elsberg and 
Mr. Guest^^ revealing an inscription which refers to Baghdad on one of 
these fabrics. Since that time, the tendency has been either to regard this 
fabric, which must of necessity carry the whole group with it, as having been 
made in Baghdad; or to regard the inscription as having been made by a 
Spanish weaver in an attempt to represent his fabric as coming from Bagh- 
dad, and to confirm a Spanish origin. 

As for the reading of the inscription, which Mr. Guest^'' has read: 

(This was made in the town of Baghdad, may God guard it.), 
I would suggest that it might better be read: 

(This was made in the manner of the town of Baghdad, may God guard it.). 
Thus reading Ji. (manner) for {^ (which). The form as it stands in the 
inscription is not clear and it is possible to read it either way. Although Mr. 
Guest believes the form to be the relative pronoun, he has not fitted it into 
his translation. That Spanish fabrics were made in the Baghdad style may be 
judged from numerous references to a fabric manufactured at Almeria and 
elsewhere in Spain called 'Attdbl, a name which may be traced to textiles 
manufactured in a quarter by that name in Baghdad.^o 

To assume that the two fabrics in the Museum's collection (figs. 5 and 6) 
are copies of this so-called Baghdad piece (fig. 7), as Mr. Elsberg has, is an 

18 H. E. Elsberg and R. Guest, "Another Silk ^Voven at Baghdad," Burlington Magazine, LXIV 

(1934), pp. 270-72. The three fragments (fig. 7) are from the same fabric as the large piece in 

Boston, illustrated opposite page 270. 

19 /bid., p. 271. 

20 Cf. R. B. Sergeant, "Material for a History of Islamic Textiles up to the Mongol Conquest," 

Ars Islamica, IX (1942), pp. 78 and 81; and " 'Attabi/'£»rvc/. Islam (Leyden, 1934), I, p. 153. 




FIGURE 6. THE "SPHINX" FABRIC, ALSO SAID TO HA\E COME FROM THE TOMB OF ST. BERNARD CALVO. 
SPAIN, HISPANO-ISLAMIC, TWELFTH TO THIRTEENTH CENTURY. I3"x 12^2"- 



^/Tti^O^^ HM-C 



IpZ' /-A.^^ 



impossibility when the whole group is analyzed stylistically and technically. 
The identical character of the colors and of the weaving technique cannot be 
questioned. The similarity of composition and of the ornamental details is 
obvious. If one were attempting to make such a copy, he ^vould normally 
copy the main pattern but would fail to recognize every tiny nuance of 
detail. However, in this group of fabrics there is a wide variety of design, 
but the minute details of technique and ornament are consistent throughout. 
One fabric cotild not be a copy of the other; instead, ^ve must regard the 
^vhole group as having the same provenance — the evidence for ^vhich must 
be sought without the aid of the inscription. 

In each of the three fabrics in the Museum's collection, and in a fourth 
fabric in the Metropolitan Museum of Art-^ which I have had the oppor- 
tunity to study, I have found the technique to be identical in every respect. -- 
The ground fabric in each is a plain cloth weave of tan silk warps and Avefts. 
The design is formed in extra wefts of green and red silk used t^v^o at a tiine, 
but so arranged that only one of them appears on the face of the fabric at 
one time, the other color passing to the reverse of the fabric ^vhen not needed 
for the design. These secondary wefts are tied down in loose plain cloth 
^veave by a secondary tan silk warp. One of the hallmarks of this group of 
textiles is the manner in which this secondary warp is manipulated in the 
background fabric. It is run in with the main warp in such a way that it 
gives the ground fabric the appearance of being minutely ribbed. The 
strongest support for the claim to the continuity of the group is to be seen in 
the manner in which the brocading 
threads that form the faces and cer- 
tain other details are manipulated. 
The brocading threads of beaten 
gold applied to vellum and wrapped 
around a tan silk core are tied down 
by the secondary tan silk warps. Each 
secondary warp ties down two bro- 
cadino- threads at one time but, as 
shoAvn in the accompanying dia- 
gram, adjacent warp threads do not 
tie down the same brocading 
threads; rather, one warp thread ties 




FIGURE 8. DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING THE GOLD 
BROCADING TECHNIQUE 



21 No. 30.94. A fragment of the same fabric is published by von Falke, op. cit., fig. 313; unfortu- 
nately the reverse of the fabric is sho^vn. 

22 There are a considerable number of other fabrics that ^vill be discussed in connection with this 
group, Avhich, for obvious reasons, I have not been able to examine; but ^vhich certainly are the 
same technically. A number of remarkably clear photographs in the collection of the Hispanic 
Society of America confirmed this fact to me. 



367 




i > 



9 



^ 



down wefts B and C and then D and E, and the next adjacent warp ties 
down A and B and then C and D, the third warp again tying down B and C 
and D and E. 

Another unique feature that cannot be regarded as accidental, nor could 
it possibly be conceived as the result of copying, is to be seen in the shape 
and dimensions of the medallions. It will be noted that in each of the three 
fabrics, the medallion is not a true circle but that the top and bottom are 
slightly extended, so that when looked at from the side it has a slightly 
flattened or oblate form. Further, the dimensions of the three are so similar 
that one ^vould suspect them of having been set up on the same loom — 
perhaps even adapted from the same mise en carte. Comparison shows the 
greatest variation to be only .8cm.; the horizontal diameter of the so-called 
Baghdad fabric being 30.5cm., that of the sphinx fabric 30.7cm., and that of 
the lion-strangler 29.9cm. The width of the roundel frames is 6.1cm., 5.9cm., 
and 5cm. respectively. 

If we turn now to stylistic evidence, we again find strong support for our 
claim of unity of the group. In each case, an ornamental filling in the medal- 
lion frame is bordered on either side by a narrow pearl band. The relation- 
ship between the ornament in the medallion frame on the so-called Baghdad 
fabric and that on the lion-strangler piece (fig. 5) is obvious. Pairs of con- 
fronted animals also fill the medallion frame of the eagle fabric from Qued- 
linburg, in the Schloss Museum,-^ The medallion is of the characteristic 
"flattened" form, and the frame is bordered by two pearl bands. The close 
relationship of three other fabrics in this group is clearly indicated by the 
form of the inscriptions within the medallion frames. In the beautiful ante- 
lope fabric in Berlin-^ the medallion frame has the characteristic outlining 
pearl bands and contains an inscription which reads: «0J j*.^1 (Praise 
be to God) repeated twice, both normally and in 'reverse, in each quarter- 
segment of the frame. The eagle fabric at Salamanca,-^ though it lacks the 
familiar outlining pearl bands, the inscription within the frame, which in 
this case includes only the word j^\ (Praise), is written in characters 
almost identical to those of the antelope fabric and repeated in the same 
manner. The third fabric thus related by the inscription is that in the 
chasuble of St. Edmond in the Church of St. Quiriace, Provins.-*' Unfor- 
tunately, the only photograph of this piece available to me is not sufliciently 
clear to make it possible to analyze the pattern with certainty. The medallion 

23 Kuhnel, op. cit., Plate 145. Though an adequate description is lacking there can be little doubt 
that this fabric belongs to this group in regards technique. 

24 von Falke, op. cit., fig. 153. 

25 Artiiiano, op. cit., Plate VI, no. 45. 

26 Kendrick, "Textiles," Burlington Magazine Monograph II: Spanish Art (New York, 1927), 
Plate 3A. 



frames, ^vith single outlining bands like those in the Salamanca fabric, con- 
tain inscriptions which appear to be identical in form to the other two. Both 
Kendrick-' and von Falke,-^ who apparently have seen this fabric, have 
described it as being related to the Salamanca eagle piece and the Berlin 
antelope piece. 

Perhaps the most characteristic ornamental feature of this group is the 
ornament that fills the interstice between four tangent circles. This motive 
is based on a central star form out of which palmettes grow in four directions 
to fill the four triangles of the interstice. The star is characteristically out- 
lined by a pearl band, and the palinette forms are scaled. This motive is to 
be seen in its purest form in the lion-strangler fabric and is repeated ^\ ith 
only slight variations in the eagle fabric preserved in the Cathedral of Sala- 
manca, mentioned above. In the so-called Baghdad fabric, little animals have 
been placed in the volutes at the base of the palmettes. Though more difficult 
to recognize, this motive is present in the sphinx fabric (fig. 6) and can be 
seen in the fragments preserved at Vich,^^ in which two pairs of confronted 
peacocks with long trailing tails fill the interstice, their heads filling the 
horizontal triangles and their tails extending upward and downward to fill 
the vertical triangles. In the center, however, the star form is preserved, and 
from it grow the four palmettes, and although these have been subordinated 
to the peacock motive, their relationship to those on the other fabrics is clear. 
Other variations of this star-and-palmette motive are to be seen in the Qued- 
linburg fabric, mentioned above, and again in the beautiful antelope fabric 
in the Schloss Museum, Berlin, and in the St. Edmond chasuble. 

With rare exceptions, the group is characterized by the presence of pairs 
of animals — sphinxes, lions, antelopes and eagles, either addorsed with their 
heads turned backwards or confronted, separated by a slender lance palmette. 
We have only to compare the addorsed lions in the small medallions on the 
Berlin antelope fabric ^vith those on the Victoria and Albert fabric ^^ to be 
convinced of their relationship. Although in the Metropolitan Museum's 
fabric all but minor traces of the green wefts have been worn away, making 
it difficult to see the pattern in its full value, the drawing and the treatment 
of the animal forms can readily be seen to be almost identical to those of the 
Salamanca eagles, and of the paroquets on the St. Edmond chasuble, %vhich 
in turn closely resemble the treatment of the pairs of peacocks in the delight- 
ful red and green fabric, known as the Cope of King Robert, in the Cathe- 

27 Ibid., p. 62. 

28 von Falke, op. cit., p. 20. 

29 A. F. Kendrick, op. cit., Plate 4D. 

30 A. F. Kendrick, (Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles) Catalogue of Muham- 
madan Textiles of the Medieval Period (London, 1924), Plate XX, no. 989. 



dral of St. Sernin at Toulouse,^^ Avhich is surely to be regarded as Spanish. 
Their pecuKarly addorsed positions, with heads turned backwards, are ahnost 
identical. In each case the lieads are brocaded in gold. In the Metropolitan 
Museum's fabric the head is not that of a bird — instead, it is a grotesque 
human head, recalling the sphinxes on the Museum's fabric. 

Another characteristic feature in a number of these fabrics is the slender 
lance palmette that separates the pairs of animals. This is found with only 
slight variations in the so-called Baghdad fabric, in the sphinx fabric, in the 
Salamanca eagle fabric, and in the Berlin antelope piece. It is also present 
in the Metropolitan Museum's fabric, discussed above, and in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum piece, the St. Edmond chasuble, and in a piece ^tvith 
pairs of confronted lions at Sens.^^ 

We must now return to the problem of establishing the date and proven- 
ance of this group, especially for the three fabrics in the Museum's collection. 
On the basis of the evidence submitted above, it is obvious that we cannot 
regard one fabric from this group as having been made in Baghdad and the 
others as Spanish copies. We must search, then, within the group itself for 
soine other clue to provenance and to date. In the first place, almost every 
kno'^vn example has been found in Spain, or elsewhere in Europe. The lion- 
strangler and the sphinx fabrics are generally believed to have come from the 
tomb of St. Bernard Calvo, Bishop of Vich, from the church at Vicli, in 
Catalonia. The eagle fabric in the cathedral at Salamanca had been used to 
protect a document of the time of Fernando II, King of Leon (1158-1188). 
Both the so-called Baghdad piece and the Metropolitan Museum's piece ^vere 
evidently found in Spain, although documentation is lacking. The St. 
Edmond chasuble has long been preserved in the cathedral at Provins. A 
second fabric of this group, preserved in France, known as the suaire de 
St. Leon, is preserved in the cathedral treasury at Sens.^^ 

The most definitive clue to Spanish origin will be found in the style of 
the Kufic script on a number of the pieces. On one fragment^^ of the so-called 
Baghdad fabric itself, there is preserved part of a horizontal band of inscrip- 
tion, the form and character of which even Mr. Elsberg has admitted have 
"some 'Spanish' peculiarities." As a matter of fact the characters of the in- 
scription are of a type that are generally regarded as a hallmark of Spanish 
^vorkmanship. Indeed, the beginnings of this form are already to be seen in 
the tenth century in the tiraz of Hisham II. The characteristic feature of the 

31 A fragment of this fabric is in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, see: Kendrick, 
"Textiles," Burlington Magazine Monograph II: Spanish Art (New York, 1927), Plate 2. 
22 Ibid., Plate 3B. 

33 Ibid. 

34 Elsberg and Guest, op. cit., Plate opposite page 271. 




H C 
K C 

ea si 



C « 






O « 



M 



b4 









o o " 

u ^ < 



5 E S 

(^ ^ ^ 

O 2 2 

£ ^ ~ 



Spanish-Kiific form is the termination of the prolonged vertical portions of 
the letters in a trefoil form that may best be described as a half-palmette. 
Kufic letters of this form characterize a group of undoubted thirteenth- 
century Spanish fabrics, soon to be discussed, from the vestments found in 
the tomb of Don Felipe and from the cathedral of Lerida. The horizontal 
band of Kufic in the so-called Baghdad piece bears close analogy to that of 
the lion-strangler fabric. A variation of this form appears in the almost iden- 
tical inscriptions on the Salamanca and Berlin fabrics, discussed above. In 
each instance, the inscriptions are written both normally and in reverse. 
This same feature characterizes the inscriptions on all later Spanish fabrics 
but is not consistently found elsewhere. 

The green and red colors which predominate throughout this series of 
fabrics are characteristic of Spanish weavings of all times. The consistent 
use of these colors must certainly point to a Spanish center. 

A fragment of stucco-carving (fig. 9), only recently discovered^^ in the 
cloister long known as San Fernando's in the Cistercian monastery of Las 
Huelgas near Burgos, which can be dated between 1230 and 1260, provides 
an important piece of evidence in support of our thesis for a Spanish origin 
for this group of fabrics. Here, enclosed in irregular cartouches formed by 
interlaced bands, are pairs of lions and griffins addorsed and ^vith heads 
turned backward, standing either side of a slender lance palmette. There is 
an unmistakable relationship between these animal pairs and those found 
on the fabrics. This relationship is to be seen not only in the peculiarly 
addorsed positions, which, as we have seen, characterized the animal pairs 
on the fabrics, but it extends to every detail of the drawing. The position 
of the hind legs, which are placed on different levels and give the animals the 
appearance of climbing, is found both on the stucco fragment and the fabrics. 
The slender lance palmette which separates the pairs of animals is of exactly 
the same form as those on the textiles, even to the manner in which small 
tendrils shoot out from the bottom of the plant and twist themselves about 
the animals' feet. The extent of this relationship can most clearly be seen by 
a comparison of the animals on the stucco fragment with those on the 
Victoria and Albert Museum's fabric.^*^ 

It is clear from the foregoing discussion that the great weight of evidence 
lies on the side of a Spanish provenance. The evidence points to the fact that 
by the thirteenth century these traditionally Islamic motives, which have 
their origins in pre-Islamic Persian art, had become part of the repertory of 

35 Leopoldo Torres Balbas, "Las yeserias descubiertas recientemente en las Huelgas de Burgos," 
Al-Andalus, VIII, facl. 1 (1943), pp. 209-254. 

36 A. F. Kendrick, (Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles) Catalogue of Muham- 
maclan Textiles of the Medieval Period (London, 1924), Plate XX, no. 989. 

373 



...^a^i'smms: - 




FIGURE 10. FRAGMENT FROM THE MANTLE OF DON FELIPE, SON OF FERDINAND III, KING OF LEON AND 
CASTILE. SPAIN, HISPANO-MORESQUE, THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 8%" X 9". 



sMi^ir^^ 4^ 



^^0^ -(-(f'l^S 



Xs, 




FIGURE 12. FRAGMENT FROM THE MANTLE OF DONA LEONOR, WIFE OF DON FELIPE. SPAIN, HISPANO- 
MORESQUE, THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 7%" X 10l/4". 



i^oA.^ i -X7^ 



the Spanish-Islamic artists; and until further evidence is forthcoming to 
support the claim of Baghdad manufacture for this group of textiles, in the 
^vriter's opinion, they must be regarded as Spanish weavings of the last half 
of the twelfth and the first half of the thirteenth centuries. 

By the middle of the thirteenth century a new trend in the Spanish orna- 
mental style begins to be discernible. It is characterized by the almost com- 
plete lack of figural representation and by the composition which is based on 
geometric forms. The explanation for this new trend is to be found in con- 
temporary political events. It is the outgrowth of the conquest of Andalusia 
by Berber tribes who came first as allies and stayed on as conquerors of the 
Arabs. Literally, it is only this geometric style which resulted from the more 
fanatical adherence to the tenets of Islam by these newcomers that may be 
accurately called Hispano-Moresque. This geometric style characterizes all 
of the late medieval Muhammadan art in Spain; in architecture it is best 
illustrated by the Alhambra at Granada. 

A series of well-documented fabrics, of which there are several in this 
Museum's collection, illustrates the early development of this style. Don 
Felipe, tlie son of Ferdinand III, king of Leon and Castile, and brother of 
Alphonso X, quarreled with his brother and went to the Moorish court to 
live. He died in 1274 and was buried at Villalcazar de Sirga, near Palencia. 
When his tomb was opened in 1 848, a number of very fine fabrics of Moorish 
^vorkmanship were uncovered. The mantle in which the body was wrapped 
is preserved in the Archaelogical Museum in Madrid. 

Four fragments of this fabric and one from the mantle of his wife, Doiia 
Leonor, are in the Museum's collection. There is some confusion as to which 
of the two fabrics actually belonged to the mantle of Don Felipe and which 
to that of his wife, but the one most usually regarded as belonging to Don 
Felipe is illustrated in figures 10 and 11. The fabric is woven in blue, red 
and green silk and gold thread of beaten gold applied to vellum and wrapped 
around a yellow silk core. The pattern is composed of a simple trellis of 
intersecting horizontal and vertical lines into which rectangular devices 
enclosing polylobed rosettes are fitted. The horizontal and vertical lines are 
broken at intervals by V-forms so arranged that they create an eight-pointed 
star in the spaces between the diamond-shaped forms. In the minute palmette 
which grows from the four points of the star, we see a reminiscence of the 
star-and-palmette form that characterized the patterns of the foregoing group. 
Broad bands of Kufic inscription in white, outlined in red on a gold ground, 
traverse the fabric horizontally. The letters form the word ^^j.<>Jl 

(Success) written both normally and in reverse. They terminate in the half- 
palmette form described above and, by their appearance on an undoubted 

377 




FIGURE 13. FRAGMENT FRO^r THE LFRIDA VESTMK.XTS. SPAIX, HISPANO-MORESOUE, THIRTEENTH 



7?^ 



l^Q'^-lf-^ 



^T - "►-<^--,- i^ -r •.*j-'««-«SK^ ^.^•sX24'»^K*' 









1 


•■^tf 


iHIIK^' 



lf^5 



■^•4' 



FIGURE 14. FRAGMEM FROM I HE li.RlDA VESTMENTS. SPAIN, HISPANO-MORESQUE, THIRTEENTH 

CENTURY. 1 1 V>" N 7". 



FIGURE 14. FRAGMENI FI 



^^7-0 



Hispano-Moresque fabric, help to confirm our claim of a Spanish origin for 
earlier textiles with similar inscriptions. 

The second fabric from the tomb is that believed to have come from the 
mantle of Doha Leonor (fig. 12) which is identical to the Don Felipe fabric 
both in color and technique. The ornament, however, is based on a scheme 
of tangent rosettes with eight-pointed stars intervening. The inscription 
which reads iT^j (Blessing) is executed in the same manner as that on 

the other fabric from the tomb. 

The two fabrics (figs. 13 and 14) are fragments of a set of vestments con- 
sisting of a cope^'^ and two dalmatics'^- said to have belonged to the legendary 
San Valero, Bishop of Saragossa, in the fourth century. The vestments were 
long preserved in the cathedral of Lerida, apparently having been removed 
there after a fire consumed the cathedral of Roda, where they seem originally 
to have been. The cope and at least one dalmatic are now preserved in tlie 
Barcelona Museum. The fabrics are obviously of a much later date than the 
legendary saint. It is probable, therefore, that they were at one time asso- 
ciated with his relics. 

Three separate fabrics formed the vestments. One (fig. 13) was used for 
the cope; a second, not represented in this collection, ^^ was used for both 
dalmatics; and a third fabric (fig. 14) has been used to patch one of the 
dalmatics, though it is probable that it once formed a separate vestment 
which was cut up to repair the others. These fabrics, which are generally 
attributed to the looms of Almeria, are excellent illustrations of the perfec- 
tion of technique and ornament achieved by the Hispano-Moresque weavers 
in the thirteenth century. The first fabric is woven in blue, white, red and 
green silks, and in thread of beaten gold applied to vellum and wrapped 
about a yellow silk core. The entire fabric is woven in cloth weave; several 
wefts are used at one time, and those not needed for the design pass to the 
reverse of the fabric. An unusual technical feature is the manipulation of the 
white silk warps and wefts to form a separate fabric in certain areas of the 
design, primarily of the narrow white bands that divide the ground into 
a system of staggered squares, constituting in these areas a double-cloth 
technique. This same feature is known to me in only one other Hispano- 
Moresque textile — the beautiful fabric with pairs of seated ladies enclosed 
in medallions, fragments of which were found in the bindings of a thirteenth- 
century manuscript from Vich.^*^ The ornament, which consists of horizontal 

37 Artinano, op. cit., Plate VIII, lower. 

38 Ibid., Plate VIII, upper. 

39 Ibid., Plate VIII, upper; and detail. Plate X. upper. 

40 A fragment of this fabric is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, No. 28.194; Cf. Joseph Breck, 
"A Hispano-Moresque Textile Fragment," Metropolitan Museum Art Bulletin, XXIV (1929), 
no. 10, pp. 253-4. 

379 




FIGURE 15. ANOTHER FRAGMENT FROM THE TOMB OF DON FELIPE. SPAIN, HISPANO-MORESQUE, THIRTEENTH 
S . CENTURY. 9%"X 1 61/4". 



l^ez-t- ^^ 



rows of squares alternately enclosing rosettes formed by intersecting seg- 
ments of circles and stars formed by interlacing bands, foreshadows the more 
complex geometric ornament of the succeeding century. 

That the thirteenth century was a period of transition in the ornamental 
style of the Spanish weavers is illustrated by the second of these fabrics in 
the Museum's collection (fig. 13). Here, existing side by side with fabrics 
of already complex geometric ornament, are found pairs of addorsed lions, 
■with heads turned backward and flanking a slender lance palmette, strikingly 
similar to the pairs of addorsed animals in the earlier group of fabrics dis- 
cussed above. The pattern of eight-pointed stars separated by cross forms 
filled ^vith arabesques is typical of the thirteenth century star tiles from 
Veramin. This fabric is woven of white, soft pink and light blue silks and 
gold thread. It is technically like the other two fabrics of the series except 
that it does not have the areas of double cloth. An interesting feature here 
is the use of both pink and yellow silk strands twisted together for the core 
of the gold thread.'^^ That these fabrics unquestionably belong to the thir- 
teenth century is evidenced not alone by their technical affinity to the Don 
Felipe series and by their relationship to the fabric with pairs of seated ladies 
from Yich, but is also clearly indicated by a comparison of the inscription 
bands of the Don Felipe piece with that of the third Lerida fabric. A large 
fragment of this latter fabric is preserved in the Textile Museum of the 
District of Columbia;^- it is bordered by a band of Kufic inscription which, 
though badly worn, can be seen to be almost identical in form to the Don 
Felipe inscription bands. It is even bordered above and below by narrow 
striped bands enclosing a series of tangent circles. 

That Moorish weavers were masters of a variety of technique is illustrated 
by another fabric from the tomb of Don Felipe^^ (fig. 15). The pattern con- 
sists of alternating horizontal bands of Kufic inscription of red, and tan silk 
and gold thread. The blue bands are woven in fancy cloth technique. That 
is, the single warp of tan silk and the single weft of blue silk are so manipu- 
lated that the weft, instead of passing regularly over and under alternate 
warps as in plain cloth weave, is floated at times over several warps at once 
in order to produce the pattern. Where this occurs, the tan silk warps appear 
in short floats on the reverse of the fabric. The result is a very sheer and 
delicate fabric. The inscription, which reads OJ j^^l (Praise be to 

41 G. Sangiorgi, Contributi alio studio dell 'arte tessile (Milan, n.d.), p. 32: Here Sangiorgi remarks 
that the gold thread in each of the fabrics is thus woinid on a core of yellow and pink. I found 
this to be the case in only the fabric mentioned. 

42 No. 84.25. 

43 Don Rodrigo Amador de los Rios y Villalta, "Restos del Traje del Infante Don Felipe, hijo 
de Fernando III, el Santo, extraidos de su sepulcro de Villalcazar de Sirga y conservados en el 
Museo Arquelogico Nacional," Museo Espanol de Antiqiiedades, IX (1878), part I, pp. 102-126, 
Plate op. p. 101. 

381 





FIGURE 16. SILK AND GOLD TAPESTRY FRAGMENT. SPAIN, HISPANO-MORESQUE, 
THIRTEENTH TO FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 7" X 13%". 



si^cyCX^^ 



lCf6Z-f^t( 



God) repeated, is in red outlined in tan silk on a gold ground. The gold, 
now tarnished to black, is applied to vellum and wrapped around a tan 
silk core. 

The beautiful silk and gold tapestry (fig. 16) is also to be attributed to the 
last half of the thirteenth or to the early fourteenth century. Although this 
fabric has been described as both Persian and Egyptian, a careful analysis 
of its ornament leaves little room for doubting it to be a product of the looms 
of the Moorisli weavers in Spain. Unquestionably, the medallion frraiie ^\ ith 
its pearl border is reminiscent of Persian ornament; but, we have follo^ved 
an unbroken sequence of this motive in the earlier Hispano-Islamic textiles. 
The significant feature here is that the medallion frames are part of a com- 
plicated scheme of interlaced strap^vork. This composition is precisely the 
same as that on the thirteenth-century fabric from Vich, mentioned above 
(page 379), also with pairs of seated female figures. It is scarcely necessary to 
mention that geometric strap^vork is one of the most characteristic features 
of Hispano-Moresqtie weavings. In each of the fabrics the figures are seated 
on similar platforms. Such platforms are also found supporting the peacocks 
in the Toulouse fabric (see page 370) and, even more significantly, on an ivory 
box from Cordova, from the eleventh century.'*^ 

In the Museum's fabric, the t^vo figures in the upper medallion are liold- 
ino- beakers in a oesture of toastino- one another. In the louver medallion, one 
figure holds a beaker and the other a bottle. In the Vich fabric, the ladies 
seem to be playing instruments that may be tamboiu-ines, or better still, 
accordions. ^'^ Pairs or groups of three seated figin^es playing instruments and 
drinking, are frequently represented on Hispano-Islamic ivories from the 
tenth and eleventh centuries. 

A third fabric with pairs of seated ladies enclosed in medallions, likewise 
forming part of a more complicated strapwork, is preserved in the collection 
of the Hispanic Society of America. ^"^ It is represented in this collection by 
a small fragment of the ground fabric (fig. 17). In this fabric (see detail: 
fig. 18) the medallions enclosing the seated figures alternate with medallions 
enclosing pairs of addorsed antelopes. The rows of medallions, together ^vith 
bands of knotwork and bands with inscriptions, form a broad horizontal 
frieze across the fabric, of which the ground pattern is composed of a com- 
plicated system of geometric interlacings and arabesques. This fabric belongs 
to a rather well defined group of Hispano-Moresque fabrics of the fourteenth 
century. 

44 von Falke, op. cit.. fig. 141. 

45 I am indebted to Miss Louisa Bellinger for this suggestion. 

46 No. H909: Cf. Mav, Florence L., "Textiles," Hispanic Society of America Handbook of Library 
and Collections (New York, 1938), p. 275. 




FIGURE 17. SILK AND GOLD FABRIC. SPAIN, HISPANO-MORESQUE, FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 8" X 11 1/4' 




X y 



§ 5 



One reason that has been advanced for regarding the Museum's fabric as 
Egyptian is that it is a tapestry weave and that tapestry technique, while 
rare in Spain, predominates in Egypt. There is no doubt that tapestry weav- 
ing never was so common in Spain as in Egypt, but there is evidence that 
excellent tapestries were woven in Spain. The Veil of Hisham II is tapestry- 
woven. An example of the perfection of the technique of tapestry ^veaving 
in Spain as late as the thirteenth century is illustrated by the tapestry orna- 
ments on the Lerida vestments.^' 

This motive, of pairs of drinking ladies, Avhich surely has its origin in 
Persian art and which has interesting connections ^vith Turkish stone sculp- 
tures of seated figures holding cups and known as the "little stone mother" 
figures, may well have reached Spain by Avay of Fatamid Egypt. There is 
obvious relationship between the figures portrayed on these Spanish textiles 
and those familiar to us in Fatamid art. In the heavy black bro^v and eye — 
suggesting the use of kohl — and in tlie coiffure with side curls and pigtails 
are all the salient features of the Fatamid female figures. These, in turn, Dr. 
Ettinghausen*- has shown have definite connections Avith the figural style 
from Samarra in Mesopotamia. The suggestion of an all-over pattern on the 
garment, by means of small cross- or T-shaped forms, that is found on each 
of the Hispano-Moresque examples discussed, is also present on the garments 
in a Fatamid textile in the Museum's collections^ and on the garment of one 
of a pair of seated drinking figures from a painting found on a wall near 
Cairo. ^'° However, in the style of the dra'^ving and by the presence of the 
geometric ornament these textiles can be readily recognized as the Avork of 
Hispano-Moresque Aveavers. 

In spite of the fact that the great body of textiles with geometric ornament 
have generally been attributed to the Avorkshops of Granada because of their 
affinity with the architectural ornament of the Alhambra, there is little 
evidence from Arabic sources concerning Aveaving in that city. Although 
Makkari (1592-1632) describes Granada as the Damascus of Andalus, he 
mentions only tAvo types of silk as being manufactured there.-"'^ There is, 
nevertheless, good reason to believe that Granada became an important 
weavino- center under the Nazrids. Almeria continued free from Christian 
domination, except for a brief interAal, until 1489. It is probable that 
geometric motives dominated the ornainental style here as Avell as at Gra- 
nada. Indeed, evidence of an already highly developed geometric style is 

47 Artinano, op. cit., Plate IX, no. 51; and, Sangiorgi, op. cit., fig. 1. 

48 R. Ettinghausen, "Painting of the Fatamid Period: A Reconstruction," Ats Isltimica, IX (1942), 
pp. 112-124. 

49 No. 1902-1-218. 

50 R. Ettinghausen, op. cit., fig. 23. 

51 Makkari, op. cit., II, p. 149. 

386 



to be found in the fabrics from the Lerida group ^vhich are surely to be 
regarded as products of the looms of Almeria. 

The group of textiles to which the fragment (fig. 17) and the complete 
fabric in the Hispanic Society belong is characterized by geometric strap- 
work of gold on a plain satin ground, over ^vhich extra ^vefts in blue, green 
and ^vhite silk have been floated and tied do^vn in loose plain cloth to form 
a je^vel-like background for the gold ornament. Other examples of this 
group are preserved in the Musee Historique des Tissus, Lyon;^^ [^l a 
private collection in Spain ;-^^ and in the collection of the Art Association of 
Montreal. -^^ The presence of animals and human figures and of finely drawn 
arabesques in combination with geometric ornament is evidence of a tran- 
sitional style that must be placed between the fully developed geometric 
style of the fifteenth century and the style of the thirteenth century, in which 
animal motives predominated. The similarity bet^veen the female figures in 
the Hispanic Society's fabric and those from the thirteenth century fabric 
from Vich, as Avell as the relationship bet^veen the pairs of addorsed antelopes 
and the animal style of the twelfth and thirteenth century fabrics, clearly 
places this group in the first half of the fourteenth century. That they cannot 
be earlier than this is indicated by the highly developed nature of the geo- 
metric ornament as ^vell as such other features as the bands of knotwork and 
the bands with Neskhi inscriptions which will be found repeatedly in the 
fabrics of the fifteenth century. The gold thread, ^vhile still used in con- 
siderable quantities in these fabrics is not the same fine quality as that found 
in tlie thirteenth century and seems to foretell a day when the Moorish 
wea\ers, deprived of their ^vealth and freedom, could no longer afford the 
use of gold thread in their fabrics. 

Also belonging to this transitional period is the lovely fabric (fig. 19) in 
which arabesques and medallions in gold combine to make a rich all-over 
pattern on a red background with details set off in green, blue and white silk, 
giving it the characteristic jewel-like appearance. 

Two fabrics which form important links in the development of Hispano- 
Moresque ornamental style are preserved in the half chasuble in the Barce- 
lona collection. "^-^ The second is in the collection of the City Museum of 
St. Louis. There is a clear relationship between the geometric ornament in 
the Museum's fabric (fig. 17) and that in the Barcelona chasuble. Not only 
is the construction of the strapAvork very similar, but also the use of colored 
^vehs as a background for the gold ornament. The tiny arabesques that fill 

52 H. dHennezal, op. cil., Plate 21, upper right. 

53 Artinano, op. cit., Plate XV, no. 58. 

54 Number 39.Dt.17. 

55 Artinano, op. cit., Plate XIII, no. 11. 

3^1 




FIGURE 1 9- SILK AND GOLD FABRIC. SPAIN, HISPANO-jMORESQUE, FORTEENTH CENTURY. lO X I4 



tryr-(te.^oc, ^ZO -C 



ifOZ - /-^ ll 



the ground between the geometric units are present in both fabrics. Tlie 
draAving of the pairs of birds and the pairs of trees, however, in the Barcelona 
fabric shows no relationship to the animal style of the preceding group and 
surely places this fabric late in the fourteenth century. The St. Louis fabric 
must also be attributed to the fourteenth century because of the use of gold 
thread and the manner in which the green, blue, and white silks are used 
in the background. Here large-scale arabesques sweep toward one another 
to form an arch and are caught together near the top by a collar. Beneath the 
arches thus formed are complicated braided Kufic characters forming the 
word ^^1 (Success); repeated both normally and in reverse, and com- 
bined with foliage and arabesques. This motive is found repeatedly in the 
architectural decoration of the Alhambra. 

By the beginning of the fifteenth century yellow silk had completely taken 
the place of the gold thread that was used so extensively in the fourteenth 
century. The marvelously preserved complete curtain (fig. 20) in the Mu- 
seum's collection has the pattern in dark blue, white, green and yellow silk 
on a dull red ground. The yellow silk forms the major part of the design. 
The decoration has many of the features that are regarded as characteristic 
of the fifteenth-century geometric patterns. The arrangement of the pattern 
into an upper and lower horizontal band and two center panels, each con- 
taining a different tile pattern, is essentially the same as that foimd in almost 
all of the fifteenth-century geometric patterns; but, there is much about the 
ornament itself to indicate that it stands very early in the line of the develop- 
ment of these patterns. 

In the ornament of the upper border (fig. 21) there is a very close affinity 
to that of the fourteenth-century fabric at St. Louis. In the Museum's piece, 
however, the arabesque arches are actually supported on columns, showing 
even more clearly the connection of this motive with architectural ornament. 
Beneath the arches is the same inscription, ^^^1 (Success) as on the 

St. Louis fabric, with the bodies of the letters executed in almost identical 
manner, although the upright portions have been carried into even more 
elaborate braidwork and now become the only ornament beneath the arches. 
Other evidences of the early date of this textile are to be seen in the panels 
of exquisitely drawn arabesques formed entirely of yellow silk wefts, and 
also in the composition of the tile panels. In the upper star panel the com- 
position of the pattern by means of a system of super-imposed large and small 
squares can still clearly be seen. In the later fabrics (see fig. 21) this same 
star pattern continues in use, but the outlining bands of the squares have 
been merged into a complicated system of interlacing strapwork. The deli- 
cate arabesques that fill the squares in this early pattern do not exist in the 
later fabrics. The simplicity of the lower tile pattern likewise speaks for an 

389 




FIGURE 20. SILK CURTAIN. SPAIN, HISPANO-MORESQUE, ABOUT 14OO. 



/? 6' 23" X 3' 5". 



(C(OZ-l-fU 



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FIGURE 21. DETAIL OF UPPER BORDER OF CURTAIN (FIG. 20). 



early date. It is probable that this curtain was produced very soon after 
fourteen hundred, certainly within the first quarter of the fifteenth century. 

The fragment (fig. 22) is part of a much larger fabric of which other frag- 
ments are in several European collections. There is an almost complete piece 
in the Barcelona collection.^*^ The ornament of this fabric is typical of the 
fully developed fifteenth-century geometric style, and is found repeated over 
and over again with little variation. The very fact that one pattern was 
copied so many times is an indication of a decline in the imagination and 
skill of the Hispano-Moresque designers and weavers. It probably reflects 
the ever increasing pressure of the Christians. 

Side by side with the geometric patterns of the fifteenth century there 
was produced a rather large group of fabrics, similar in technique, but orna- 
mented with broad vertical bands of Neskhi inscriptions. Their relationship 
to the geometric group is indicated not only by the technique but also by 
the repeated use of bands of knotwork. The inscriptions, which customarily 
read: jUaJuJl UV>J 'j* (Glory to our master, the Sultan), 

alternate with bands of arabesques and foliage and are separated from these 
by bands of knotwork. One of the finest designs of this type is illustrated in 
figure 23. The inscription is yellow on a red ground; the bands of knotwork 
are red and white; and the bands with arabesques are yellow and red on a 
dark blue ground. The excellent drawing of the Arabic characters sets this 
piece apart from the two others in the collection (one of which is illustrated 
on cover) as probably being a little earlier. 

After the conquest of Granada, in 1492, silk weaving was continued by 
the Mudejars. The fabric (fig. 24) of which the pattern is in green, yellow, 
white and blue on a red ground is based on the earlier geometric patterns. 
The intricate interlacings have here been deleted and, like the clumsily 
drawn arabesques, give evidence of the decline of the art of silk weaving after 
the conquest. The fabric (fig. 25) illustrates another type of pattern that is 
to be attributed to the Mudejar workshops. The pattern of large-scale ara- 
besques rather intricately combined with the other elements of the design 
gives evidence of the persistency of Islamic ornament. 

Other variations of the Mudejar style of ornament are illustrated in figures 
26, 27, and 28. In the first of these, large scale palmette-like motives with the 
tops turned back are combined with pairs of confronted, crowned lions that 
stand on either side of a tree motive; heraldic shields are placed beneath 
the lions. In figure 27, birds are combined with the arabesques, and the 
pomegranates which were scarcely recognizable in the above example have 
now become an important part of the design. In figure 28 the birds and lions 

56 Anonymous, Catdlogo de la Seccion de Tejidos, Bordados y Encajes del Museo de Arte Decora- 
tivo y Arqueologico (Barcelona, 1906), No. 5. 





FIGURE 22. SILK FABRIC. SPAIN, HISPANO-MORESOUE, FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 13l/4"x2F 



gk^^u:^ ^'^'^^ 



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FIGURE 23- SILK FABRIC. SPAIN, HISl'ANO-MORESQUE, FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 9%"xi8%". 



^'^k^e^■^^ ^^\P 




FIGURE 24. SILK FABRIC. SPAIN, MUDEJAR, SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 10%" X igl^". 



^Q^rrrdty^^i^ iUl- 






are found together, but the arabesque forms have been completely replaced 
by stiffly drawn plant motives. The patterns of this group, of which there 
are innumerable examples, are characteristically executed in yellow, white 
and blue on either a red or green satin ground weave. 

One of the most unusual departures from these more common Mudejar 
patterns is illustrated in figure 29. Here the pattern very closely resembles 
the fifteenth-century Gothic ogive patterns. The presence of the Gothic 
pomegranate has already been noted in the previous examples. Here, how- 
ever, the strength of the Islamic tradition is clearly revealed by the treatment 
of the pomegranate motive itself, which is in reality formed by two rather 
well drawn arabesques that curve toward one another and simulate the out- 
line of a pomegranate. The presence of this purely Gothic pattern in this 
Mudejar fabric suggests that the entire group, all of the examples of which 
are identical in texture and technique and the use of colors, was made either 
in the last decade of the fifteenth century or in the first years of the sixteenth 
century. 

Dorothy G. Shepherd 



396 




FIGURE 25- SILK FABRIC. SPAIN, MUDEJAR, SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 11%"X13%". 



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HISPANO-ISLAMIC TEXTILES: A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF REFERENCES 
IN THE MUSEUM LIBRARY OF THE COOPER UNION 



Artinano y Galdacano, p.m. De. Catalogo de 
la exposicion de tejidos espanoles. Madrid, 
"Mateu", [1917] 5ip. plates part col. (Sociedad 
espailola de amigos del arte) 

Barcelona. Museo de arte decorative y arqueo- 
logico. Catalogo de la seccion de tejidos, bor- 
dados y encajes. Barcelona, [Ayuntamiento con- 
stitucional, museos artisticos miinicipales] 1906. 
352p. plates. 

Berlin^ K. Museen. Kunstgewerbe-museum. 
[Gewebesammlung des K. Kunstgewerbe- 
miiseums zu Berlin, hrsg., v. Julius Lessing] 
Berlin, Wasmuth, n.d. 4 v. 300 plates part col. 

Breck^ Joseph. A Hispano-Moresque textile 
fragment. (In New York. Metropolitan museum 
of art. Bulletin, v. 24, pp. 253-254, illus. Oct. 
1929-) 

CoLE^ A. S. Ornament in European silks. Lon- 
don, Debenham and Freebody, 1899. 22op. 
illus. plates. 

Cox^ Raymond. L'art de decorer les tissus; 
d'apres les collections du Musee historique de 
la Chambre de commerce de Lyon. Paris, 
Mouillot, 1900. 39p. 127 plates part col. 

— Les soieries d'art depuis les origines jusqu'a 
nos jours. Paris, Hachette, 1914. 43ip. plates. 

DupoNT-AuBERviLLE^ A. L'omcment des tissus; 
recueil historique et pratique. Paris, Ducher, 
1877. unpag. 100 col. plates. 

Elsberg, H. a. and Guest, Rhuvon. Another 
silk fabric woven at Baghdad. (In The Burling- 
ton magazine, v. 64, pp. 270-272. plates. June 
1934-) 

Errera, Mme. Isabelle. Catalogue d'etoffes 
anciennes et modernes. 3d ed. Bruxelles, Vro- 
mant, 1927. 42op. illus. 

— Collection d'anciennes etoffes, reunies et de- 
crites. Bruxelles, Falk fils, 1901. i98p. 419 illus. 

Falke, Otto von. Decorative silks. 3d ed. Ne^v 
York, Helburn, 1936. 55p. 541 illus. plates part 
col. 

— Kunstgeschichte der seidenweberei. Berlin, 
Wasmuth, 1913. 2 v. in 1, illus., plates part col. 

(Nr. 298, Text\verk zu Julius Lessing. Gewebe- 
sammlung des K. Kunstgewerbemuseums zu 
Berlin.) 

FiscHBACH, Friedrich. Die geschichte der tex- 
tilkunst nebst text zu den 166 tafeln des werkes: 



Ornamente der gewebe. Hanan, Albertini, 1883. 
2o8p. 

— Ornament of textile fabrics. London, Qua- 
ritch, 1S83? 9p. 160 col. plates. 

FlemiMing, E. R. An encyclopaedia of textiles 
from the earliest times to the beginning of the 
19th century. New York, Weyhe, 1927. 32op. 
illus., col. plates. 

Hennezel, Henri, comte d'. Decorations and 
designs of silken masterpieces, ancient and 
modern; original specimens in colours belong- 
ing to the Textile historical museum of Lyon. 
Neu' York, French &: European pub. [1930] 
56 col. plates. 

Hunter, G. L. Decorative textiles. Philadelphia, 
Lippincott, 1918. 457p. illus. part col. 

Kexdrick, a. F. Textiles. (In Tatlock, R. R. ed. 
Spanish art. New York, Weyhe, 1927. pp. 59-70. 
plates part col.— "Burlington magazine mono- 
graph-IL") 

KissELL, M. L. Hispano-Moresque silk weaves. 
(In International studio, v. 93, pp. 47-50, illus. 
May 1929.) 

Martin, F. R. A history of oriental carpets be- 
fore 1800. Vienna, I. & R. State and court print- 
ing office, 1908. i59p. illus. plates part col. 

May, F. L. Textiles. (In Hispanic society of 
America. Handbook; museum and library col- 
lections, 1938. pp. 271-295, illus.) 

Morris, Frances. A group of early silks. (In 
New York. Metropolitan museum of art. Bul- 
letin, V. 22, pp. 118-120, illus. Apr. 1927.) 

New York. Metropolitan museum of art. 
Catalogue of a special exhibition of textiles. 
New York, Metiop. mus. of art, C1916. ggp. 
plates. 

Pasco, Jose. Catalogue de la collection de tissus 
anciens de D. Francisco Miguel y Badia. Barce- 
lona, 1900. 30 plates. 

Real, Daniel. Tissus espagnols et portugais. 
Paris, Calavas, [1925] 49 plates part col. 

Riano, J. F. The industrial arts in Spain. Lon- 
don, Chapman & Hall, 1890. 276p. illus. 

RiEFSTAHL, R. M. Early textiles in the Cooper 
Union collection. (In Art in America, v. 3, 
pp. 231-254, 300-308, V. 4, pp. 43-52. 8 plates. 
Aug., Oct., Dec. 1915.) 



400 



Rock, Damel. Textile fabrics. London, Chap- 
man & Hall, 1876. ii6p. illus. 

Sangiorgi, Giorgio. Contributi alio studio dell' 
arte tessile. Milano, Bestetti & Tumminelli, 
1922? illus., plates part col. 

TowNSEND, Gertrude. Four European textiles 
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. (In 
Boston. Museum of fine arts. Bulletin, v. 25, 
pp. 4-9. illus. Feb. 1927.) 

— A Spanish-Arabic silk. (In Boston. Museum 
of fine arts. Bulletin, v. 27, pp. 42-44. illus. 
June 1929.) 

Underhill, Gertrude. A group of Hispano- 
Moresque silks. (In Cleveland, Ohio. Museum 
of art. Bulletin, v. 15, pp. 68-74. illus. March 
1928.) 

— Two Hispano-Moresque silks from the vest- 
ments of San Valero. (In Cleveland, Ohio. 
Museum of art. Bulletin, v. 16, pp. 68-70. Apr. 
1929) 



Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensing- 
ton. Dept. of textiles. Catalogue of early 
medieval woven fabrics; by A. F. Kendrick. 
London, Board of education, 1925. 73p. plates. 

— Dept. of textiles. Catalogue of Muhammadan 
lextiles of the medieval period; by A. F. 
Kendrick. London, Board of education, 1924. 
74p. plates. 

Vienna. K. K. Osterreichisches museum fiir 
kunst und industrie. Ki'instlerische entwicklung 
der weberei und stickerei innerhalb des euro- 
piiischen kulturkreises von der spatantiken zeit 
bis zum beginne des XIX. jahrhundertes; mit 
ausschluss der volkskunst; von Moriz Dreger. 
\Vien, K. K. Hof- und staatsdruckerei, 1904. 
3 V. in 5, plates part col. 

^Veibel, a. C. Fi-ancisque-Michel's contribu- 
tions to the terminology of Islamic fabrics. (In 
Ars Islamica, 1935, v. 2, pt. 2, pp. 219-224.) 



401 



WORKS OF ART RECEIVED BY THE MUSEUM 

January 1 - December, 1942 



ACCESSORIES OF FURNISHING 

Collection of ten fringes, Denmark, England, 
Italy, i6th, i8th and 19th centuries. Three 
pieces of madras gauze with fringes, India, 
iSth-igth centuries. Collection of nineteen 
tassels, France, Italy, and United States, 17th- 
19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DEWITT CLINTON COHEN 

Embroidered centerpiece, Italy, late 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS LOUISE GOLDSMITH 

Six galloons, France, Italy, and Russia, 18th- 
19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY Miss MARIAN HAGUE 

Three gilt wood curtain valances and sup- 
ports from the home of John Bigelow at 
21 Grameicy Park, New York, New York. 
United States, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. F. RAYMOND HOLLAND 

Bedspread, France, 19th century. 

PURCHASED IN MExVIORY OF MRS. JOHN I. KANE 

Galloon with fringe. United States, first half 
of 19th century. 

GIVEN BY Miss MARY TURLAY ROBINSON 

Nine fringes and one galloon, United States, 
1 934- 1942- 

GIVEN BY SCALAM ANDRE SILKS 

Prayer mat, Spain, 18th century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF PAUL TUCKERMAN 

Bedspread, United States, about 1825. 

GIVEN BY MRS. WILLIAM H. WHEELER 

CERAMICS , 

Two figurines of lace-makers, Belgium, about 
1900. 

GIVEN BY MAURICE G. DEBONNET 

Collection of Sevres china; three covered jars, 
pair of cache-pots, pair of cups and saucers, 
2 cups and saucers. Two Chantilly plates and 
a pair of Chantilly cups and saucers. France, 
late 18th or early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MORRIS HAWKES 

COSTUME 

Six leaves from a dressmaker's notebook. 
United States, about 1906. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROSE W. DAVIS 

Twenty-six projects for ballet costumes, Italy, 
about 1720. Two coats, Persia, 19th century 
and China, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Theatrical costume drawing for the opera 



"Dom Sebastien" by Gaetano Donizetti; Italy, 
1850-75. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF GEORGE ARNOLD HEARN 

One pair of epaulets, one pair of chevrons 
and two items of regimental insignia. United 
States, late 19th century. 

GIVEN BY Miss HELEN LYALL 

Cashmere shawl, India, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. C. F. W. MCCLURE 

Shawl, England (?) , about 1830. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES* 

Woman's blouse "Huipil", Guatemala, Mix- 
queiio, 20th century. 

GIVEN BY ALAN L. WOLFE 

COSTUME ACCESSORIES 

Collection of twenty-three buttons, Czecho- 
slovakia, Italy, and United States, i9th-20th 
centuries. Eight buttons, England and United 
States, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. LILLIAN SMITH ALBERT 

Silk scarf, France, about i860. 

GIVEN BY MRS. AUGUST BELMONT 

Leather toilette case ^vith bottles, France, 
about 1770. 

GIVEN BY MRS. J. INSLEY BLAIR 

Four buttons, East Indies, 20th century. 
Clasp, hook and stud for slide garter, United 
States, about 1905. Stud, United States, about 
1910. 

GIVEN BY MISS SUSAN DWIGHT BLISS 

Eight dress accessories and trimmings. United 
States, second half of 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GEORGE W. CANE 

Lace cap. United States, about 1830. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDNA CHILDS 

Five ornaments for dresses, France, 18th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DEWITT CLINTON COHEN 

One button. United States, 1942. 

GIVEN BY JAMES R. DOUGLAS 

Collar and pair of lappets, Flanders, 18th 
century and Belgium, 19th century. Four 
embroidered handkerchiefs, France, late 19th 
century. One head scarf, France, 19th cen- 
tury. Two ties, France and Belgium, 19th 
century. One toilette box, France, 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS LOUISE GOLDSMITH 

Collection of twenty-five buttons, France and 
United States, i9th-20th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. FREDERIC SALTONSTALL GOULD 

* Mrs. Robert B. Noyes deceased October 12, 1942. 



402 



Fan case, China, igth century. Two handker- 
chiefs and cuft, France, about 1890. Sleeve 
l)and, China, 19th century. 

GIVEN BV MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

One fitted toilette box, marquetry, France, 
18th century 

GIVEN liV MRS. MORRIS HAWKES 

Three tassels from dalmatics, France, 18th 
century. 

rURCHASED IN MEMORY OF GEORGE A. HEARN 

Two buttons, France, 18th century 

GIVEN BY MISS ANNIE MAY HEGEMAN 

Four macrame silk ornaments. United States, 
about 1890. Made by Mrs. William Criiger 
Pell. 

GIVEN BV MRS. RIDGELY HUNT 

Eight brass buttons. United States, late 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MISS HELEN LYALL 

Tortoise shell comb. United States, about 
1880. 

GIVEN BV Miss SERBELLA MOORES 

Three buttons, England, about 1870. 

GIVEN BY MISS FRANCES MORRIS 

Two collars, pique and organdy. United 
States, 1941. 

GIVEN BY NATIONAL WOMEN'S NECKWEAR AND 
scarf' ASSOCIATION, INC. 

Button, France, mid-igth century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. FLORENCE ZACHARIE ELLIS NICHOLLS 

Eleven folding fans and fan boxes, Austria, 
France, Japan, and Spain, iSth-igth cen- 
turies. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ROBERT B. NOYES* 

Sixteen buttons, United States, 1942. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GERTRUDE HOWELL PATTERSON 

Brass button with head of Greek youth, Ger- 
many, about 1880. 

GIVEN BY EDWARD L. REHM 

Embroidered scarf, France, about 1830. 

GIVEN BY MRS. EDWARD ROBINSON 

Two collars and a jabot, France, Paris, about 
1900. 

GIVEN BY MISS JESSIE ROSENFELD 

One handbag. United States, early 20th cen- 
tuiy. Three pincushion covers. United States, 
early 20th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GINO SPERANZA 

Dress yoke, Russia, about 1910. 

GIVEN BY MRS. BECKIE NANES SPIEGLER 

Shirt yoke, Spain, Toledo, 18th century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF PAUL TUCKERMAN 

Embroidered silk purse, France, early 18th 
century. 

GIVEN BY FREDERICK P. VICTORIA 

ENGRAVING AND ETCHING 

Set of twelve designs for beakers by Bern- 

* Mrs. Robert B. Noyes deceased October 12, 1942. 



hart Zan. Genius with an Alphabet by Hans 
Sebald Beham. Six alphabets with orna- 
mental borders by Cornelius de Hooge. Five 
engravings by Theodor de Bry. Two engrav- 
ings by Etienne Delaiine. One ornament by 
Isaac Brun. Six ornaments by Wendel Diet- 
terlin. 

rURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN I. KANE 

FURNITURE 

Project for a tapestry screen, a hawk attack- 
ing a wading bird, France, about 173a. By 
Jean Baptiste Oudry (1686-1735) . 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF GEORGE ARNOLD HEARN 

Fragment of a screen faced on both sides with 
wall-paper, France, about 1800. 

GIVEN BY HANLEY HENOCH 

GLASSWORK 

Project for a stained glass panel; Joseph and 
the wife of Potiphar, France, 1574. By H. S. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MARY HExVRN GREIMS 

Glass bottle used as lace-maker's lamp, 
France, early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. EDWARD C. MOEN 

GRAPHIC ARTS 

Drawing: project for a part of the engraved 
head of a doctor's thesis, Austria, about 1750. 
Drawing: an escutcheon probably intended 
as a title page, Italy, Rome, 1700-1730. 

GIVEN BY RUDOLF BERLINER 

Five goldsmith's drawings. Italy, 1530-1540. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN I. KANE 

Project for a ceiling painting in a church or 
chapel, Austria, about 1720. By Paul Troger 

(1698-1762) . 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. CARRIE V. SANBORN 

Project for an engraving: the lowering and 
transport of the Antonius Pius column in 
1705, Italy, Rome, 1705-1708. By Francesco 
Fontana (1668-1708). Sheet with pen sketches: 
male heads; a sculptured group. Victory; 
decoration of a frieze, Italy, 1775-1800. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF JACOB H. SCHIFF 

JEWELRY 

Collection of nineteen items of jewelry con- 
sisting of buckles, belts and chains with 
precious and semi-precious stones. American 
and European, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS SUSAN DWIGHT BLISS 

LACE 

Two pieces of bobbin lace, England, mid- 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS EDNA CHILDS 

Eleven fragments of lace, England and 



403 



France, second half of igth century. Two 
doiley l)orders of Cluny lace, Italy, 20th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MAURICE G. DEBONNET 

Seven pieces of needlepoint lace, Belgium 
and France, 18th- 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MISS LOUISE GOLDSMITH 

Four pieces of lace, Italy, 16th century and 
Malta, 19th century, United States, 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Six pieces of lace, England, France, Spain, 
19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN POWYS 

LIGHTING FIXTURES 

Six candlestands or holders. United States 
iSth-igth century. Four lamps, England, 
Italy, and United States, iSth-igth centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. J. INSLEY BLAIR 

Silver candlestick, France, about 1720. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Two brass candelabra, England, about 1850. 

GIVEN BY MRS. MORRIS HAWKES 

Pair of whale oil lamps, glass. United States, 
probably Massachusetts, early 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ^V. STERLING PETERS 

LITHOGRAPHY 

Nineteen lithographs, Italy, Venice, 1850-1859. 
Lithographed by Giovanni Brizeghel after 
designs by M. Moro and G. Rebellato. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ELSIE MCDOUGALL 

METALWORK 

Five keys, 18th and 19th centuries. 

GIVEN BY MRS. RIDGELY HUNT 

Collection of eight watch cases, twenty-five 
discs for watch cases, nine miscellaneous 
plates for box tops, nine plates of various 
shapes for small cases, fourteen miscellane- 
ous-sized plates for watch cases, two dies for 
watches; United States, about iSR^-igi.S. 
Made by A. G. Wettach. Pen and ink design 
for ^s'atch case. United States, about 1883- 
1918. 

GIVEN BY GEORGE H. \VETTACH 

NEEDLEWORK AND EMBROIDERY 

Embroidered square: coat of arms, Italy, 18th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DFAVITT CLINTON COHEN 

Embroidery sampler. United States, 1840. 

GIVEN BY MAURICE G. DEBONNET 

Collection of fifteen embroideries, Algeria, 
Bokhara, Egypt, Flanders, India, Italy, Persia 
and Spain, ranging from the 6th to 19th cen- 
turies. 

(,IVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 



Embroidered dress front and piece of silk, 
Algiers, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS KYRA MARKHAM 

Embroidered towel end, Turkey, 19th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MISS HANNAH E. MCALLISTER 

Two fragments of embroidery in colored 
wools, France, about 1740. 

GIVEN BY MISS ELINOR MERRELL 

One embroidered cover and one sampler, 
Austria, mid-igth century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. CHARLOTTE F. MODERN 

One embroidery. United States, early 20th 
century. Thirteen samplers, Italy and United 
States, early 2otli century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GINO SPERANZA 

Embroidery, Persia, i8th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. S. PERRY STURGES 

Embroidered panel, Spain, Salamanca, 18th 
century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF PAUL TUCKERMAN 

PAINTING 

Painted tin l:)owl and pan, France, about 
1770. 

GIVEN BY MRS. J. INSLEY BLAIR 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Eleven photographs of lighting fixtures in 
Mrs. Blair's collection. 

GIVEN BY MRS. J. INSLEY BLAIR 

Five jahotographs of infant's clothing now in 
the Museum's collection. 

GIVEN BY MRS. DEWITT CLINTON COHEN 

Seven kodachromes of mediaeval textiles in 
the Museum's collection and one of a photo- 
graph of a mediaeval textile, fragments of 
which are in the Museum's collection. 

GIVEN BY M. D. C. CRAWFORD 

Collection of photographs with articles and 
notes on history of wall-paper. 

GIVEN BY MISS GRACE LINCOLN TEMPLE 

PLAITING, KNOTTING AND BRAIDING 

Ornament of knotting. United States, about 
1942. 

GIVEN BY ISIDOR WEINBERG 

SCULPTURE 

Design for a fountain attributed to "Baccio" 
Bandinelli, from Sir Joshua Reynolds' col- 
lection. Italy, about 1540. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN I. KANE 

TEXTILE ARTS 

Textile fragment, Sweden, about 1934. 

ANONYMOUS GIFT 

Seven samples of printed cotton in "Bol- 



404 



Inca" patterns. United States, 1941. 

GIVEN BY CALIFORNIA HAND PRINTS^ INC. 

Four samples of printed rayons, United 
States, 1941. 

GIVEN BY CHENEY BROTHERS 

Textile panel, Spain, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MR. AND MRS. DEWITT CLINTON COHEN 

Five irons for pressing textiles, Belgimn, 19th 
century. 

GIVEN BY MAURICE G. DEBONNET 

Two textiles, Egypto-Arabic, loth century 
and France, second half of 19th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

One ribbon. United States, 1942. 

GIVEN BY RUDOLPH C. M. HARTMANN 

White silk brocade, England, 18th century. 
Silk and metal brocade, 18th century. 

GIVEN BY MRS. C. H. JUDKINS 

Textile panel, France, 19th century. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF MRS. JOHN I. KANE 

Textile, Flanders, 17th century. 

GIVEN BY LOUIS LION 

Printed cotton. England, 1820. 

GIVEN BY MISS NANCY V. MCCLELLAND 

Fragment of printed cotton, France, mid- 
18th century. 

GIVEN BY MISS FRANCES MORRIS 

Two textiles, Spain, 10-1 ith century and 
Italy, Florence, 17th century. One silk bro- 
cade, France, Lyon, about 1740. 

PURCHASED IN MEMORY OF JACOB H. SCHIFF 

Two tassels, United States, early 20th cen- 
tury. 

GIVEN BY MRS. GINO SPERANZA 

Two textile fragments, plain compound 



satin, France, 19th century. 

GIVEN BY ALLEN TOWNSEND TERRELL 

Seventy-six original designs for textiles, 
France and United States, 1930-1940. 

GIVEN BY MAX WIENER 

One hundred and eighteen samples of 19th- 
century Jajaanese textiles. One textile, Guate- 
mala, 20th century. 

GIVEN BY ALAN L. WOLFE 

^VALL PAPER 

Overdoor panel of wall-paper, France, about 

1805. 

GIVEN BY "antiques" 

Collection of one hundred and ten wall- 
papers, United States, about 1940. 

GIVEN BY MRS. ESTELLE CAMPBELL 

Two pieces of wall-paper and one wall-paper 
border in designs from playing cards. United 
States, 1941. 

GIVEN BY EDUCATIONAL ART SERVICE COMPANY 

Wall-paper panel, France, about 1840. 

GIVEN BY MISS MARIAN HAGUE 

Sample wall-paper "George Washington," 
United States, 1940. Wall-paper, United 
States, about 1942. 

GIVEN BY JONES AND ERWIN, INC. 

Wall-paper, United States, about i860: on 
the reverse a forged copy of the Daily Citizen, 
Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 2nd, 1863. 

GIVEN BY GEORGE GATES RADDIN, JR. 

Wall-jaaper and border, England, about 1830. 

GIVEN BY EDWARD C. SEAWELL 

Wall-paper, United States, about 1895. 

GIVEN BY ALLEN TOWNSEND TERRELL 



405 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1942 



Mrs. Werner Abegg 

John P. Adams 

Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Mrs. H. W. Andrews 

Dr. Rudolf Berliner 

Albert A. Bieber 

H. Blairman and Sons, Inc. 

Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

Miss Appolonia H. Cassidy 

Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 

Joseph Cornell 

Arthur Davies 

Allison Delarue 

Miss Janet H. Douglas 



Elisha Dyer 

The Estate ol; H. A. Elsberg 
Justino Fernandez 
Miss R. Foster 
Mrs. Childs Frick 
Miss Rosamimd Frost 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Calvin S. Hathaway 
Mrs. Morris Hawkes 
John W. Higgins 
Mrs. Caroline Hindley 
Mrs. Ridgely Hinit 
International Business Machines 
Corporation 



Katzenbach and Warren, Inc. 
Mrs. George B. McClellan 
Mrs. Elsie McDougall 
Universidad Nacional de Mexico 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Edward Necarsulmer 
Miss Gertrude Rosenthal 
F. I. Schwartz 
Ministerio de Educacion 

Nacional, Madrid, Spain 
Jack I. Strauss 

Mrs. Robert Coleman Taylor 
Manuel Toussaint 
Miss Eleanor F. Worfolk 



VOLUNTEER WORKERS, 1942 



Mrs. Werner Abegg 
Mrs. Harry Horton Bonk: 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Elisha Dyer 



Miss Marian Hague 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 



Brryman Ridges 

Jose B. Rios 

Robert Hamilton Rucker 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 



Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen* 



Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Starling W. Childs 



Mrs. Neville J. Booker 



John D. Gordan 



Werner Abegg 

LeRoy M. Backus 

Anton Bailer 

Mrs. J. Insley Blair 

Bonnaz Union, Local 66, Inter- 
national Ladies' Garment 
Workers' Union 

Gano Dunn 

Miss Florence S. Dustin 

David Ferguson 

Mrs. Juliana Force 

Mr. and Mrs. August J. Fries 

Mrs. Edwin Gould 

* Deceased. 



BENEFACTORS 



LIFE MEMBERS 



Mrs. A. Murray Youul 



Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot Chailes E. Sampson 
Mrs. Robert B. Noyes* 

SUSTAINING MEMBERS 
Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding Mrs. Charles Suydam Cutting 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 

Mrs. John D. Gordan 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 

Mrs. Frederic Saltonstall Gould 
James Hazen Hyde 
Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 
H. Hoffman Kennedy 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
Mrs. Muriel D. Linfield 
Manhattan Storage and Ware- 
house Company 
Miss Elinor Merrell 
Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. William H. Moore 
Mrs. Edward Robinson 



Mrs. A. Murray Young 



Mrs. William Jay Schieltelin, Jr 

Miss Mary Evelyn Scott 

Mrs. Herman Foster Stone 

Miss Helen S. Stone 

Mrs. S. Perry Sturges 

Miss Emily Tobias 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl Otto von 

Kienbusch 
Miss Susan B. Waring 
Mrs. Thomas Dudley Webb 
Mr. and Mrs. Morrison Van 

Rensselaer Weyant 
Miss Gertrude Whiting 



406 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Miss Augusta K. Bartholomew 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry G. Bartol 

Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 

George Bent 

John Howard Bereman 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Mrs. Stephen Bonsai 

Mrs. Esther Stevens Brazer 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Miss Kate T. Cory 

Mrs. Joseph Daltry 

Mrs. W'illiam Adams Delano 

Mrs. Henry A. Diamant 

NTiss Caroline King Duer 

Mrs. Frederick W. Ells 

Miss Helen Ellwanger 

H. Russell Farjeon 



Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Miss Eunice Foster 

Robert W. Friedel 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 

Mrs. Edward S. Harkness 

Williairi W. Heer 

George S. Hellman 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Miss Mary Rulherl'urd Jay 

Mrs. Otto H. Kahn 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Roger \V. MacLaughlin 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Robert T. Mckee 

Earl Hart Miller 

Lt. Cdr. Charles Moran 



Mrs. Charles Moran 

Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 

Parsons School of Design 

M. A. Partens 

Karl S. Putnam 

Mrs. Henry C. Quinby 

H. S. SchaefTer 

Edward C. Sca\vell 

Hardinge SchoUe 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 

Mrs. N. Parker Van Buskirk 

Frederick P. Victoria 

Mrs. Clarence Webster 

Paul Wescott 

Mrs. N. Price Whitaker 

Mrs. Joseph E. Willard 



Miss Susan D wight Bliss 
Mr. and Mrs. DeAVitt Clinton 
Cohen 

* Deceased. 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 



Mrs. Robert B. Noyes* 
Miss Edith Wetmore 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the following classes 
of membership: 

Benefactors who contribute 1 1,000 or more 

Life Members . . . ... . who contribute ,1^500 or more 

Sustaining Members who contribute $100 annually 

Subscribing Members who contribute $50 annually 

Contributing Members .... who contribute $10 annually 

Annual Members ...... who contribute $3 annually 

Cheques should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and sent in 
care of Edward L. Rehm, Secretary of The Cooper Union, Cooper Square and 
Seventh Street, New York 3, New York. 



407 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE and SEVENTH STREET 

IS served by these lines of transportatmi 

THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED 9th Street Station 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line-8th Street Station 

I. R. T. SUBWAY LexingtonTourth Avenue Line— Astor Place Station 
INDEPENDENT SUBWAY West 4th Street-AVashington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS Wanamaker Terminal, Route 5 

BROADWAY BUS LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS, Route 4 

MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS Routes I and 2 

EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS Route 13 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 




PLATE XVII ^^^3^l^^^\ 

A cap crown, bobbin made, Flemish, Brussels, first quarter of the 18th century, of the 
type often called Point d'Angleterrc. From the collection of the late Mrs. Robert B. 
/^ Noyes. 



6^ 



VOL . I . NO . II 



DECEMBER • 1945 



THE COOPER UNION 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AND ART 

TRUSTEES 

Gano Dunn, President 
Elihu Root, Jr. 
Walter S. Gifford 
Barklie Henry 
Irving S. Olds 

O EE I C E RS 

Edwin S. Burdell, Director 
Edward L. Rehm, Secretary 
Sheridan A. Logan, Treasurer 
Elizabeth J. Carbon, Assistant Secretary 



Albert S. Wright, Counsel 

David D. Thompson, Superintendent of Buildings 

MUSEUM FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

ADVISORY COUNCIL 

Elisha Dyer, Chairman 

Mrs. Werner Abegg, Secretary 
*Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

Henry F. du Pont 

John D. Gordan 

Miss Marian Hague 
*Henry Oothout Milliken 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

John Goldsmith Phillips 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Reginald P. Rose 

Mrs. Howard J. Sachs 

STATE 

Mary A. Noon, Acting Head 
"i'Calvin S. Hathaway, Associate Curator 
Mary S. M. Gibson, Curator Emeritus 
* Deceased. 
t In the Armed Forces. 

Copyright, 1945, by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



CHRONICLE OF THE MUSEUM 

FOR THE ARTS OF DECORATION 

OF THE COOPER UNION 

VOL- I -NO -11 DECEMBER- 1945 



A f T he Chronicle presents this article on "Comparisons in Lace Design" which 
J_ was written by Miss Marian Hague of the Advisory Council of the Museum 
for the Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club, Vol. 29, No. I, and is reprinted 
by its kind permission. 

It is a study made by the writer for an installation of Laces at the Museum 
for the Arts of Decoration in co-operation with Miss Elizabeth Haynes, Assistant 
in charge of Laces and Embroideries. 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker resigned as Chairman of the Advisory Council in 
July 1945 and was succeeded by Ehsha Dyer. Mrs. Booker had served in this 
capacity since 1938. 

The following resolution was attached to the minutes of the special meeting of 
the Advisory Council of July 12, 1945, on the occasion of the retirement of the 
Curator: 

Whereas, Miss Mary S. M. Gibson retired on July first last as Curator of the 
Museum for the Arts of Decoration at Cooper Union after serving in that 
capacity for the past forty-one years and 

Whereas, Miss Gibson has performed her duties most faithfully during that 
time in a spirit of devotion to those splendid ideals for a Museum as originally 
envisaged by the granddaughters of Peter Cooper and 

Whereas, the members of the Advisory Council of the Museum feel a real 
sense of personal loss at the retirement of Miss Gibson 

Be it resolved, that an expression of their gratitude be spread upon the minutes 
of this meeting. 

In August 1945 the Museum suffered the loss of two loyal friends in the 
death of Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard and Mr. Henry Oothout MiHiken. Mrs. 
Benkard had been a member of the Advisory Council since May 1942, during 
which time the Museum was fortunate in having a loyal friend as well as one 
whose knowledge and judgment were so highly regarded. Mr. MilHken, 
elected to the Advisory Council in March 1939, will always be remembered 
for his generous contribution as an architect and a connoisseur over a period of 
many years. The Memorial Library is only one of the many evidences of his 
untiring devotion. 

411 




FRONTISPIECE 

Portrait by Mierevelt (1567-1641) in the musee du louvre, Paris, showing laces sim- 
ilar to those on Plate IV. The design in the border of the embroidered stomacher shows 

a close relation to lace. 



412 



COMPARISONS IN LACE DESIGN 

By Marian Hague 

IN REARRANGING, recently, some of the lace at the Museum for 
the Arts of Decoration of The Cooper Union, a plan was adopted to 
exhibit what we called "Similar Designs in Varying Techniques." 
This consisted mostly in the juxtaposition of needle-made and bobbin- 
made laces of like pattern, with the idea of comparing the effect of the 
techniques on design. A few examples were also shown in which rep- 
resentations of lace had been worked in embroidery or woven in brocaded 
silk. We did not get as far as paper lace, but we did show an 1 8th cen- 
tury example of pricked muslin to which starch or dressing had given 
almost the consistency of paper so that it should retain the pricking with 
exactness (Plate XV). If we had had such specimens, some of the 
exquisite cut papers of the 1 8th century would have been worthy of 
inclusion in our little show. 



The flowering of the Sumptuary Arts in the early 1 6th century, which 
resulted in the development of lace, brought a great rise of luxury and 
splendor in daily lifej if one may judge from the testimony of art, the 
new fashions must have spread over Europe like wildfire. Paintings 
showing lace in costume before the middle of the i6th century are 
extremely rare, but after that time they increase in number with amazing 
rapidity. There is hardly a portrait of either man or woman in the 17th 
and 1 8th centuries that does not show lace in some form. There were 
periods when sumptuary laws tried to hold the fashion in check, without, 
however, stemming the tide for very long. Occasional portraits show 
respect for these edicts by representing their subjects in rich costumes but 
without lace, while many engravings, as well as the famous satirical poem 

413 



of the "Revoke des Passements" (1661), hold these ordinances up to 
ridicule. 

Of the two principal forms of lace — that made with a needle, which 
developed from drawn-thread and open-work embroidery on linen, and 
bobbin lace, derived from the silk and metal thread passementeries used 
so lavishly on garments for both men and women of this period — the 
needle-made forms seem to have been the earliest to develop and to have 
set a pattern of design suited to the rather primitive degree of technical 
skill achieved by the workers of that day, one requiring simple geomet- 
rical forms. The early bobbin lace workers also produced white lace, in 
designs inherited from their passementerie crafts, which had formerly 
been used for gold, silver, and colored silks j but in many instances the 
craftsmen seem to have been content to braid and twist their threads into 
lines that were not only similar to, but that frankly imitated, the minutest 
detail of the sister art. If we look at Plate I, we see this very clearly 
illustrated. Plate II shows the imitation of lace design in woven silk. 
Plate III shows the gradual development of simple floral forms in the 
lace techniques and the imitation of those forms in embroidery. 

Thus we see that the lace design of the i6th century was completely 
controlled by the exigencies of the techniques and had no derivation from 
forms of design in the other textile arts. But, by the end of the i6th 
and the beginning of the 17th century, there had been great progress in 
technical skill j indeed, although the forms were conventionalized and 
the patterns not of great width, laces were increasingly filled with floral 
and scrolling forms. They still partook of the characteristics of passe- 
menterie, were frequently spoken of as "passements," and were used flat, 
both when laid on as bands or applied as edgings (Plates IV, V, and VI). 

By the third quarter of the 17th century a change in design had been 
developed by the French lace workers. The sweeping curves of the 
Italian laces, such as we see in Plates V and VI, have given way to the 
French fashion, in which forms are smaller and more distributed, and a 
perpendicular arrangement known as the Candelahre pattern appears. 
This is shown clearly in a piece of Point de France in Plate VII. Such a 



* The illustrations are all chosen from laces shown at the Cooper Union Museum, mostly 
from its own collection ; the others are from the collections of two members of the Advisory 
Council of the Museum, the late Mrs. Robert B. Noyes and the writer. The letters "C.U." 
indicate the Museum of the Arts of Decoration, and "M.H." the collection of Miss Hague. 
The writer would like to thank Miss Elizabeth Haynes, Assistant in Charge of Laces and 
Embroideries at the Museum, for her able and interested cooperation in this project. 

414 



type of design, coupled with the use of the finer threads of France and 
the Low Countries, made possible the fashion of gathering, or setting on 
with fullness, for both French and Flemish laces. Since France by this 
time had superseded Venice as the originator of fashion, we see the 
Venetian rose points and roselllnes abandoning their own tradition and 
adopting the French designs (Plates VIII and IX). 

By the last half of the 17th century lace techniques had acquired such 
great skill that the workers were free to produce ornament forms as they 
appeared in other fabrics, woven or embroidered j and the fashion, or 
custom, in other textile design could now influence the forms to be worked 
in lace. This influence is particularly exemplified in the laces adaptable 
to large surfaces, such as the wide flounces which do not appear before 
the last half of the 17th century. These flounces were used on ladies' 
dresses and even as valances for dressing tables, if we may judge from 
paintings. The albs of church dignitaries were also decorated with these 
wide flounces, of which in the early 1 8th century the Point de Sedan (a 
type of Point de France^ in needle-made lace and the lovely flounces of 
the fine Flemish laces, such as Brussels or, more rarely, Mechlin, in 
bobbin lace were the most outstanding examples. Plates X, XI, and XII 
show exquisite specimens of these wonders of the lace-makers' art. The 
characteristic design of these laces of the period of the French Regency 
(171 5-1 723) is shown in the large foliated and floral forms which cover 
the ground very closely, leaving almost no background visible between 
the forms. 

To conclude our series of technical comparisons we come back to some 
of the narrower laces of the i8th century. Plate XIV shows the juxta- 
position of a needle and a bobbin lace of the first quarter of the century, 
both representatives of distinguished types of lace. 

Plate XV, No. i, on the contrary, shows a lace distinctly plebian, being 
as much an "imitation" as was possible before the invention of machine- 
made imitations. It is a pricked muslin — one might almost say paper. No. 2 
pictures an exquisitely embroidered muslin, used as a substitute for lace. 
If the purpose of making an imitation is primarily economy, there can 
have been comparatively little to choose between in the economy of time 
and skill required to produce a fabric such as this compared to the cost 
of production of the same design in laces such as Mechlin, Binche, or 
the needlepoints. This has, however, the added advantage of greater 
durability. 

415 




^ No. N— Border of points, 



PLATE I 
needle-made, of reticello, or geometrical type, such as was 
made in Italy and also in France and the Low Countries in the second half of the 16th 
century. (M.H.) No. 2— A strip of lace consisting of two parts; a band of insertion, 
which is needle-made, of reticello; the points forming the lower half of the lace, bobbin- 
made, following the reticello design with great exactness ; even the same thread seems 
to have been used. A careful look is needed to see that the two halves of the lace are of 
different technique. (C.U.) No. 3 and No. A — Both 3 and 4 are of bobbin make, still 
clinging to the designs natural to needle-made lace in its primitive form. (Both M.H.) 
All are in the late 16th or early 17th century. No. 1 might have been made in the Low 
countries, to judge by the thread ; 2, 3, and 4 are Italian. The scale is slightly below 

life size. 



416 




^^(^-r<-0(e/^ 1^ ^'^ PLATE II 

A piece of bri^^'n silk of the early 17th century, probably Spanish, brocaded with rows 
of deep scallops representing lace such as was used in costume at that time. The small 
diagonal slashes showing in the silk were a fashion often used in men's clothes at this 
period, a mode which had its origin in the cult for prowess in swordsmanship. Above 
is shown a border of needle-made scallops of similar form and period. The scale is 
slightly below life size. (C.U.) The use of lace as a design for a woven silk is indicative 
of the preoccupation over lace at that time, when to own and wear lace was so much 
de rigeur that it is said that sometimes even a house might be mortgaged to provide 

funds for its purchase. 



417 




^ frt^Ci^j.cL.' I ^j"^ "^^ FLA it 111 l^"^* h "^ - 

T&is plate is ariother example of lace design pervading other techniques. No. 1 and No. 2 
are laces of stmlar pattern, but No. 1 is bobbin made and No. 2 of needlework. No. 3 
and No. 4 are cut linen with edging and picots of gold thread sewed on with red silk. 
No. 5 is embroidery in white silk thread on a crimson silk scarf, with the evident inten- 
tion of producing the effect of a lace border. All five pieces are probably Italian 
(although No. 3 and No. 4 are called in Italian Punto di Spagna falso, and all are of 
the late 16th or early 17th century. The scale is below life size. (M.H.) 



418 







Two laces of the first half of the 17th century. No. 1 is a bobbin lace, probably Italian, 
intended to be used with the points upwards, as for cufifs, judging by the familiar 
flower vase pattern. Portraits by Mierevelt and others show laces such as these in the 
wide cuffs and elaborate collars of both men and women. Width is 3^ inches. No. 2 is 
needle made of similar design and origin. Width is 4^^ inches. Compare the laces on 
this plate with those shown on the costume in the frontispiece. (M.H.) 



419 
















I 



-^. 






^/*Lf ~C PLATE V 



/y^;t-7-^v?J 



Two typically Italian laces showing the scrolling forms which were suited to 
flat bands. No. u'is Venetian needlepoint. No. 2 is Milanese bobbin lace. Both 

4.i.„ n J. i-_ir _x ii.- 1 Til- J. Mr;jii- _r -nt-, i -• A : i / r" n \ iiir:ji.u « 



use as 
nat Danas. iNo. i is Venetian neeaiepoint. i\o. / is Milanese DODDin lace. Both are of 
the first half of the 17th century. Width of No. 1 is 4 inches. (C.U.) Width of No. 2 

is 37/8 inches. (M.H.) 



420 



Sj^jH^ t i f I' ll i m j 






CScjfS-/ 






^rX ' * 'SP* .'1" . ^' ~* ^Ifc ■ 




icfz^3-l( 




ii^Jrri-^^i-^-. /^ '- ' *^ PLATE VI 

No. 1 — Venetian needlepoint of the most perfect execution, called Gros Point de Venise, 
or Rose Point, w(tn typical Italian design of classic tradition. No. 2 — Milanese bobbin 
lace of period and tradition similar to the one above, probably made as a cuff for an alb. 
These two specimens have been placed in juxtaposition because they illustrate so clearly 
the difference that technique makes in a line structure that is very similar. The firm 
and sculptured texture characteristic of the Italian needlepoint contrasts with the softer 
"linen stitch" of the bobbin lace, with its gentler, though delicatelv firm, outlines. 
No. 1 is Wa by 14^ inches. No. 2 is W/2 by 9]^ inches. (C.U.) 



421 





Point de Fra\ 
of this specii 



60ic,~<^ 



(Ajcrz^x^-i,-^ 



PLATE VII 

e, of the last half of the 17th century, needle made. The right hand side 
n has been laid in folds to show the greater adaptability of this form of 
design to the use of fullness. Width is 9^ inches. (M.H.) 



422 




H-<j 



-_<: 



\i>(rrr1jbiy3M^^ ^ "^ PLATE VIII 

No. 1 is Venetuan, a flat needlepoint of the late 17th century. No. 2 is a fine Venetian 
bobbin lace of similar design and period. The designs of these two Venetian laces 
illustrate the French influence in the distribution of the pattern, though these specimens 
do not include the perpendicular accent of the candelabre form, frequently appearing in 
the Venetian laces of this period. The scale is below life size. No. 1 is 6 inches in 
width. (M.H.) No. 2 is 7% by 11 inches. (C.U.) 



423 




tD^rW^tW f ^^- <l PLATE IX ^^^" ^ ^^^^ 

This cuff of Venetian needlepoint lace of the middle of the _17th century shows in its 
candelahre pattern the influence of French design. The cufif is 11 by 8 inches. (C.U.) 



424 







<11Ji- 



Cu. y ._.. >_. -^^ PLATE X /^r^ v7c/ "^^ 

Detail from a wide flounce of Point de Sedan showing the type of floral forms and 

their arrangement developed in the first quarter of the 18th century. The detail shown 

in the photograph measures 15 inches in width by 19 inches in height. The total width 

of the flounce is 25^ inches. (C.U.) 



425 








-,', '\. :''-r ' ^'" « ' *# 







' lf 



'> t,^. 









>*: 



!.'i'» ' i:i 






if 'M) ' 



"Vf/// 



/,. 






'^ J 










^jYy-diM4<^)f6l-C^ 



PLATE XI 



^i^3 -Gi-i 



Detail fromja; wide flounce of Mechlin bobbin lace of similar design as Plate IX. The 
detail shown in the photograph measures 15^ inches in width by 20 inches in height. 
The total width of the flounce is 2Z% inches. (C.U.) To make a flounce, such as this, 
in the Mechlin technique is a real tour de force involving many hundreds of bobbins on 
the pillow at once and even so, must have been worked in perpendicular strips, after- 
wards joined on the pillow in the manner used for joining the drochel of the Brussels 

lace. 



426 




': 'TSsff > -. *<8^ / -J %S' 









't 






A'*.- 



■^ 
















Uu'r'C^^'^ i J <^ -^ *■ ^ PLATE XII ' j* > 'T'i * ^ 

Brussels bobbin lace of the same type of design as the laces on Plate X and PlateXI. 
The detail shbW in the photograph measures 14 inches in width by 18 inches in height. 
The total width of the flounce is 24 inches. From the collection of the late Mrs. Robert 

B. Noyes. 



427 




f^A-C" n^-^/h 



'^-n^-tJU^^^CAj^'^'^ ' ^ PLATE XIII 

A silk brocade/ French, of the early 18th century, showing a design very similar both 
in arrangement aVd forms, to that of the three laces on Plate X, Plate XI and Plate 
Vj XII. (C.U.) 



428 




-r- -,' Ti,. ■■ , -J / PLATE XIV 

Two laces of the fiiipj; quarter of the 18th century. No. 1 is the fine needlepoint known 
as Point dc J'cnisei^i rescau, or grounded Venetian. Similar needlepoint was made in 
Brussels and the fact that the Venetian work was often made with the Flemish thread 
which was much finer than the Italian, adds to the difficulty of attribution, ^^'idth, 2^$ 
inches. (M.H.) No. 2 is the most exquisite quality of Brussels bobbin lace, the design 
reflecting French influence of the period of the Regency. The designs of these two laces 
show great similarity. Actual width, 2>^ inches. (C.U.) (See the article Seventeenth 
and Eighteenth Century Needle Laees of the Loiv Countries, by Mme. L. Paulis. 
Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club, Vol. XIII, Nos. 1 & 2. pp. 3-13. See also 

Plate VI.) 



429 











PLATE XV 

No. 1 is a strip of fine muslin, probably French, late 18th century, treated with some 
starch, or dressing, which permitted pricking with bodkins of dififerent sizes, giving 
an illusion of lace meshes. The unpricked parts are touched with white paint to repre- 
sent the more solid portions of the design. (M.H.) No. 2, a more legitimate relative of 
lace, is usually called fits tires, though embroidery would be more exact. It is worked 
on a very sheer, fine linen, or muslin, by the same type of stitches used in hemstitching, 
giving the impression of drawnwork. By using a coarse needle and very fine thread, an 
effect of openwork meshes is produced though threads of the fabric itself have not been 
withdrawn. _ Its date would be about the middle of the 18th century. This work was 
often used like lace for sleeve ruffles, caps, etc., in France and other European countries. 
It is sometimes called point de Saxe, or point de Dresde, because much was made there. 
The dimensions are just below life size. (C.U.) 



430 




^'Q^yrr'VUyuf-, 7^>5"C 



PLATE XVI 



DOiJ^E**--' 



No. 1 is a veira delicate Brussels bobbin lace in which the floral forms are applied on 
the vrai reseau, or drochel ground. By looking closely one can recognize the little strips, 
about ^/4 inches wide, in which the exquisitely fine net of the ground was made. These 
were afterwards joined to make the larger surfaces needed for the rather sparse pat- 
terns which became the fashion at the very end of the 18th century and are often asso- 
ciated with Queen Marie Antoinette. The term seme de larmes is sometimes applied 
when the ground is sprinkled with dots, as in these specimens. (M.H.) (See the article, 
Le Drochel, by Mme. L. Paulis, Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club, Vol. VII, 
No. 2, pp. 3-13.) No. 2 is a needlepoint of similar design but probably much later 
workmanship, reproducing the patterns of the time of No. 1 and made in Burano, Italy, 
in the early 20th century. Width of No. 1, 4% inches. Width of No. 2, 4 inches. (M.H.) 



431 





Q Cf (i PLATE XVIII '^'^^ " f'^ - I 

A rabat, or/ jieckfle-end, bobbin made, Brussels, middle of the 18th century. The hunter 
who appears in the center of our plate might be wearing just such a rabat From the 
collection of the late Mrs. Robert B. Noyes. 



432 



A review of the foregoing pages suggests the observation that, during 
the first hundred and fifty years of the making of lace in Europe, the 
supremacy for sheer beauty goes to the needlepoints of Italy and France 
with their perfection of line and richness of detail (Plate VI, No. i). 
But toward the last years of the 17th century the fine Flemish bobbin 
laces had acquired such delicacy both in texture and surface that during 
the 1 8th century the Mechlins, Valenciennes, Binches, and especially 
the marvelous laces of Brussels seem to surpass' anything yet made, to 
be miracles of skill both in the sensitiveness of line and in the ethereal, 
almost flower-like quality of surface (Plates XVII and XVIII). It is in 
this aspect that they seem to outshine their sisters, the needle laces, 
although such examples as the Point de Sedan in Plate X and many of 
the laces of Argentan and Alengon, as shown in Plate XIX, carry on with 
great perfection the standard set for them in the earlier types. 




^6/yX3^^ 1^^ C PLATE XIX OOcrZ^-s-- 

Needlepoint, French, middle of the 18th century. (M.H.) 



433 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1943 



Mrs. Anderson 
Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Schuyler Cammann 
Miss Jennie M. Clow 
Mrs. William Bayard Cutting 
in Memory of Miss Mary E. 
Mrs. Alfred Despres 
Mrs. Paula C. Dohme 
Henry F. du Pont 
Mrs. John A. Ely 
Miss Gertrude K. Espenscheid 
Mrs. Max Farrand 
Miss Janet Flanner 
Mrs. Elbert Louis Ford 
Mrs. William Greenough 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. WiUiam A. Hutcheson 
Mrs. R. Keith Kane 
Miss Dorothy A. Lardner 



Mrs. Simon Levi 
Miss Florence N. Levy 
Miss Myrta Mason 
Frank Middelkoop 
*Henry Oothout MiUiken 
Frank Millner 
Mrs. Benjamin Moore 
Parsons Miss Ahce Morse 

Mrs. Elie Nadelman 
Mrs. Adam Noble 
Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim 
Miss Louisa Pitkin 
Mrs. L. Pittler 
George Gates Raddin, Jr. 
Estate of Mrs. Henry de Bevoise Schenck 
Scuola d'Industrie Itahane in New York 
W. and J. Sloane 
Mrs. William R. K. Taylor 
Miss Sophia A. Walker 
Whitney Warren, Jr. 
Mrs. George Whitney 
Fred Wonser 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1944 



Mrs. John E. Anderson 
Miss Ahce Baldwin Beer 
*Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 
Rudolf Berhner 
The Birge Company, Inc. 
Mrs. Reginald Bolton 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Brooks Memorial Art Gallery 
Mrs. Gertrude N. Brown 
Dr. Margaret Bullowa 
Miss Mary T. Cockcroft 
Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton Cohen 

in memory of the Misses Hewitt 
Stanley H. Coventry 

* Deceased. 



Miss Emily R. Cross 

Count Henry Harrison Florence de Frise 

Miss Minnie Goodman 

Grand Central Art School 

Norvin Hewitt Green 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Edward Haynes 

Miss Annie May Hegeman 

Herbert H. Hosmer, Jr. 

Mrs. William A. Hutcheson 

William Jordan 

Miss Carolyn Kohlmeier 

Robert Lehman 

Mrs. Robert Livingston Loughran 



434 



Robert G. Mclntyre 
Mrs. Benjamin Moore 
Miss Alice Morse 
Harold A. Norton 
Mrs. Harry T. Peters 
Jean Pique 
Mrs. L. Pittler 
Mrs. Anthony Louis Prely 
H. M. Quackenbos 
Frank Ring 
Herman E. Ross 
Walter L. Rothschild 
^Robert Hamilton Rucker 

Mrs. A 



Miss Jessie L. Rummel 
Franco Scalamandre 
William H. Schab 
Mrs. Margaret Schoonover 
Esmond Shaw 
Donald S. Smith 
Mrs. Harley Lord Stowell 
Miss Johanna E. Van Nierop 
Walram V. von Schoeler 
Mrs. Harry S. Vosburgh 
Herbert P. Weissberger 
Mrs. Cora McDevitt Wilson 
Mrs. Bessie A. Workman 
Murray Young (Bequest) 



DONORS OF WORKS OF ART, 1945 



*Joseph Appel 
Bastian Brothers 
Rudolf Berliner 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 
The Birge Company, Inc. 
Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Mrs. Amy G. Brown 
Miss Agnes Miles Carpenter 
M. D. C. Crawford 
Mrs. William Bayard Cutting 
Alhson Delarue 
Henry F. du Pont 
Hobe Erwin 
Mrs. James Forrestal 
M. E. Freirich 
Norvin Hewitt Green 
Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Morris Hawkes 
Edward Ringwood Hewitt 
J. A. Lloyd Hyde 
Jones and Erwin 
Mrs. R. Keith Kane 
Mrs. Rhea M. Knittle 



Miss Nancy McClelland 

Mrs. Philip A. Means 

Mrs. Edward C. Moen 

Mrs. Benjamin Moore 

John Morrow 

Miss Frances Morris, in memory of 

Mrs. William H. Bliss 
Miss Minnie G. O'Donnell, in memory of 

Miss Agnes M. O'Donnell 
Mrs. Laurent Oppenheim 
Mrs. Henry Quinby 
William H. Schab 
Mrs. Margaret Schoonover 
Cy Seymour 

Thomas Strahan Company 
John K. Tilton 
Miss Ahce T. Tarbox 
Mrs. Dana Vaughn 
Miss Johanna E. Van Nierop 
Walram V. von Schoeler 
Miss Beatrice Waters 
I. Weinberg 
Frederick J. Whitehead 



* Deceased. 



435 



PURCHASES, 1943-1945 



Eloise Lawrence Breese 
George C. Cooper 
Marie Torrence Hadden 



tn Memory of 

Arnold Hearn 
Mrs. John I. Kane 
The Misses Hewitt 
Erskine Hewitt 



DONORS OF EQUIPMENT AND SERVICES, 1943-1945 



Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Chnton Cohen 

M. D. C. Crawford 

Joseph Downs 

Juh'an E. Garnsey 

Benjamin Ginsburg 

John Graham 

Jacques Helft 



J. A. Lloyd Hyde 

Mrs. Harry S. Koopman 

Preston Remington 

Milton Samuels 
Harding Scholle 
Charles Sterhng 
Roffer A. Van der Straeten 



VOLUNTEER WORKERS, 1943-1945 



Mrs. Werner Abegg 

Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 



Elisha Dyer 
Miss Marian Hague 
Miss Serbella Moores 
Mrs. Graf ton H.Pyne 



DONORS TO THE MUSEUM LIBRARY, 1 943-1 945 



Mrs. Werner Abegg 
Mrs. John Anderson 
The Architectural Forum 
Art Institute of Chicago 
Baltimore Museum of Art 
Mrs. Emily Barto 
Miss Louisa Bellinger 
Benton and Bowles, Inc. 
Dr. Rudolf Berliner 
Mrs. Eleanor Bittermann 
Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

* Deceased. 



Boston Museum of Fine Arts 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 

Museum 
Dr. Edwin S. Burdell 
Carnegie Corporation of New York 
Carolina Art Association 
John Arthur Carter 
Ciba and Company 
*Guy Gaylor Clark 
Cleveland Museum of Art 
Columbia University, Teachers College 
Everett U. Crosby 



436 



Crown Publishers 

Mrs. Bayard Cutting, in memory of 

Miss Mary Parsons 
Czechoslovak Government Information 

Service 
Dayton Art Institute 
AHison Delarue 
Detroit Institute of Arts 
Duveen Art Galleries 
Elisha Dyer 

Mrs. Grace Hornley Ford 
Freer Gallery of Art, Washington 
French and Company, Inc. 
George Walter Vincent Smith Art 

Gallery, Springfield, Mass. 
Miss Mary S. M. Gibson 
Mrs. Robert W. Goelet 
Grand Central Art School 
Norvin Hewitt Green 
Mrs. William Greenougli 
Captain Calvin S. Hathaway 
Miss Helen Havener 
Miss Sarah Hayden 
Miss Elizabeth Haynes 
Miss Annie-May Hegeman 
Edward R. Hewitt 
Hispanic Society of America 
Mrs. Alfred R.Hodge 
Herbert H. Hosmer 
Mrs. Ridgely Hunt 
R. Vernon Hunter 
Charles F. Ik]6 

Insurance Company of America 
Mrs. D. R.Irving 
Knoedler and Company 
Miss Dorothy Lardner 
Mrs. Simon Levi 
Lord and Taylor 

Mariners' Museum, Newport News 
Miss Myrta Mason 
Boleslaw Mastai 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Alan L 



"Henry Ootliout Milliken 
Wilham M. Milhken 

Mrs. Robert Webb Morgan 

Miss Ahce Morse 

Richard Ely Morse 

Museum of Modern Art 

Netherlands Information Bureau 

New York University 

Mrs. Florence Zacherie Ellis Nicliolls 

Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. 

Frank Partridge, Inc. 

Mrs. Walter Peckham 

Phillips Andover Academy 

Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington 

Pierpont Morgan Library 

Rhode Island School of Design 

Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 

Roj^al Ontario Museum, Toronto 

Charles E. Sampson 

San Francisco Museum of Art 

Wilham H. Schab 

Estate of Mrs. Henry de Bevoise Schenck 

Mrs. J.Schmidt 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
National Gallery of Art 

Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 

Stroheim and Romann 

Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts 

Mrs. Robert Coleman Taylor 

Miss Grace Lincoln Temple 

Allen Townsend Terrell 

W. L. Thornton 

Miss Ehzabeth D. Trapier 

University Museum, Philadelphia 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London 

Virginia Museum of Fine Arts 

Miss Sophia A. Walker 

Estate of Franklin B. Ware 

John P. Watkins 

Frank Weitenkampf 

Wildenstein and Company 

Miss B. D. Williams 
. Wolfe 



* Deceased. 



437 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 



BENEFACTORS 



*Mrs. Elizabeth Cochran Bowen 



*Mrs. A. Murray Young 



Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Starling W. Childs 



LIFE MEMBERS 



Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot *Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
James Hazen Hyde Charles E. Sampson 



1943 



SUSTAINING MEMBERS 



1944 



Mrs. Neville J. Booker Mrs. Neville J. Booker 

Mrs. Charles Suydam Cutting Miss Florence S. Dustin 
Mrs. Lucius Wilmerding 



1945 

Mrs. Neville J. Booker 
Harry Harkness Flagler 



1943 

John D. Gordan 
Mrs. John D. Gordan 
Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 
*Mrs. A. Murray Young 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS 
1944 

Mrs. Winthrop W. Aldrich 
W. F. Breuss 
Lt. and Mrs. Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. John D. Gordan 
I. L. G. W. U., Local 142 
*Henry Oothout Milliken 
Miss Marie L. Russell 



1945 

W. F. Breuss 
Elisha Dyer 
Mrs. Michael Gavin 
John D. Gordan 
Mrs. John D. Gordan 
*Henry Oothout Milliken 



Werner Abegg 
LeRoy M. Backus 
Anton Bailer 
Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
Miss Janet H. Douglas 
Gano Dunn 

Miss Florence S. Dustin 
David Ferguson 
Mrs. Juliana Force 
Mr. and Mrs. August J. Fries 
Mrs. Artemus L. Gates 
Mrs. Edwin Gould 
Mrs. Frederic Saltonstall 
Gould 

* Deceased. 



CONTRIBUTING MEMBERS 
1943 

I. L. G. W. U., Local 66 
James Hazen Hyde 
Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 
H. Hoffman Kennedy 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
Mrs. Wilfred Linfield 
Manhattan Storage and 
Warehouse Company 
Joseph M. May 
Miss Elinor Merrell 
*Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. William H. Moore 
Mrs. Edward Robinson 



Mrs. William Jay Schieffelin, 

Miss Mary Evelyn Scott 
Miss Helen S. Stone 
Mrs. Herman Foster Stone 
Mrs. S. Perry Sturges 
Miss Emily Tobias 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Otto 

von Kienbusch 
Miss Susan B. Waring 
Mrs. Thomas Dudley Webb 
Mr. and Mrs. Morrison Van 

Rensselaer Weyant 
Miss Gertrude Whiting 



43! 



Werner Abegg 
Anton Bailer 
*Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 
Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
Mrs. Theodore Boettger 
Mrs. Chauncey B. Borland 
Welles Bosworth 
Gano Dunn 

Mrs. Henry Belin du Pont 
Mrs. Max Farrand 
David Ferguson 
Robert W. Friedel 
Mrs. Robert W. Goelet 
Mrs. Morris Hawkes 
Miss Annie May Hegeman 



1944 

Mrs. G. Beekman Hoppin 
James Hazen Hyde 
Charles F. Ikle 
I. L. G. W. U., Local 66 
Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 
Mrs. Walter Jennings 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
Mrs. Erasmus Lindley 
Wilfred Linfield 
Mrs. Wilfred Linfield 
Manhattan Storage and 
Warehouse Company 
Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. William H. Moore 
Mrs. Henry L. Pliillips 
Joseph B. Piatt 



Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 
Mrs. Edward Robinson 
Miss Mary Evelyn Scott 
Mrs. William A. Sillman 
Harold DeWitt Smith 
Mrs. Herman Foster Stone 
Miss Emily Tobias 
Mrs. John B. Trevor 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Otto 

von Kienbusch 
Miss Susan B. Waring 
Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 
Mr. and Mrs. Morrison Van 

Rensselaer Weyant 
Miss Gertrude Whiting 



Werner Abegg 
Miss M. M. Adams 
LeRoy M. Backus 
Anton Bailer 
*Mrs. Harry Horton Benkard 
Henry J. Bernheim 
Mrs. Henry J. Bernheim 
Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
Mrs. Chauncey B. Borland 
Miss Agnes Miles Carpenter 
Miss Mary T. Cockcroft 
Gano Dunn 

Mr. Henry Belin du Pont 
Miss Florence S. Dustin 
Mr. and Mrs. Jackson Ellis 
Hobe Erwin 
Mrs. Max Farrand 
David Ferguson 
Mrs. Edwin Gould 
Mrs. Norvin Hewitt Green 

* Deceased. 



1945 

Mrs. Montgomery Hare 
Mrs. Dorothy Frencli 

Harrower 
Miss Annie May Hegeman 
Charles F. Ikle 
L L. G. W. U., Local 66 
Mrs. O'Donnell Iselin 
Mrs. Henry Langford 
Mrs. Erasmus Lindley 
Wilfred Linfield 
Mrs. Wilfred Linfield 
Manhattan Storage and 

Warehouse Company 
A. Hamilton Mason 
Mrs. William R. Mercer 
Mrs. Henry Oothout Milliken 
Mrs. William H. Moore 
Joseph Moreng 
Mrs. Henry L. Phillips 
Mrs. G. B. Pinchot 



Mrs. Percy R. Pyne 
Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 
Miss Mary Evelyn Scott 
Harold DeWitt Smith 
Miss Helen S. Stone 
Mrs. Herman Foster Stone 
Mrs. S. Perry Sturges 
Miss Emily Tobias 
Maximilian Toch 
Mrs. John B. Trevor 
Mrs. Ernest G. Vietor 
Frederick P. Victoria 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Otto 

von Kienbusch 
Miss Susan B. Waring 
Mrs. Thomas J. Watson 
Miss Gertrude Whiting 
Alan L. Wolfe 
George A. Zabriskie 



439 



ANNUAL MEMBERS 



Mrs. Lilliam Smith Albert 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry G. Bartol 

Mrs. Gordon Knox Bell 

George Bent 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Mrs. Stephen Bonsai 

Mrs. Esther Stevens Brazer 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Miss Kate T. Cory 

Mrs. Joseph S. Daltry 

Mrs. William A. Delano 

Mrs. Henry A. Diamant 

Mrs. Alfred J. Dillon 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Mrs. Frederick W. Ells 

Miss Helen Ellwanger ■ 

H. Russell Farjeon 

Mrs. Henrv Morris Fechimer 



1943 

Miss Eunice Foster 

Robert W. Friedel 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Sherman Post Haight 

Mrs. Edward S. Harkness 

William W. Heer 

George S. Hellman 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

Mrs. Otto' H. Kahn 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Robert T. McKee 

Roger W. MacLaughlin 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. May 

Earl Hart Miller 

Lt. Cmdr. Charles Moran 



Mrs. Charles Moran 

Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 

The Parsons School of Design 

M. A. Partens 

Karl S. Putnam 

Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 

H. S. Schaeffer 

Hardinge SchoUe 

Edward C. Seawell 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 

Mrs. N. Parker Van Buskirk 

Frederick P. Victoria 

Mrs. Clarence Webster 

Paul Wescott 

Mrs. N. Price Whitaker 

Mrs. Joseph E. Willard 



Dr. Phyllis Ackerman 

Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Mrs. Calvin T. Allison 

John Howard Bereman 

Mrs. hiez Bockes 

Mrs. Stephen Bonsai 

Mrs. Esther Stevens Brazer 

Mrs. Archibald Manning Brown 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

Miss Jennie M. Clow 

Miss Kate T. Cory 

Baron Maurice Voruz de Vaux 

Mrs. Henrv A. Diamant 

Mrs. Alfred J. Dillon 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Henry F. du Pont 

Mrs. Frederick W. Ells 

Miss Isabel A. Ennis 

Mrs. T. R. Eskesen 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Mortimer P. Giffin 

Miss Minnie Goodman 



1944 

Miss Marian Hague 

Mrs. Francis Head 

William W. Heer 

George S. Hellman 

W. Russell Hood 

Mrs. Theodore F. Humphrey 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Miss Mary Rutherford Jay 

George Kaplan 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Wilmarth S. Lewis 

Miss Helen Lvall 

Robert T. McKee 

Roger W. MacLaughlin 

Mrs. Walton Martin 

Mrs. Walter H. May 

Earl Hart Miller 

Lt. Cmdr. Charles Moran 

Mrs. Charles Moran 

Joseph Moreng 

Mrs. D. Percy Morgan, Jr. 



Mrs. Edward A. Morrison 

Mrs. Alexis V. Moschowitz 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 

M. A. Partens 

Mrs. Anthony Louis Prely 

Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 

Mrs. Henry S. Redmond 

Mrs. Elihu Root, Jr. 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell, Jr. 

Mrs. Coster Salm 

Hardinge SchoUe 

Edward C. Seawell 

Mrs. Gino Speranza 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 

Miss Johanna E. Van Nierop 

Walter M. Walters 

Mrs. George H. Warren, Jr. 

Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb 

Mrs. Clarence Webster 

I. Weinberg 



440 



1945 



Mrs. Lillian Smith Albert 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry G. Bartol 

Miss Enid Bell 

Mrs. Theodore Boettger 

Mrs. Stephen Bonsai 

Mrs. Esther Stevens Brazer 

Mrs. Charles Burlingham 

George Chapman 

Miss Emily C. Chauncey 

Mrs. Walter E. Coe 

Miss Kate T. Cory 

Mrs. Joseph S. Daltry 

Mrs. Henry A. Diamant 

Miss Caroline King Duer 

Mrs. Walter L. Ehrich 

Mrs. Frederick W. Ells 

Miss Helen EUwanger 

H. 'Russell Farj eon 

Mrs. Henry Morris Fechimer 

Miss Eunice Foster 

Miss Henriette J. Fuchs 



Miss Sabine Gova 

Miss Marian Hague 

Edward T. Hall 

Mrs. Lathrop Colgate Harper 

Mrs. Francis Head 

William W. Heer 

George S. Hellman 

Miss Josephine Howell 

Miss Frances H. Ives 

Miss Mary Rutherfurd Jay 

Mrs. Agnes Kremer 

Mrs. Sidney Lanier 

Mrs. Augustus P. Loring, Jr. 

Miss Helen Lyall 

Robert T. McKee 

Roger W. MacLaughlin 

Joseph M. May 

Earl Hart Miller 

Lt. Cmdr. Charles Moran 

Mrs. Charles Moran 

Mrs. D. Percy Morgan, Jr. 



Mrs. Edward A. Morrison 

Mrs. William Church Osborn 

The Parsons School of Design 

M. A. Partens 

Mrs. Seth Low Pierrepont 

Mrs. Henry Cole Quinby 

E. Kendall Rogers 

Herman E. Ross 

Mrs. Charles H. Russell, Jr. 

Mrs. Coster Salm 

Hardinge SchoUe 

Miss Helen H. Tanzer 

Mrs. Roy E. Tomlinson 

Mrs. N. Parker Van Buskirk 

Miss Johanna E. Van Nierop 

J. L. Vette 

Mrs. Harry S. Vosburgh 

Mrs. Clarence Webster 

I. Weinberg 

Paul Wescott 

Monroe Wheeler 



Miss Susan Dwight Bliss 
Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Clinton 
Cohen 



HONORARY BENEFACTORS 

Miss Marian Hague 
Mrs. Montgomery Hare 

Mrs. Morris Hawkes 



i=Mrs. Robert B. Noyes 
Miss Edith Wetmore 



Deceased. 



441 



THE FRIENDS OF THE MUSEUM 

The Advisory Council of the Museum established in 1937 the follow- 
ing classes of membership: 



Benefactors _ _ _ 
Life Members - - - 
Sustaining Members 
Subscribing Members 
Contributing Members - 
Annual Members 



who contribute $i,000 or more 
who contribute $500 or more 
who contribute $ 1 00 annually 
who contribute $50 annually 
who contribute $I0 annually 
who contribute $3 annually 



Checks should be drawn to The Cooper Union Museum Fund, and 
sent in care of Edward L. Rehm, Secretary of The Cooper Union, Cooper 
Square and Seventh Street, New York 3, New York. 



442 



THE COOPER UNION MUSEUM 

COOPER SQUARE AND SEVENTH STREET 
is served by these lines of transportatio?! 

THIRD AVENUE ELEVATED - 9th Street Station 

B.-M. T. SUBWAY - - Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line — 8th Street Station 
L R. T. SUBWAY - - Lexington-Fourth Avenue Line — Astor Place Station 
INDEPENDENT SUBWAY - - - West 4th Street— Washington Square Station 
HUDSON-MANHATTAN TUBES . . . . _ 9th Street Station 

FIFTH AVENUE BUS . . . . . Wanamaker Terminal, Route 5 

BROADWAY BUS . . . . LEXINGTON AVENUE BUS, Route 4 

MADISON-FOURTH AVENUE BUS ------ Routes i and 2 

EIGHTH-NINTH STREET CROSSTOWN BUS Route 13